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close this bookSmall Scale Processing of Oilfruits and Oilseeds (GTZ, 1989, 100 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentPreface
close this folder0. Introduction
View the document0.1 Economic aspects
close this folder0.2 Technical aspects
View the document(introduction...)
View the document0.2.1 Processes for oil fruits
View the document0.2.2 Processes for oil seeds
View the document0.3 Development potentials
close this folder1. Oil Plants and their Potential Use
View the document1.1 Characteristics of vegetable fats and oils
close this folder1.2 The major oil plants
View the document1.2.1 Oil palm
View the document1.2.2 Coconut palm
View the document1.2.3 Soyabean
View the document1.2.4 Groundnut
View the document1.2.5 Sunflower
View the document1.2.6 Sesame
View the document1.2.7 Rape and mustardseed
View the document1.2.8 Other oil-yielding plants
View the document1.3 By-products
View the document1.4 Further processing
close this folder2. Target Groups and Technologies
close this folder2.1 Family level
View the document(introduction...)
View the document2.1.1 Oil palm fruit
View the document2.1.2 Oil seeds
close this folder2.2 Village level
View the document(introduction...)
View the document2.2.1 Oil palm fruit
View the document2.2.2 Oil seeds
View the document2.3 District level
close this folder3. Case Studies
View the document3.1 Shea nut processing by women in Mali
View the document3.2 Hand-operated sunflowerseed processing in Zambia
View the document3.3 Oil palm fruit processing as a women's activity in Togo
close this folder4. Financial Analysis of the Case Studies
View the document(introduction...)
View the document4.1 Shea nut processing in Mali
View the document4.2 Sunflower seed processing in Zambia
View the document4.3 Oil palm fruit processing in Togo
close this folder5. Selected Equipment
close this folder5.1 Hand-operated equipment
View the document5.1.1 Hand-operated processing of palm fruit
View the document5.1.2 Hand-operated processing of oil seeds
close this folder5.2 Motorized equipment
View the document5.2.1 Motorized processing of oil palm fruit
View the document5.2.2 Motorized processing of oil seeds
View the document6. Ongoing Research and Development Work
View the documentAnnex

2.3 District level

Oil processing at the district level (in the sense of a group of a few villages), offers interesting possibilities.

At this level, however, the technical performance of the equipment is only one side of the picture and, in fact, less problematic than the management of such a project. Important aspects include:

- the ability of the people concerned to organize themselves (in a cooperative or in a private business),
- the ability to handle funds,
- the ability to take care of the rawmaterial supply and
- the marketing of the products.

Nevertheless, centralization can contribute considerably to the feasibility of the more sophisticated technology as already described for the village level. For instance in the case of oil palm fruit processing, mechanized equipment, such as the TCC pounding machine and certainly the CALTECH and COLIN expellers, need to be well utilized owing to the high investments involved. Where the infrastructure is well developed and the distances not too far for economic transportation, a combination of the raw material resources of several villages and a centralized processing facility could be a realistic alternative to processing at the village level.

In that case, one could think of a well engineered unit, equipped with:

- steaming facilities for bunches and loose fruit
- threshing facilities
- a good quality expeller type press (such as the CALTECH or COLIN)
- clarification tank
- oil dryer.

In the case of oilseed processing, an expeller - often to be imported - could become a possibility, provided that technical prerequisites are fulfilled, such as the availability of spare parts and the necessary skills for maintenance and repair.

Apart from the technical aspects, it should be kept in mind that such highly mechanized technologies are in principle:

- capital intensive,
- labour-saving,
- economically sensitive to bad harvests and falling oil prices, and
- socially geared to the use by men instead of women.

A considerable decline in employment opportunities at the village level (particularly for the women) might therefore be the effect of a larger scale oil processing operation at the district level.

Although such units might look attractive from the technical point of view (see details in Chapter 5), the setting up of: centralized units cannot be recommended as long as there are still doubts as to the possibility of finding appropriate solutions for the technical as well as the man agement and more human-oriented problems.