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close this bookThe Improvement of Tropical and Subtropical Rangelands (BOSTID)
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View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentPanel on the improvement of tropical and subtropical rangelands
View the documentContributors
View the documentNational research council staff
View the documentPreface
close this folderOverview: Dimensions of a worldwide environmental crisis
View the documentThe geographical scope
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close this folderPart I
close this folderIntroduction
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close this folderThe nature of tropical and subtropical rangelands
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View the documentRange classification
View the documentSocial system-ecosystem interactions
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close this folderThe social context for rangeland improvement
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View the documentProduction systems in tropical and subtropical regions
View the documentContext of environmental degradation
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close this folderThe economic context
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View the documentRange systems
View the documentThe basis of range economics
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View the documentDetermining costs and benefits
View the documentResource evaluation
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close this folderRegional resource assessment
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View the documentInformation needs
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close this folderSite evaluation
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View the documentAn ecosystem perspective
View the documentA systems approach to site evaluation
View the documentEvaluation of abiotic and biotic components
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close this folderGrazing management
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View the documentGrazing management concepts
View the documentTime of grazing
View the documentDistribution of grazing
View the documentType of animal grazing
View the documentNumber of animals grazing
View the documentGrazing management planning
View the documentGrazing management systems
View the documentLivestock management
View the documentThe herima system in Mali
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close this folderRehabilitation techniques
View the documentEstablishing plants on the range
View the documentNatural revegetation
View the documentDirect seeding
View the documentImprovement of tropical and subtropical rangelands
View the documentSelected practices
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close this folderCriteria for plant selection
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View the documentSocioeconomic and management considerations in feasibility studies
View the documentAdaptation to ecoclimatic conditions
View the documentAdaptation to soils
View the documentAdaptation to physiography, geomorphology, topography, slope, and aspect
View the documentAbility of introduced species to compete with native vegetation
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View the documentAvailability of seeds and plant materials
View the documentMaintenance of biological diversity
View the documentPlant improvement
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close this folderPart II
View the documentIntroduction to the case studies
close this folderPastoral regimes of Mauritania
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View the documentPhysical geography
View the documentMigration cycle
close this folderThe Beni Mguild of Morocco
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View the documentMigratory cycle
close this folderThe Kel Tamasheq
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close this folderDromedary pastoralism in Africa and Arabia
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View the documentReproduction and risk
View the documentManagement and labor
View the documentSubsistence production
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View the documentPredatory pastoralism
View the documentThe future of camel pastoralism
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close this folderThe mountain nomads of Iran: Basseri and Bakhtiari
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View the documentThe physical environment
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close this folderThe Marri Baluch of Pakistan
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View the documentA mixed economic system
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close this folderChanging patterns of resource use in the Bedthi-Aghanashini valleys of Karnataka state, India
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe setting
View the documentHuman communities
View the documentTraditional patterns of resource management
View the documentColonial period
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close this folderKenya: Seeking remedies for desert encroachment
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View the documentTraditional pastoralism
View the documentBaseline studies
View the documentVegetation and livestock
View the documentDirections for the future
close this folderThe hema system in the Arabian peninsula
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View the documentRights of ownership or use
View the documentThe hema system in Saudi Arabia
View the documentThe mahmia or marah, and the koze system in Syria
View the documentNeglect of the hema and its consequences
View the documentHema in the range improvement and conservation programs in the near east
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close this folderWildlife land use at the Athi River, Kenya
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View the documentBackground
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close this folderCamel husbandry in Kenya: Increasing the productivity of ranchland
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentLocation
View the documentVegetation
View the documentLivestock
View the documentIntroduction of camels
View the documentManagement and adaptability
View the documentReproduction and lactation
View the documentVeterinary notes
View the documentEconomics
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close this folderThe potential of faidherbia albida for desertification control and increased productivity in Chad
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View the documentBackground
View the documentCharacteristics of faidherbia albida
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View the documentProject analysis and evaluation
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View the documentImproving Nigeria's animal feed resources: Pastoralists and scientists cooperate in fodder bank research
close this folderBoard on science technology for international development
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View the documentMembers

Acknowledgements

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the Nation al Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self - perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government. and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman , respectively, of the National Research Council.

The Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) of the Office of International Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which science and technology in developing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of social and economic development. It oversees a broad program of bilateral workshops with scientific organization in developing countries and conducts special studies.

This report has been prepared by an ad hoc advisory panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Office of International Affairs, National Research Council. Staff support was funded by the Office of the Science Advisor, Agency for International Development under Grant No. DAN 5538-G-SS-1023-00/R.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 89-43206 ISBN 0-309-04261-5