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close this bookThe Improvement of Tropical and Subtropical Rangelands (BOSTID)
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View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentPanel on the improvement of tropical and subtropical rangelands
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View the documentNational research council staff
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close this folderOverview: Dimensions of a worldwide environmental crisis
View the documentThe geographical scope
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close this folderPart I
close this folderIntroduction
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close this folderThe nature of tropical and subtropical rangelands
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View the documentRange classification
View the documentSocial system-ecosystem interactions
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close this folderThe social context for rangeland improvement
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View the documentProduction systems in tropical and subtropical regions
View the documentContext of environmental degradation
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close this folderThe economic context
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View the documentRange systems
View the documentThe basis of range economics
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View the documentDetermining costs and benefits
View the documentResource evaluation
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close this folderRegional resource assessment
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View the documentInformation needs
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close this folderSite evaluation
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View the documentAn ecosystem perspective
View the documentA systems approach to site evaluation
View the documentEvaluation of abiotic and biotic components
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close this folderGrazing management
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View the documentGrazing management concepts
View the documentTime of grazing
View the documentDistribution of grazing
View the documentType of animal grazing
View the documentNumber of animals grazing
View the documentGrazing management planning
View the documentGrazing management systems
View the documentLivestock management
View the documentThe herima system in Mali
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close this folderRehabilitation techniques
View the documentEstablishing plants on the range
View the documentNatural revegetation
View the documentDirect seeding
View the documentImprovement of tropical and subtropical rangelands
View the documentSelected practices
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close this folderCriteria for plant selection
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View the documentSocioeconomic and management considerations in feasibility studies
View the documentAdaptation to ecoclimatic conditions
View the documentAdaptation to soils
View the documentAdaptation to physiography, geomorphology, topography, slope, and aspect
View the documentAbility of introduced species to compete with native vegetation
View the documentUse regimes
View the documentAvailability of seeds and plant materials
View the documentMaintenance of biological diversity
View the documentPlant improvement
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close this folderPart II
View the documentIntroduction to the case studies
close this folderPastoral regimes of Mauritania
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View the documentPhysical geography
View the documentMigration cycle
close this folderThe Beni Mguild of Morocco
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View the documentPhysical geography
View the documentMigratory cycle
close this folderThe Kel Tamasheq
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentCamp organization
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close this folderDromedary pastoralism in Africa and Arabia
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentReproduction and risk
View the documentManagement and labor
View the documentSubsistence production
View the documentMarketing
View the documentPredatory pastoralism
View the documentThe future of camel pastoralism
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close this folderThe mountain nomads of Iran: Basseri and Bakhtiari
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View the documentThe physical environment
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View the documentThe bakhtiari
close this folderThe Marri Baluch of Pakistan
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View the documentPhysical environment
View the documentSeasons and migrations
View the documentA mixed economic system
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close this folderChanging patterns of resource use in the Bedthi-Aghanashini valleys of Karnataka state, India
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe setting
View the documentHuman communities
View the documentTraditional patterns of resource management
View the documentColonial period
View the documentAfter independence
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close this folderKenya: Seeking remedies for desert encroachment
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentBackground
View the documentTraditional pastoralism
View the documentBaseline studies
View the documentVegetation and livestock
View the documentDirections for the future
close this folderThe hema system in the Arabian peninsula
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View the documentRights of ownership or use
View the documentThe hema system in Saudi Arabia
View the documentThe mahmia or marah, and the koze system in Syria
View the documentNeglect of the hema and its consequences
View the documentHema in the range improvement and conservation programs in the near east
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close this folderWildlife land use at the Athi River, Kenya
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View the documentBackground
View the documentSome early findings
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close this folderCamel husbandry in Kenya: Increasing the productivity of ranchland
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentLocation
View the documentVegetation
View the documentLivestock
View the documentIntroduction of camels
View the documentManagement and adaptability
View the documentReproduction and lactation
View the documentVeterinary notes
View the documentEconomics
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close this folderThe potential of faidherbia albida for desertification control and increased productivity in Chad
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View the documentBackground
View the documentCharacteristics of faidherbia albida
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View the documentProject analysis and evaluation
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View the documentImproving Nigeria's animal feed resources: Pastoralists and scientists cooperate in fodder bank research
close this folderBoard on science technology for international development
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References

Bernus, E. 1971. Possibilities and limits of pastoral watering plans in the Nigerian Sahel. Paper presented at the FAO Symposium on Nomadism, Cairo, Egypt.

Bernus, E. and G. Savonnet. 1973. Les probls de la seresse dans l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Prnce Africaine 88:112-138.

Bourbouze, A. 1982. Dacements des troupeaux et utilization des parcours dans le Haut Atlas Central. Product 'on Pastorale et Soci 10(Spring):34-45.

Breman, H. and C. T. deWit. 1983. Rangeland productivity and exploitation in the Sahel. Science 221(1):1341-1342.

Cole, D. P. 1981. Bedouin and social change in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Asian and African Studies 16(1-2):128-149.

Foss, P. O. 1960. The Politics of Grass: Administration of Grazing on the Public Domain. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Gallais, J., ed. 1977. Strates Pastorales et Agricoles durant la Seresse 1969-1974. Centre d'udes de Graphie Tropicale, Talence, France.

Gilles, J. 1982. Organizing for pastoral development: Themes from traditional sytems. Agricultural Administration 11:215-225.

Gilles, J. L. and K. Jamtgaard. 1981. Overgrazing in pastoral areas: The commons reconsidered. Sociologia Ruralis 21:129-141.

Haaland, G. 1977. Pastoral systems of production: the sociocultural context and some economic and ecological implications. Pp. 179-193 in Land Use and Development, P. O'Keefe and B. Wisner, eds. International African Institute, London, England.

Hardin, G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162:1243-1248.

Helland, J. 1982. Social organization and water control among the Boran. Development and Change 13(1):239-258.

Hopcraft, D. N. 1981. Economic institutions and pastoral resource management: considerations for a development strategy. Pp. 224-243 in: The Future of Pastoral Peoples J.G. Galaty, D. Aronson, P.C. Salzman and A. Chouinard, eds. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada.

Little, P. D. 1983. Businessmen and part-time pastoralists: some factors affecting drought and overgrazing in Baringo District, Kenya. Paper presented at the 149th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

National Research Council. 1983. Environmental Change in the West African Sahel. Board on Science and Technology for International Development. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

Odell, M. J. 1982. Location, institutions and management of communal resources: lessons from Africa and India. ODI Pastoral Network; Paper, no. 14e, Overseas Development Institute, London, England.

Pascon, P. 1980. La comption des veurs dans la ron d'Azrou. Pp. 61-72 in udes rurales: Id et enqus sur la campagne Marocaine. Soci Marocaine des iteurs Ris, Rabat, Morocco.

Quam, M. D. 1978. Cattle marketing and pastoral conservatism. African Studices Review 21:49-71.

Runge, C. F. 1981. Common property externalities: Isolation, assurance, and resource depletion in a tradition al grazing context . American Journal of Agricultural Economics 63:595-606.

Sall, A. 1978. Quel amgement pastoral pour le Sahel. Revue Tiers Monde 19(73):161-169.

Thalen, D. C. P. 1979. Ecology and Utilization of Desert Shrub Rangelands in Iraq. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, Netherlands.

U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. 1979. Rangeland Policices for the Future. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., USA.

Wagner, F. J. 1983. Nomadic pastoralism: Ecological adjustment to the realities of arid environments. Paper presented at the 149th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Western, D. 1982. The environment and ecology of pastoralists in arid savannas. Development and Change 13(2):183-211.