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close this bookThe Improvement of Tropical and Subtropical Rangelands (BOSTID)
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View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentPanel on the improvement of tropical and subtropical rangelands
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View the documentNational research council staff
View the documentPreface
close this folderOverview: Dimensions of a worldwide environmental crisis
View the documentThe geographical scope
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close this folderPart I
close this folderIntroduction
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close this folderThe nature of tropical and subtropical rangelands
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View the documentRange classification
View the documentSocial system-ecosystem interactions
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close this folderThe social context for rangeland improvement
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View the documentProduction systems in tropical and subtropical regions
View the documentContext of environmental degradation
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close this folderThe economic context
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View the documentRange systems
View the documentThe basis of range economics
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View the documentDetermining costs and benefits
View the documentResource evaluation
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close this folderRegional resource assessment
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View the documentInformation needs
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close this folderSite evaluation
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View the documentAn ecosystem perspective
View the documentA systems approach to site evaluation
View the documentEvaluation of abiotic and biotic components
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close this folderGrazing management
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View the documentGrazing management concepts
View the documentTime of grazing
View the documentDistribution of grazing
View the documentType of animal grazing
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View the documentGrazing management planning
View the documentGrazing management systems
View the documentLivestock management
View the documentThe herima system in Mali
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close this folderRehabilitation techniques
View the documentEstablishing plants on the range
View the documentNatural revegetation
View the documentDirect seeding
View the documentImprovement of tropical and subtropical rangelands
View the documentSelected practices
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close this folderCriteria for plant selection
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View the documentSocioeconomic and management considerations in feasibility studies
View the documentAdaptation to ecoclimatic conditions
View the documentAdaptation to soils
View the documentAdaptation to physiography, geomorphology, topography, slope, and aspect
View the documentAbility of introduced species to compete with native vegetation
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View the documentAvailability of seeds and plant materials
View the documentMaintenance of biological diversity
View the documentPlant improvement
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close this folderPart II
View the documentIntroduction to the case studies
close this folderPastoral regimes of Mauritania
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View the documentPhysical geography
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close this folderThe Beni Mguild of Morocco
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close this folderThe Kel Tamasheq
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close this folderDromedary pastoralism in Africa and Arabia
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View the documentManagement and labor
View the documentSubsistence production
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View the documentPredatory pastoralism
View the documentThe future of camel pastoralism
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close this folderThe mountain nomads of Iran: Basseri and Bakhtiari
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View the documentThe physical environment
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close this folderThe Marri Baluch of Pakistan
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View the documentA mixed economic system
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close this folderChanging patterns of resource use in the Bedthi-Aghanashini valleys of Karnataka state, India
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View the documentThe setting
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View the documentTraditional patterns of resource management
View the documentColonial period
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close this folderKenya: Seeking remedies for desert encroachment
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View the documentTraditional pastoralism
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View the documentVegetation and livestock
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close this folderThe hema system in the Arabian peninsula
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View the documentRights of ownership or use
View the documentThe hema system in Saudi Arabia
View the documentThe mahmia or marah, and the koze system in Syria
View the documentNeglect of the hema and its consequences
View the documentHema in the range improvement and conservation programs in the near east
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close this folderWildlife land use at the Athi River, Kenya
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close this folderCamel husbandry in Kenya: Increasing the productivity of ranchland
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View the documentLocation
View the documentVegetation
View the documentLivestock
View the documentIntroduction of camels
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close this folderThe potential of faidherbia albida for desertification control and increased productivity in Chad
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View the documentImproving Nigeria's animal feed resources: Pastoralists and scientists cooperate in fodder bank research
close this folderBoard on science technology for international development
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Project planning

When planning any revegetation project or program, the first two questions that should come to mind are: what is the purpose of the project or program, and what are the management tools to be applied? Clear answers to these two questions would eliminate many problems and would restrict plant selection to a relatively limited number of possibilities. In the past, a number of philosophical views have been argued endlessly: for example, the selection of native species versus exotics; herbaceous species versus woody species; the planting of nursery-grown seedlings versus direct sowing; and single species versus mixed plantations (Le Houu, 1984). Many personal biases would be avoided by first answering the two questions posed above.

Once the scope and objectives of the project or program are clearly defined, many controversial issues would solve themselves if a number of other questions were asked:

· What is needed?
· What is available?
· What technologies have proven successful under similar circumstances, if any?
· What are the principal constraints in establishment and in management?
· Is the project or program technically and economically feasible, and is it socially acceptable?

The purpose of a revegetation project may be single or multiple, simple or complex. Some examples are given below:

· To rehabilitate depleted rangelands and pastures;
· To establish multiple species for both agroforestry and sylvopastoral uses;
· To establish fodder-shrub plantations as drought buffer reserves;
· To stabilize watersheds, which will achieve a combination of goals;
· To develop a program for the reclamation of salt- or alkaline affected land (in either rainfed or irrigated conditions to produce fodder, fuel, amenities, etc.);
· To provide windbreaks and shelterbelts for the protection of agricultural lands;
· To stabilize sand dunes, preventing encroachment upon productive lands;
· To establish fuelwood plantations;
· To increase the potential for timber production by planting highly productive species and ecotypes;
· To reclaim mined land, quarries, and mine-waste dumps;
· To establish protective plantations that will arrest erosion or sedimentation in order to reduce the maintenance costs of highways, bridges, airports, reservoirs, and settlements, without other envisaged direct benefits; and
· To establish amenity plantings - for example, in association with settlements or highways.