|Teacher Training: a Training Guide (Peace Corps, 1986, 249 p.)|
|Session 2 - Adult learning|
a. Group brainstorm 20 minutes
The group brainstorms the major differences between teaching children and teaching adults. Each participant writes down on a piece of paper two things to remember when teaching children. Then, going around the room, each person offers his/her suggestions as the trainer writes on a piece of newsprint. Next, the participants think about past training programs they have liked, and they write down two aspects of the program that made it successful for them (two ways they like to be taught). These are listed on another piece of newsprint. These charts are then moved to the side of the room.
Trainers notes: The participants know from their own experience how they like to be taught and how this is perhaps different from the way they might teach children; in other words the difference between andragogy and pedagogy. The intent of the brainstorm is for them to begin to name for themselves these differences so that the following theoretical section will make more sense to them. If participants think that this is their first training program, remind them of their CREST in the States.
Materials: newsprint, markers, tape
b. Lecturette 15 minutes
The trainer gives a lecturette on the basic principles of andragogy based on A Trainers Guide to Andragogy by John Ingalls. As each point is completed, the trainer displays the wall chart which graphically illustrates that point.
What we have done la created two lists that highlight some of the basic differences between teaching children and teaching adults. The technical words to distinguish these are andragogy, a term that means adult learning, and pedagogy or child learning. Looking at our lists we can begin to see some of the differences between the two. Malcolm Knowles in his book The Modern Practice of Adult Education identifies four basic concepts that are central to adult learning. The first is self concept. Whereas the child is dependent upon those around hi-/her, the adult acts autonomously in relation to others. Adults are capable of being self directed, of being able to identify and articulate what they want to learn in dialogue with the teacher. In pedagogy, the teacher is in a directing relationship with the student; and in adult education the teacher is in a helping relationship with the student.
The second concept is experience. With children, education is often the one-way transfer of data and information from the teacher to the student. This is not always appropriate for the adult learner who brings a wealth of life experience and wisdom into the learning environment. In adult education, the teacher is more often a facilitator in a mutual learning environment. There is therefore a focus on experiential methods such as a-all group activities, role playing, peer presentations, etc. The dichotomy between teacher and student is replaced by a community of learners and teachers.
The third concept important for adult learning concerns the students readiness to learn. In traditions: pedagogy, the teacher decides what the students need to learn sad the curriculum is developed apart from the learner. In andragogy though, the learner takes a much more active role in deciding what will be taught and when. Adult education is more learner centered. As noted before, adults are often able to identify what the learning needs that arise from their social situation are. In adult education. it is important for the adult learner that the content of educational program is directly related to both their interests and life situations.
Lastly, there is a different orientation to learning for the adult. Children have been conditioned to have a subject-centered orientation to learning whereas adults tend to have a more problem centered orientation. The difference is one of tire perspective. Children tend to focus attention towards the future whereas adults are concerned with the present. Thus adult learners are interested in learning how to solve the problems that they are experiencing in their daily lives.
Trainers notes: The intent of the lecturette is to clearly and concisely introduce the concept of andragogy and contrast it with pedagogy. It is important that the participants are clear about the differences, for as teacher trainers they are teaching adults information that is meant to help them teach children. Use the wall chart to explain and expand the lecturette, referring back to the brainstorm list or drawing examples from the group.
Materials: wall charts contrasting andragogy and pedagogy, tape
c. Discussion 10 minutes
The participants now relate the above theory to their own experiences. Turn to the person next to you and spend the next ten minutes talking about why it is important for teacher trainers to have an understanding of these four basic aspects of adult learning.
Trainers notes: Let this be a chatty time as people share stories with each other in pairs.
d. Learning styles exercise 30 minutes
The participants regather ant the trainer distributes the learning styles exercise. Each person individually completes the exercise and plots his/her results on the accompanying graph, using markers. When everyone has finished, all the charts (without names) are taped to the board in the front of the room. The group then discusses the results of the exercise.
- Here you surprised with the results of your chart? If so,
- What do you notice as you look at all the charts displayed up front?
- Why is it important for both trainers and learners to be aware of the diversity of learning styles?
Trainers notes: It is important for the trainer to emphasize that there are no wrong answers, or good or bad learning styles. No one style is inherently better than another. They are just different; and because they are different the trainer needs to be flexible in order to continually adjust his/her training style and activities to match the diverse learning styles of the trainees. If this exercise has already been used with the participants during the CREST or pre-service training, discuss here the four different learning styles outlined in session four (pages 34-35 of the Training Guide and page 70 of the Reference Manual.)
Materials: learning style exercise handouts (4 sheets; each), tape, markers
e. Closing Reflection 10 minutes
The trainer leads a short group discussion on the session.
- When you think back on your teacher training or teaching
experiences. which points discussed this morning make the neat sense to
- What insights have you had into your own teaching or learning style?
- Hill your teaching be different in the future? How?
Trainers notes: This reflection is meant both to give feedback to the trainer on the two sessions, and to allow the participants to share their thoughts about what it means for them to be a teacher trainer.