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close this bookTeacher Training: a Training Guide (Peace Corps, 1986, 249 p.)
close this folderDay four
Open this folder and view contentsSession 12- Micro teaching
Open this folder and view contentsSession 13 - Training techniques
View the documentEvaluation - Day 4

Attachments

Total Time: 3 hours

Objectives: By the end of the session, the participants will be able to:

- use a micro teaching model.
- implement the four steps of clinical supervision.
- give and receive feedback from each other.
- decide the appropriateness of the model for heir work.

Materials: wall chart (or handout) of the clinical supervision steps

Activities:

5 min Ice breaker The participants share spontaneous feelings and images of supervision/inspection.

5 min Introduction The trainer outlines the procedures for the morning.

2 1/2 Small group work hours The group members take turns being supervised while they do their mini-lessons. Each person in the group plays, at some time during this process, the roles of the teacher, the supervisor and the students.

20 min Final reflection The group discusses their experience of micro-teaching, and their reflections on how it can be used in their work.

Total Time: 3 hours

Overview: This session allows the participants to practice several different skills covered during the training program. First, the participants each present the mini-lessons they have been developing. Secondly, they do this using clinical supervision in a micro-teaching context, enabling them to practice specific skills learned in the preceding session.

After a brief review of the four steps of clinical supervision, the participants divide into small groups. The group members take turns being supervised while they do their minilesson. Each member of the group plays, at some time during the process, the roles of the ‘teacher’, the ‘supervisor’ and one of a group of ‘students’. Following the small group micro-teaching exercise, the participants regather to reflect upon the method, and evaluate how appropriate it is for their own training situations.

Objectives: By the end of the session, the participants will be able to:

- use a micro-teaching model.
- implement the four steps of clinical supervision.
- give and receive feedback from each other.
- decide the appropriateness of the model for their work.

Session materials: wall chart (or handout) of the clinical supervision steps

Session outline

Activities/Procedures

a. Ice breaker 5 minutes

The trainer begins the session by saying, Close your eyes for a minute. Picture yourself in the d dale of teaching a class. The principal walks in and sits down in the back of the root for a spot inspection. Open your eyes and write down on a piece of paper the first thoughts that care into your heat. Then, going quickly around the room, everyone shares their thoughts. Today we are going to work with a different model, that can help to make supervision more creative and enjoyable.

Trainer’s notes: This exercise is meant to set the context for the morning and should be done quickly, without any discussion of the individual answers.

Review 5 minutes

The trainer reviews the intent of micro-teaching and the four basic steps of clinical supervision. This morning you are going to present the mini-lessons that you have been preparing. This will be tone in a micro teaching context using clinical supervision. As you remember from yesterday, micro-teaching is a short and precise way to practice and receive feedback from others on a particular teaching point or technique. Let’s review the clinical supervision model. You will use four main steps.

1. The supervisor and teacher have a pre-observation conference. The teacher identifies what she/he wants observed, and the teacher and supervisor agree on the observation technique(a) to be used.

2. The supervisor observes the teacher teach a mini-lesson.

3. The teacher and the supervisor discuss the lesson.

4. The others in the group who have watched or participated in the process as ‘students’, also now give feedback to both the teacher and the supervisor. Note that there are two levels here. Steps 1, 2, and 3 are clinical supervision; what you would do in a classroom with a teacher. Step 4 is a training step. that lets you give feedback to each other on the model.

The trainer answers any questions, and reminds the participants that they are to rotate the different roles of teacher, supervisor, student and student/timekeeper. The reason for this last position is that they must keep a very tight time schedule of:

- 5 minutes for the pre-observation conference
- 15 minutes for the mini-lesson
- 5 minutes for the post-observation conference
- 5 minutes for feedback from the observers/’students’
- 5 minutes to change roles

Trainer’s notes: Be sure that the participants are very clear as to both the different roles that each is to play, and the schedule for each micro-teaching unit.

Materials: wall chart of clinical supervision steps

c. Small groups 2 1/2 hours

Each group member does a mini-lesson in a clinical supervision, micro-teaching context. The group members take turns playing the roles of teacher, supervisor, student, and time-keeper; each playing no role more than once. In groups of five, each member will be a student twice, and the mini-lessons must be only 10 minutes long.

Trainer’s notes: The most important thing here is to be sure to keep the participants within the time schedule, otherwise they will not all have a chance to do their lessons. This is particularly true with a group of five. The trainer(s) should rotate among the groups, observing a full micro-teaching cycle for each group. In this way, if the process is not being done correctly, there is the opportunity to correct it and have the participants continue on with a proper model.

Materials: each participant should bring what he/she needs for the session

d. Discussion 15 minutes

The participants regather and share their experiences of the small groups.

- How did it feel to be supervised?

- Did you get the feedback you wanted?

- Has it difficult to supervise? If so how? If not, why not?

- Do you foresee cross-cultural issues with implementing either micro-teaching or clinical supervision? If so, how can you adapt the model?

- What aspects of these methods will you be able to use in your work?

Trainer’s note: This discussion will be slightly different depending upon the context. If it is a preservice training, the participants may have a difficult time knowing either how they can use the model or its cultural appropriateness. The trainer might instead focus here on the issues the participants, themselves, discovered as they implemented the model in their small groups. If there are host country nationals present, they can be a very important resource regarding the cultural issues. Those teaching in national teacher training colleges can discuss issues they might have in introducing the model in their institutions. These participants must understand that any innovation into the ‘system’ may be regarded with suspicion.

e. Individual work 5 minutes

Now look back at your lesson plan. In light of having just taught it, note how you would redo or change it. Trainer’s notes: Refer back to the Lesson Plan session and remind the participants that this is the ‘comments’ section of the lesson plan form.

Attachments

WALL CHART

CLINICAL SUPERVISION

1. pre-observation conference
2. classroom observation
3. analysis and strategy session
4. post-observation session

MICRO-TEACHING

1. choosing a teaching technique to practice
2. teaching a short, mini-lesson
3. receiving feedback from an observer or participants on the lesson presentation
4. revising the lesson
5. re-teaching the lesson

Session outline

Total Time: 3 hours

Objectives: By the end of the session, the participants will be able to:

- identify and define 15 different training techniques.
- discuss and design three categories or types of training techniques in detail.
- write up a proper training session plan.

Materials: wall chart of techniques, blank session plan forms, newsprint, markers, tape

Activities:

20 min Introduction/Lecturette A review of the different training techniques used during the training to date and described in the Reference Manual.

45 min Small group work #1 - critical incidents and case studies The trainer reviews the given techniques. Then the participants design learning activities using one of the training techniques.

Break - Switch groups

40 min Small group work #2 - role play and fish bowl Same procedures as #1 but different training techniques

5 min Switch groups

40 min Small group work #3 - icebreakers and closings Same procedures as #1 but different training techniques.

10 min Walk around and look at plane

20 min Final reflection The participants discuss the techniques presented and their cultural appropriateness.

Total Time: 3 hours

Overview: In many instances, a person goes directly from classroom teaching to teacher training. While it is obviously important that the teacher trainer have teaching experience, certain issues arise from this situation. The main one is that too often the trainer continues using the same methods to train although he/she is now working in a completely different context. Earlier sessions looked at the theory of teaching adults. This session looks at some of the main methods and techniques used in training.

The session opens with a review of the 13 different training techniques outlined in the Reference Manual. Then, working in small groups, the participants have the opportunity to look in detail at six of these techniques, and to design sample training session plans which use them. In the final discussion, the proper use and cultural appropriateness of the different techniques are explored.

Objectives: By the end of the session, the participants will be able to:

- identify and define 15 different training techniques.
- describe and design three categories or types of training techniques in detail.
- write up a proper training session plan.

Session materials: wall chart of techniques, blank session plan forms, newsprint, markers, tape

Training session

Activities/Procedures

a. Introduction 20 minutes

The participants review their notes and the training program design and objectives handouts, and then brainstorm all of the different training techniques they have experienced in the training to date. These are listed on a piece of newsprint. They then take a hand ‘vote’ to determine which one they liked best; each person is only allowed to vote twice.

Using a wall chart, the trainer then briefly reviews the definition and procedures of each of the 15 training techniques outlined in the Reference Manual, answering any questions the participants may have.

Trainer’s notes: As there is not enough time to go into great detail for all of the different training techniques, the purpose of this introduction is to remind the participants of techniques they have already experienced and thus know, and to answer any questions about the others they do not know as well. For the brainstorm, the trainer may have to help them remember what happened in the individual sessions. Some techniques they may have forgotten are the card game and song used in the Classroom Techniques session, or the demonstration used in both that session and the one on Approaches to Teaching.

Materials: training program design and objectives, wall chart of techniques, newsprint, markers, tape

b. Small groups 45 minutes

What we are going to do now is look in greater detail at the most commonly used of these techniques. The trainer has the participants divide into three teams by having them count off (using a, b, c). Each team moves to a different room with a trainer. The team stays in this room for 40 minutes, then they switch to a different room, and this is repeated a third time. Each trainer remains in the same room all afternoon, repeating her/his exercise three different times, with a different team each time. The product of the afternoon for each participant is the design of 8 two hour training session, that will include one activity from each of the three small group sessions.

Room #1: critical incidents and case studies

1. The trainer reviews the definition and procedures for the techniques. The group reviews the different times the methods were used during the training - Child and Adolescent Learning and Classroom Management. (10 minutes)

2. The group then chooses a topic for a training session that will use a critical incident or case study. (5 minutes)

3. Working individually or in pairs, the participants write a critical incident or outline a case study and write up the procedures for doing it on a training session plan. (25 minutes)

Room #2: role play, fish bowl and demonstrations

1. The trainer reviews the definition and procedures for the techniques. The group reviews the different times the methods were used during the training - Classroom Teaching Techniques, Supervision, and Approaches to Teaching. (10 minutes)

2. The group then chooses a topic for a training session that will use a role play, fish bowl or demonstration. (5 minutes)

3. Working individually or in pairs, the participants design a role play, fish bowl or demonstration and write up the procedures for doing it on a training session plan. (10 minutes)

Room #3: ice breakers and closings

1. The trainer reviews the definition and procedures for the techniques. The group reviews the different times the methods were used during the training -Approaches to Teaching, Instructional Objectives and Micro-teaching. (10 minutes)

2. The group then chooses a topic for a training session that will use an ice breaker and/or a closing. (5 minutes)

3. Working individually or in pairs, the participants design both (if time permits) an ice breaker and a closing, and write up the procedures for doing them on a training session plan. (25 minutes)

Trainer’s notes: Although the two techniques in each of the pairs are similar, it is important that the trainer identify the sometimes subtle differences between them. Also be sure that the participants understand that the work of each small group is only one part of the two hour training session they are designing. These training session designs can be done either in very small groups or individually.

The logistics of this ‘musical chairs’ small group work may be a little tricky. The key is for each of the trainers to carefully watch the time, so that at the end of 40 minutes when a new team is ready to move in, the present team is ready to move out. The review and the choosing of the topic should be done quickly, so that the participants have plenty of time to design their activities. Make sure that the participants write out their objectives for the two-hour training session in the first room, before they begin actual work on their design. Monitor the completion of the session plans to be sure they are being properly completed. Also, since there will not be much feedback on the individual activities, try to give this, if possible, while they are being written.

Materials: blank session plan forms, newsprint, markers, tape

The teams return after the break to a different room.

c. Small groups 40 minutes

The same procedures as above are followed, but each team is now in a different room working on a new training technique. Step 2 is eliminated for the participants are continuing with the topic chosen during the preceding activity. They remain in the same triad and add the newly designed activity to their two hour training session plan.

Trainer’s notes: The same as above but be sure that the participants understand that they are only designing a two hour training session, the components of which are the work from each of the three small groups.

Switch rooms 5 minutes

d. Small groups 40 minutes

The same procedures as above are followed, but each team is now in a different room working on a new training technique. Step 2 is eliminated for the participants are continuing with the topic chosen during the preceding activity. They remain in the same triad and add the newly designed activity to their two hour training session plan, which they are now completing. Trainer’s notes: The same as above.

e. Review of session plans 10 minutes

All of the session plans are taped to the walls of the main training room and the participants regather. They walk around the room looking at all of the different plans that have been written during the small group work.

Trainer’s notes: Use this as a time for the participants to regather. Though not officially a break, it can be used as a transition to the group discussion.

Materials: completed session plans, tape

Discussion 20 minutes

The trainer then leads a reflection on the afternoon’s work.

- Which of the training techniques do you like the best? Why?
- Which were easy to design? Which were difficult to design?
- Which do you think are the most appropriate for your work as a teacher trainer? Why? Which techniques may be difficult to use in this culture and society? Why?

Trainer’s notes: This discussion is meant to both sum up the afternoon’s work, and to serve as a forum for sharing ideas.

Attachments

WALL CHART

TRAINING TECHNIQUES

1. Ice breaker
2. Brainstorming
3. Lecturettes
4. Demonstrations
5. Diads/triads
6. Role play
7. Fishbowl
8. Field trips
9. Peer-training
10. Interviews
11. Panels
12. Games - Simulations Structured experiences
13. Case study
14. Critical incidents
15. Micro-teaching

HANDOUT TRAINING SESSION PLAN

TITLE:
TOTAL TIME:
OBJECTIVES:
MATERIALS:
ACTIVITIES:
PROCEDURES:
TRAINER’S NOTES:

Evaluation - Day 4

Total time: 1/2 hour

Objectives: By the end of the session, the participants will be able to

- identify the strengths and weaknesses of the lay’s training.
- evaluate the training methods used during the day.
- discuss the cross-cultural issues of teacher training.

Materials: training outline, participants’ notes

Activities/Procedures

a. Discussion 30 minutes

1. Look through the training design and your notes. What activities do you remember doing today?

2. Which of these activities did you like, or find interesting, or fun?

3. Which ones didn’t you like, or find difficult, or boring?

4. Which training techniques did you find effective? Why?

5. Which techniques tit you not find effective? Why?

6. You have just discussed which of the different training techniques you personally find effective. Let’s now look at those techniques in a cultural contest. Which training techniques or aspects of clinical supervision do you think will be the easiest to integrate into your own teacher training? Why?

7. Which will be the most difficult to introduce? Why?

8. Choose one technique that you think may be culturally inappropriate for your situation, ant write down on a piece of paper what you could do to make it more culturally sensitive and appropriate.

Trainer’s notes: The procedures for the discussion are the same as for day 1.