|Women: The Key to Food Security - Food policy report (IFPRI, 1995, 28 p.)|
|International Food Policy Research Institute|
|Three Pillars of Food Security|
|Women and Agricultural Production|
|Women and Economic Access to Food|
|Women and Nutrition Security|
|Conclusion and Recommendations|
1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Women and Developing Agriculture, Women in Agriculture Series No. 4 (Rome, 1985).
2. Ibid.; and World Bank, Women in Development: Issues for Economic and Sector Analysis, Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper No. 269 (Washington, D.C., 1989).
3. K. Saito, D. Spurling, and H. Mekonnen, Raising the Productivity of Women Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, Discussion Paper No. 230 (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1994).
4. A. R. Quisumbing, Increasing Womens Agricultural Productivity as Farmers and Workers, Education and Social Policy Discussion Paper No. 37 (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1994).
5. C. D. Deere and M. Leon, Women in Andean Agriculture: Peasant Production and Rural Wage Employment in Colombia and Peru, Women, Work, and Development Series No. 4 (Geneva: International Labour Office, 1982).
6. See J. Dey, Women in African Rice Farming Systems, in International Rice Research Institute, Women in Rice Farming: Proceedings of a Conference on Women in Rice Farming Systems (Brookfield, Vt., U.S.A.: Gower Publishers, 1985), pp. 419-444; and J. von Braun and P. Webb, The Impact of New Crop Technology on the Agricultural Division of Labor in a West African Setting, Economic Development and Cultural Change 37, no. 3 (1989): 513-534.
7. C. D. Deere, The Latin American Agrarian Reform Experience, in Rural Women and State Policy: Feminist Perspectives on Latin American Agricultural Development, ed. C. D. Deere and M. Leon (Boulder, Colo., U.S.A.: Westview Press, 1987).
8. S. Lastarria-Cornhiel, Female Farmers and Agricultural Production in El Salvador, Development and Change 19, no. 4 (1988): 585-615.
10. T. H. Stuart, Bridging the Information Gap in Integrated Pest Management, in Tools for the Field: Methodologies Handbook for Gender Analysis in Agriculture, ed. H. S. Feldstein and J. Jiggins (West Hartford, Conn., U.S.A.: Kumarian Press, 1994).
11. Saito, Spurling, and Mekonnen, Raising the Productivity of Women Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa.
12. S. Holt and H. Ribe, Developing Financial Institutions for the Poor and Reducing Barriers to Access for Women, Discussion Paper No. 117 (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1991).
13. J. Seager and A. Olson, Women in the World: An International Atlas (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), cited in I. Jazairy, M. Alamgir, and T. Panuccio, The State of World Rural Poverty: An Inquiry into Its Causes and Consequences (New York: New York University Press for the International Fund for Agricultural Development, 1992).
14. A. R. Quisumbing, Gender Differences in Agricultural Productivity: A Survey of Empirical Evidence, Education and Social Policy Discussion Paper No. 36 (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1994).
15. K. Subbarao and L. Raney, Social Gains to Female Education, Economic Development and Cultural Change, forthcoming.
16. K. Berger and J. Gunning, personal communication, 1992.
17. C. Udry, Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household (Evanston, III., U.S.A.: Department of Economics, Northwestern University, 1994, mimeo).
18. These simulations were also reported in World Bank, Enhancing Womens Participation in Economic Development (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1994).
19. These simulations were based on coefficients estimated for maize farmers in Kenya. See P. Moock, The Efficiency of Women as Farm Managers: Kenya, American Journal of Agricultural Economics 58, no. 5 (1976): 831-835.
20. Simulations based on coefficients from Saito, Spurling, and Mekonnen, Raising the Productivity of Women Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa.
21. For a more technical discussion, see Quisumbing, Gender Differences in Agricultural Productivity.
22. D. E. Rocheleau, Gender, Resource Management and the Rural Landscape: Implications for Agroforestry and Farming Systems Research, in Gender Issues in Fanning Systems Research and Extension, ed. Susan V. Poats, Marianne Schmink, and Anita Spring, Westview Special Studies in Agriculture and Science Policy (Boulder, Colo., U.S.A.: Westview Press, 1988).
23. D. Spurling, personal communication, 1995.
24. L. Haddad, The Impact of Womens Employment Status on Household Food Security at Different Income Levels in Ghana, Food and Nutrition Bulletin 14, no. 4 (1992): 341-344.
25. See, for example, G. Guyer, Household Budgets and Womens Incomes, African Studies Center Working Paper No. 28 (Boston: Boston University, 1980); E. Fapohunda, The Nonpooling Household: A Challenge to Theory, in A Home Divided, ed. D. Dwyer and J. Bruce (Stanford, Calif., U.S.A.: Stanford University Press, 1988); R. Tripp, Farmers and Traders: Some Economic Determinants of Nutritional Status in Northern Ghana, Food and Nutrition 8, no. 1 (1982): 3-12; D. Dwyer and J. Bruce, A Home Divided: Women and Income in the Third World (Stanford, Calif., U.S.A.: Stanford University Press, 1988); and J. Pahl, The Allocation of Money within Marriage, Sociological Review 32 (May 1983): 237-264.
26. E. Kennedy, Income Sources of the Rural Poor in Southwestern Kenya, in Income Sources of Malnourished People in Rural Areas: Microlevel Information and Policy Implications, ed. J. von Braun and R. Pandya-Lorch, Working Paper on Commercialization of Agriculture and Nutrition No. 5 (Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, 1991).
27. D. Thomas and C. L. Chen, Income Shares and Shares of Income: Empirical Tests of Models of Household Resource Allocations, Labor and Population Program Working Paper No. 94-08 (Santa Monica, Calif., U.S.A.: Rand Corporation, 1994).
28. E. Katz, Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in the Guatemalan Central Highlands: The Impact of Non-traditional Agricultural Exports (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1992).
29. D. Thomas, Intrahousehold Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach, Journal of Human Resources 25, no. 4 (1990): 635-664.
30. S. Hamilton, B. Popkin, and D. Spicer, Women and Nutrition in Third World Countries (New York: Begin and Garvey, Praeger Special Studies, 1984).
31. J. Hopkins, C. Levin, and L. Haddad, Womens Income and Household Expenditure Patterns: Gender or Flow? Evidence from Niger, American Journal of Agricultural Economics 76, no. 5 (1994): 1219-1225.
32. L. Haddad, C. PeA. Quisumbing, and A. Slack, Poverty and Nutrition within Households: Review and New Evidence, report written in collaboration with the Nutrition Unit, World Health Organization (Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, 1995).
33. This association, however, is uneven and unpredictable and depends on the poverty measures and definitions of headship used as well as whether differences among female headed-households are explored.
34. Haddad, PeQuisumbing, and Slack, Poverty and Nutrition within Households: Review and New Evidence.
35. L. Goldschmidt-Clermont, Economic Evaluation of Unpaid Work in the Household: Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Oceania, Women, Work, and Development Series No. 14 (Geneva: International Labor Organization, 1987).
36. For information on womens labor input into food and cash crops in Burkina Faso, Kenya, and Nigeria, see Saito, Spurling, and Mekonnen, Raising the Productivity of Women Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. For time allocation data on Botswana, see L. R. Brown and L. Haddad, Time Allocation Patterns and Time Burdens: A Gendered Analysis of Seven Countries (Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, 1994). The data from Zambia are found in S. Kumar, Adoption of Hybrid Maize in Zambia: Effects on Gender Roles, Food Consumption, and Nutrition, Research Report No. 100 (Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, 1994).
37. See Brown and Haddad, Time Allocation Patterns and Time Burdens: A Gendered Analysis of Seven Countries, and J. McGuire and B. Popkin, Helping Women Improve Nutrition in the Developing World: Beating the Zero Sum Game, Technical Paper No. 114 (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1990).
38. See Brown and Haddad, Time Allocation Patterns and Time Burdens: A Gendered Analysis of Seven Countries.
39. See L. R. Brown, Y. Yohannes, and P. Webb, Rural Labor-Intensive Public Works: Impacts on Preschooler Nutrition: Evidence from Niger, American Journal of Agricultural Economics 76, no. 5 (1994): 1213-1218; and L. Haddad, The Impact of Womens Employment Status on Household Food Security at Different Income Levels in Ghana.
40. A. Lechtig, C. Yarbrough, C. Klein, E. Habicht, J. P. Martorell, and H. Delgado, Influence of Maternal Nutrition on Birth Weight, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 28, no. 11 (1975): 1223-1233.
41. D. Barker, Rise and Fall of Western Diseases, Nature (United Kingdom) 338 (March 30, 1989): 371-372.
42. R. D. Semba, P. G. Miotti, J. D. Chiphangwi, A. J. Saah, J. K. Canner, G. A. Dallabetta, and D. R. Hoover, Maternal Vitamin A Deficiency and Mother to Child Transmission of HIV-1, Lancet 343, no. 8913 (1994): 1593-1597.
43. E. Kennedy, P. Peters, and L. Haddad, Effects of Gender of Head of Household on Womens and Childrens Nutritional Status, in Nutrition in the Nineties, ed. M. Biswas and Gabr (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming).
44. P. Higgins and H. Alderman, Labor and Womens Nutrition: A Study of Energy Expenditure, Fertility, and Nutritional Status in Ghana (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1992, mimeo).
45. Kennedy, Peters, and Haddad, Effects of Gender of Head of Household on Womens and Childrens Nutritional Status.
46. Haddad, PeQuisumbing, and Slack, Poverty and Nutrition within Households.
47. M. M. Pitt, M. R. Rosenzweig, and M. N. Hassan, Productivity, Health, and Inequality in the Intrahousehold Distribution of Food in Low-Income Countries, American Economic Review 70, no. 5 (1990): 1139-1156.
48. J. Behrman, Intrahousehold Allocation of Nutrients in Rural India: Are Boys Favored? Do Parents Exhibit Inequality? Oxford Economic Papers 40, no. 1 (1988): 32-54.
49. Haddad, PeQuisumbing, and Slack, Poverty and Nutrition within Households.
50. H. Alderman and P. Gertler, Family Resources and Gender Differences in Human Capital Investments: The Demand for Childrens Medical Care in Pakistan, in Intrahousehold Resource Allocation: Methods, Application, and Policy, ed. L. Haddad, J. Hoddinott, and H. Alderman (Baltimore, Md., U.S.A.: Johns Hopkins University Press, forthcoming).
51. B. Miller, The Endangered Sex: Neglect of Female Children in Rural North India (Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A.: Cornell University Press, 1981).
52. V. Faveau, A. Briend, J. Chakraborty, and A. M. Sarder, The Contribution of Severe Malnutrition to Child Mortality in Rural Bangladesh: Implications for Targeting Nutritional Interventions, Food and Nutrition Bulletin 12, no. 3 (1990): 215-219.
53. McGuire and Popkin, Helping Women Improve Nutrition in the Developing World: Beating the Zero Sum Game.
Agnes R. Quisumbing is a research fellow and Lynn R. Brown is a research analyst in IFPRI's Food Consumption and Nutrition Division. Hilary Sims Feldstein is program leader, gender analysis, in the Gender Program of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Lawrence Haddad is director of IFPRI's Food Consumption and Nutrition Division. Christine Pes a visiting researcher at IFPRI.
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