Cover Image
close this bookLife Skills for Young Ugandans- Secondary Teachers' Training Manual (UNICEF, 254 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folderSection One: The Life Skills Education Initiative
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View the document1.0 Background
close this folder2.0 What are Life Skills?
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View the document2.1 WHAT ARE THE AIMS OF LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION?
View the document2.2 WHY A SKILLS BASED APPROACH?
View the document2.3 WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION?
close this folder3.0 Life Skills and the Secondary School Child
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View the document3.1 HOW CAN LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION BE PROMOTED?
View the document3.2 WHEN CAN LIFE SKILLS BE PROMOTED?
View the document3.3 WHERE CAN LIFE SKILLS BE PROMOTED?
View the document3.4 WHO SHOULD RECEIVE LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION?
close this folder4.0 Other Supporting Activities/Strategies
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View the document4.1 CHILDREN’S RIGHTS
View the document4.2 THE SARA COMMUNICATION INITIATIVE (SCI)
close this folder5.0 Problems and Solutions
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View the document5.1 YES... BUT...
close this folderSection Two: Methodologies and Training Session Activities
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close this folderPART A. General Activities
close this folder1.0 Introductory and Preparatory Activities
View the document1.1 ICE-BREAKING
View the document1.2 EXPECTATIONS AND FEARS
View the document1.3 LAYING GROUND RULES FOR LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION
View the document1.4 TEAM BUILDING
View the document1.5 COPING WITH DIFFICULT GROUP MEMBERS (BEHAVIOURS)
View the document1.6 ENERGISERS
close this folder2.0 Participatory Methods
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View the document2.1 BRAINSTORMING
View the document2.2 QUESTIONNAIRES
View the document2.3 RANKING
View the document2.4 CASE STUDIES
View the document2.5 ROLE PLAYS
View the document2.6 DRAWING
View the document2.7 DISCUSSION
View the document2.8 BUZZ GROUPS
View the document2.9 TABLEAUX
View the document2.10 STORYTELLING
View the document2.11 PROCESSING
View the document2.12 UTILISING THE CREATIVE ABILITIES OF THE PARTICIPANTS OR THE STUDENTS
close this folderPART B. Specific activities that may be used to focus upon some of the key issues of Life Skills Education
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View the documentWORKSHOP A: HOW TO IDENTIFY THE NEEDS OF A 13 YEAR OLD UGANDAN CHILD
View the documentWORKSHOP B: WHAT ARE THE PRIORITIES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN?
View the documentWORKSHOP C: INTRODUCING LIFE SKILLS CONCEPTS
View the documentWORKSHOP D: ATTITUDES TO LIFE SKILLS
View the documentWORKSHOP E: AIMS OF LIFESKILLS EDUCATION
View the documentWORKSHOP F: THE HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOL
View the documentWORKSHOP G: PROMOTING SELF ESTEEM IN SCHOOL
close this folderSection Three: A Framework for Developing Life Skills within the Secondary Health Education Syllabus
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSUMMARY - TOPICS AND LIFE SKILLS
View the documentA FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPING LIFE SKILLS WITHIN THE SECONDARY HEALTH EDUCATION SYLLABUS
close this folderSection Four: Sample Activities
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View the documentHEALTH
View the documentWATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
View the documentFAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS
View the documentCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES
View the documentORAL HEALTH
View the documentSMOKING
View the documentDRUG ABUSE
close this folderSection Five: Preparing Your own Units
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View the document5.1 INTRODUCTION
View the document5.2 WHAT DOES IT TAKE?
View the document5.3 HOW TO PREPARE AN ACTIVITY
View the document5.4 SAMPLE LESSON PLANS FOR SECONDARY
View the document5.5 SUMMARY
View the documentReferences

A FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPING LIFE SKILLS WITHIN THE SECONDARY HEALTH EDUCATION SYLLABUS

CLASS

SECTION

SUGGESTED LIFE SKILLS

RATIONALE FOR LIFE SKILLS

DEVELOPMENT OF LIFE SKILLS

Senior 1

SECTION A:
OUR HEALTH

Characteristics
Rapid changes (physiological emotional/ psychological, physical)
Egocentric
Sense of belonging (identity)

Needs
Need to understand themselves, the changes within and around them
Need to cope and act positively in the given circumstances
Healthy living/positive behaviour
Avoidance of risky behaviours

Methodology
Role play - autobiographies
Case studies - picture codes/cards
Information
Fieldwork exercises/ sessions
Situations

Sara Communication Initiative (SCI) - Female Genital Mutilation story


1.0 Concept of health

TR, EC




2.0 Physical wellbeing

FF, CE, CS




3.0 Mental wellbeing

FF, CE




4.0 Spiritual wellbeing

IR, FF




5.0 Spiritual wellbeing

SA, IT




6.0 Health Education and promotion of Health

CT, PS, EC, CRT, PR AS, NG



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION B:
PRIMARY HEALTH CARE (PHC)

Characteristics
Egocentric
Narrow world view
Adventurous
Strong peer influence
Body changes (physiological, e.g. menstruation, physical changes)

Needs
Sense of direction
Identify, appreciate problems around them
Take appropriate action

Methodology
Case studies - community work (clean the place of an elderly)
Field trips (visit PHC Units extension)
Role plays

Child Rights Convention (CRC)
Article 24: The child has a right to enjoy good health


1.0 Concept of PHC

PS, IR, AS




1.2 Philosophy of PHC

IR, CT, DM, EC, CRT




2.0 Essential elements of PHC

CRT, PS, CT, DM, AS, EC



Senior 2
(14 to 16
years)

PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
Continued

Characteristics
Energetic/active
Risk takers
Strong sense of independence
On top of the world ‘dreamers’
In search of identity
Narrow world view
Seek attention (or attention seekers
Impulsive

Needs
To be understood
Love
Guidance and counselling
Answers to life realities (myths and misconceptions)

Methodology
Case studies
Field trips
Role plays (at more advanced level than S1)
Talk shown in role impersonation - narrative research

CRC
Article 23: (Leisure), punishment
Article 24, section 2


3.1 The role of the individual

SA, EM, IR, PR, DM, AS, EC, NG




3.2 The role of the family in PHC

IR, EC, DM, PS, EM




3.3 The role of the community in PHC

IR, EC, DM, PS, EM, CR, AS



Senior 3 (15 to 16 years)

PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
Continued

Characteristics
Carefree with 2 extremes (either too caring, sympathetic or too indifferent, hurting)
Hyper-sensitive (themselves vis-a-vis the other world)
Identity - anxious to be adults
Analytical
For strong peer groupings
Fear of rejections

Needs
Knowledge and awareness of themselves and others around them especially those with special needs
Appreciate roles/responsibilities to others
Self-motivation to action
Spirit of tolerance

Methodology
Case studies - able-bodied vis-a-vis disabled
Role play (Note: when somebody is disabled, it does not mean they are disadvantaged, need pity, etc.)
Quotes - “Disability is not inability”, etc. - for material development; have a character role for a disabled

CRC
Article 23: A disabled child has a right to enjoy a decent life


4.0 Responsibility of the individual family - communities for the weak, sick, disabled and displaced





4.1 The individual

EM, SA (of special needs of others or self if you are disabled)




4.2 The family

EC, AS, CRT, CE




4.3 The community

IR, PS, EC, EM, CRT, CE, DM, NG



Senior 4 (16 to 18 years)

PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
Continued

Characteristics
Want independence - anxious about future
Want to be noticed (as adults)
Want to be involved/participate in planning for what concerns, touches them
Search for emotional attachment and support with the opposite sex

Needs
For society to appreciate them and their contribution as potentially responsible community members
To be involved in broad activities
Understanding not be judged
To be entrusted in making decisions
Need to be trusted as individuals

Methodology
Case study
Role plays, scenarios
Projects
Responsibility of the child
Respect of parents, etc.
Work for cohesion of the family

CRC
Article 24: A child has a right to enjoy a healthy life


Principles of PHC

IR, EC, NG, DM



Senior 1 (14 to 16 years)

SECTION C: OUR ENVIRONMENT

Characteristics
Looking for connections and explanations (cause - effect)
Impressionable, moldable
Playful, energetic
Identity is more with the peer group
Creative, improvise a lot
Need/copy of popular characters

Needs
Appreciate the role of play, recreation
To create values, connections
Need for positive role models

Methodology
Informational (illustrations, scenarios for discussion)
Demonstration - play (using day-to-day activities)
Performance activity
Micro play

Child Rights Convention
Leisure and recreation
Article 29, 1c, 1d (Article 26) for character building
SCI


1.0 The environment





4.1 Family and community

SA, CT, IR




4.2 Education and its institutions

IR, SA, EC




4.3 Religion

SA, CT, IR




4.4 Play and act

SA, CRT, EM, CE




4.5 The place of science and philosophy in society

CT, CRT



Senior 2



Characteristics
Explorers
Experimental
Inquisitive
Prone to mistakes

Needs
To understand the environment and their relationship to environment

Methodology
Field trips and excursions
Experiments in the environment
Group work/projects
Debating/group discussions
Case studies

CRC
Clean and safe water
Protection of the environment
Article 29, 1e


2.0 Physical environment





2.1 Water

CT, CRT, PS




2.2 Air

CT, CRT, PS




2.3 Edaphic (soil) factors

CT, CRT, PS




2.4 Temperature

CT, CRT, PS




2.5 Light

CT, CRT, PS




3.0 Biological environment





3.1 Plants

CRT, CT, PS




3.2 Animals

CRT, CT, EM




3.3 Insects

CRT, CT, EM




3.4 Micro organisms

CRT, CT, PS




3.5 Man

SA. CRT, CT, EM, IR



Senior 3 (15 to 17 years)

OUR ENVIRONMENT
Continued

Characteristics
Academic point of view - getting more focussed
Generally more focussed, becoming realistic

Needs
Guidance and direction
Their role as individuals to the environment

Methodology
Classroom discussions
Field trips and excursions
Projects/report of findings

CRC
Protection of the environment (Article 29, 1e)
Responsibilities - patriotism

SCI - making of the smokeless stove


3.7 The Ecosystem

CT




5.0 Environment conservation





5.1 Air

CT




5.2 Water

CT




5.3 Land

CT, CRT




5.4 Forests

CT, CRT




5.5 Wildlife

CT, CRT




6.0 Environment pollution





6.1 Air pollution

CT, CRT, PS




6.2 Water pollution

PR, DM, CT, PS




6.3 Soil pollution

PS, IR, DM




6.4 Noise

CT, PS




6.5 Impact of environmental pollution

CT, CRT, PS




6.6 Prevention of pollution

CT, EC, DM



Senior 4

OUR ENVIRONMENT
Continued


Characteristics
Decisive stage of life
Academic - state of flux (some aiming high, others have given up)
Emotional, some sexually active, esteem based on academics

Needs
Need to ‘tune’ them up for responsible adulthood
Guidance and direction, support and encouragement
Counselling - need to see value and relevance of the Topics
Career guidance

Methodology
Field trips and excursions
Group discussions
External speakers/guests, lecturers

CRC
Article 24, 27 - Right to health and proper nutrition


7.0 Population





7.1 Shortage of food, water, oxygen

CT, DM




7.2 Diseases

CT, PS, SA, CRT, IR




7.3 Lack of shelter

CRT, DM, PS




7.4 Accumulation of waste

CT, PS




7.5 Psychological stress

CE, CS, EM, IR, RS




7.6 Shortage of social services

PS, CT, CS, AS




7.7 Degradation of environment

CT, CRT, EC, PC




8.0 Environment





8.1 Law of the environment

AS, CRT, PS




8.2 Why environment should be protected

CT, IR



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION D:
WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION


Characteristics
Looking for connections and explanations (cause - effect)
Impressionable, moldable
Playful, energetic
Identity is more with the peer group
Creative, improvise a lot
Need/copy of popular characters

Needs
Appreciate the role of play, recreation
To create values, connections
Need for positive role models

Methodology
Informational
Picture codes
Site visits to different water sources

SCI


1.0 The definition of Sanitation





1.1 Domestic water supply

CT, PS



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
Continued

Characteristics
Explorers
Experimental
Inquisitive (questioning)
Prone to mistakes

Needs
To understand the environment and their relationship to environment
To understand their personal role in conserving the environment
Skills to be pro-active about

Methodology
Newspaper articles
Group discussions
Case studies
Role plays

CRC
Articles


1.1 Domestic water supply

PS, CRT, CT




1.2 Proper housing for rural and urban areas

DM, CT, CRT, PS, SA



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
Continued

Characteristics
Getting more focussed academically
Getting more focussed, becoming realistic

Needs
Guidance and direction
Their role as individuals to the environment (safety, cleanliness)

Methodology
Excursions/field trips
Case studies, stories

Child Rights Convention (CRC)
Safe water Article

SCI


1.3 Refuse and excreta disposal

CRT, PS, CT, IR



Senior 4
(16 to 19 years)

WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
Continued

Characteristics
Decisive stage of life
Academic - state of flux (some aiming high, others have given up
Emotional - some sexually active, esteem based on academics

Needs
Need to ‘tune’ them up for responsible adulthood
Guidance and direction, support and encouragement
Counselling - need to see value and relevance of the Topics
Career guidance

Methodology
Excursion/field trips
Case studies, stories

SCI
Sara makes a smokeless stove


1.4 Urbanisation and Environmental Sanitation

CT, PS, CRT, AS



Senior 1 (13 to 15 years)

SECTION E:
FOOD AND NUTRITION

Characteristics
Growing up very rapidly
Physiological changes (e.g. menstruation)

Needs
Students to understand/appreciate body nutrition needs
Importance of and appreciation of food groups
Broaden/widen their perception of the world view
Equal access to food (boys and girls)

Methodology
Display of different food types
Guided discussions
Case studies

CRC
Equal access to food
Article


1.0 Food and nutrition (concept)

DM, CRT




1.1 Food stuffs





1.2 Staple food





2.0 Food path (concept)




Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)



Characteristics
Boys have enhanced appetites
Some girls are conscious about their figures and so, do not want to eat
Both boys and girls are easily influenced by what media (TV, films, magazines) portray as fashionable

Needs
Appreciate that different groups have different nutritional requirements
Nutritional needs according to sex and age
Appreciate the need to diversify food

Methodology
Case studies
Role plays
Site visits - markets, ‘Mwana Mugimu,’ etc. Child responsibilities (about food wastage, etc.)

CRC
Right of access to food, etc.
Article 27, 2b

SCI
Improvise a story


3.0 Food security

DM, PS




4.0 Basic nutrition requirements

CT, PR




5.0 Food composition and consumption

CT, EC, SA




6.0 Malnutrition

CRT, DM, AS




6.1 Nutritional deficiencies

CRT, DM, AS




6.2 Over- and under-nutrition

CRT, DM, AS




6.3 Food fadism and taboos

CRT, DM, AS




6.4 Growth monitoring

CRT, DM, AS



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

FOOD AND NUTRITION
Continued

Characteristics
Girls are more involved in food handling and preparation
Involvement in farming practices, harvesting
Often wasteful of food

Needs
Equal (boy - girl) participation in domestic chores
Attitude change towards domestic chores

Methodology
Role plays
Child responsibilities about food wastage, etc.
Case studies, stories
Group discussions

Child Rights Convention (CRC)
Article 27, 2b

SCI
Stories’ improvisation
Meena Initiative - “amount of food”


7.0 Food preparation

CT, CRT




8.0 Food for special groups

CT, CRT




9.0 Food preservation

CRT, DM



Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)

FOOD AND NUTRITION
Continued


Characteristics
Make choices of food according to fashion, appearance and not nutritional value or content
Not conscious of nutritional requirements for different categories of people

Needs
Girls’ figure-watching vis-a-vis nutritional need
Bodies - with heavy food demands - need to take care of what they eat (Caution: Junk food)

Methodology
Stories, true life experiences, testimonies
Discussions
Child responsibilities about food shortage

CRC
Article 27, 2b

SCI


10.0 Food additives

CRT, SA




11.0 Food for special groups

CT, CRT




12.0 Planning meals

CRT, PS, DM



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION F:
FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS

Characteristics
Prone to comparing own home to those of peers
Mental picture of desired home
Easily pushed down into
Look for exemplary behaviour in parents and adults
Forming habits, values and beliefs
Great peer influence

Needs
Gender rules and stereotypes
Appreciation of ‘own’ family environment members
Skills to cope with the immediate and wider world... Conflicting values, etc.
Need protection, loving environment
Appreciate self - identity, values, beliefs

Methodology
Testimonies
Role plays
Case studies - posters, picture codes

CRC
Right to grow up in protected environment, etc.
Articles 5, 6, 9, 10.2

Sara Communication Initiative (SCI)

Meena Communication Initiative (MCI)


1.0 Family structure

IR, SA, NG, CT, CE, CS, EM, EC, CR



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS
Continued

Characteristics
To improve ‘manhood’, ‘womanhood’
Moving away from family circles to peer groups
Easily taken up with fantasy
High appreciation

Needs
Answers to their questions
Sort out myths and misconceptions, focussed expectations
Freedom, peer formation - need understanding adults
Guidance, counselling, love and affection

Methodology
Stories - fantasies of the youth vs reality, career and role models
Case studies, testimonies
Role plays, scenarios

CRC
Articles 13, 14, 15, 16

SCI
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

2.0 Growth and Development

CT, SA, IR, DM




2.1 Adolescence and puberty

PR, PS, CR




2.2 Culture and adolescence

CRT, AS




3.0 Juvenile deliquency

CR, CS



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS
Continued

Characteristics
Sensitive and easily breaks down emotionally
Prone to mental stress
Seek for perfect associations

Needs
To appreciate reality vis-a-vis utopia
Character building - concretisation of own principles, values and beliefs
Pursuit of a dream - career, own goals, etc.
Need skills to persevere
Security and understanding

Methodology
Research findings, newspaper excerpts
Case studies, testimonies
Stories, talk shows

CRC
Article 19
Law on Child Defilement (Penal Code)


4.0 Abnormal family

IR, EC, NG, CR




4.1 Cultural factors

DM




4.2 Effects of abnormal family relationship

CE, CS, SA




4.3 Prevention and treatment

PS



Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)

FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS
Continued

Characteristics
Sexually active
Dream about making homes and having babies
Prone to unwanted pregnancy
Risk-takers, prone to infection that could affect baby if one became pregnant

Needs
Correct information about dangers of adolescent pregnancy and death
Awareness of causes of child deaths

Methodology
Case study
Research and projects
Group discussions

CRC
Article 24


4.2 Common causes of child deaths

DM, CT




4.3 Prevention of child deaths




Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

SECTION G:
MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

Characteristics
Getting closer to the opposite sex than own
Sexually active
Daring and risk-takers
Fanatical about religious or traditional beliefs

Needs
Access to adolescent counselling and reproductive services
Guidance into responsible sexual behaviour, choices and positive attitudes
Demystification of traditional myths, beliefs and values
Access to correct information about pregnancy/abortion and the risks of becoming child-mothers

Methodology
Group discussions
Informational - illustrations
Case studies
Films, video - right for girls to remain in school even if pregnant
Talk shows

CRC
Articles 34, 35
Article 28, 1e
Article 28, 2
Article 29, 1a

SCI
Sara waits/abstains


1.0 Maternal and child welfare





2.0 Pre-natal, antenatal, post-natal





2.1 Pre-natal

CE, PS, SA, NG, DM




2.2 Pregnancy (ante-natal)

SA




2.3 Pregnancy (natal)

EM, CT, PS




2.4 Pregnancy (post-natal)

CE, EM




2.5 Family planning (Population Policy)

CT, AS, NG




2.6 Reproductive health




Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH
Continued

Characteristics
Obsessed with beauty through directing or starvation
Non-selective about foods - eat plenty of sweets
Prone to peer pressure to belong to a certain class - “slim”, tall, etc.
Conscious about self-image, appearance

Needs
Demystification of traditional myths, beliefs and values
Guidance in responsible sexual behaviour - choices and attitudes
Girl children need protection from exploitation, manipulation and sexual abuse
Guidance into self-appreciation

Methodology
Law, films - “Consequences”, “More time”, “Making choices”
Case studies, stories
Talk shows

Child Rights Convention (CRC)
Article 34, a, b, c

SCI
FGM


3.0 Maternal and child nutrition

DM, PS, CT




3.1 Child nutrition

CRT, SA




3.2 Maternal nutrition

CT, EM, CS, CE




4.0 Maternal and child death

CT, PS, SA, PR




4.1 Common causes of maternal deaths




Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION H:
IMMUNISATION

Characteristics
No time to elaborate things
Enjoy short-cuts
No reason for “drug” if not sick
Take things and life for granted

Needs
Broadening of own perspectives and world view

Methodology
Informational - illustrations
Charts, picture codes
Case studies
Role plays

CRC
Articles 24,1; 24, 2c; 24, 2f; 24, 3

SCI


1.0 Immunity

Cl




1.1 Uses and advantages

DM, PS




3.0 Immunisable diseases

SA, DM




4.0 Immunisation schedule

SA, DM
* tetanus injections for girls who begin menstruation



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

IMMUNISATION
Continued

Characteristics
Sexually active
Daring, ready to take risks
Mixing freely with others

Needs
Stop people taking short-cuts - people should take pains to do the right thing
To be responsible to go the whole way to ensure health

Methodology
Case studies
Visual aids (immunisation cards, etc.)


2.0 Vaccine and Immunisation

DM




5.0 Immunisation and Travel




Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION I:
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Characteristics
Broadening of horizons, to increase awareness of the wider society
Often careless about hygiene
Stage at which they themselves can be vulnerable

Needs
Need to participate in solving problems within the home
Basic principles and values of hygiene

Methodology
Field visits
Group discussions
Role plays, charts and pictures
Guest speakers, health kits, (stories), etc.

CRC
Articles 24, 1; 24, 2; 24, 2f

SCI


1.0 Diseases

CT




3.0 Immunisable diseases

CT, DM, SA




6.0 Contagious diseases

CT, DM, SA, PS




8.0 Diarrhoeal diseases

DM, SA, CT, PS



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
Continued

Characteristics
Carefree, since they have left Senior One
Developing sexual consciousness
Friendship formation with the opposite sex
Strong peer influences, share habits and things
Involved in domestic chores at home hence, need relevant information, skills and attitudes
Need to develop/identify personality and individual convictions

Needs
Need awareness and guidance, counselling

Methodology
Films - “Consequences”, “More Time”
Informational - talks, guest speakers and illustrations
Health kits
Role plays
Group discussions

CRC
Article 24, 3

SCI
Problem-solving stories
Sara chooses to wait (abstain from sex)


2.0 Communicable diseases

CT




2.1 Sexually Transmitted diseases

SA, DM, PS




2.2 AIDS

CT, PR, EC, AS, CE, DM, EM, NG




4.0 Water related diseases

CT, DM, PS




4.1 Communicable water-borne diseases

CT, DM, PS



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
Continued

Characteristics
Higher mental appreciation
Anxious about life after school
Concerned about academic performance
Some are negligent about hygiene, detach themselves from the possibility of falling ill from these diseases

Needs
Critical thinking and problem-solving skills
To appreciate linkages (cause and effect) of diseases
Appreciate own role in the prevention of transmission of communicable diseases

Methodology
Group discussions, guided discussions
Films, video tapes - “Philly Bongoley Lutaaya”, “Consequences”, “More Time”, other AIDS films (Red Cross)
Invite PWAs (A/C)

Child Rights Convention (CRC)
Article 24, 3


5.0 Vector transmitted diseases

CT, DM, PS




7.0 Airborne diseases

CT, DM, PS




7.1 Communicable diseases

CT, DM, PS




7.2 Non-communicable diseases

CT, DM, PS




7.3 Prevention and control

CT, DM, PS



Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
Continued

Characteristics
Soon going out of school - either for long holiday or forever
Due to idleness, they are more prone to sexual activity
Anxious about future; some are discouraged after S3 exams/long vacation

Needs
Develop personal conviction
Skills to resist unsafe behaviour
Skills to analyse potentially dangerous situations and how to steer clear of them

Methodology
Guided discussion
Visits to hospitals/health facilities
Films, video tapes - “Philly Bongoley Lutaaya”, “Consequences”, AMREF materials
Projects
Invite PWAs (A/C)


2.1 STDs

CT, SA, DM, PS, PR, AS




2.2 AIDS

CT, PR, EC, AS, CE, DM, EM, NG



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

SECTION J:
NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Characteristics
Sensitive - conscious about sizes and shapes, figures and weight
Anxious about relationships, careers, academics
Have unrealistic, ambitious goals, expectations (from the world, friends and themselves)
Indescriminate reading (magazines, films, etc.)

Methodology
Testimonials, stories
Case studies, newspapers (Women’s Vision)
Group discussions
Films
Projects about the topic

Child Rights Convention (CRC)
Article 27, 1

SCI


1.0 Concept

CT




1.1 Malnutrition

CT




1.2 Deficiency diseases

PS, DS, SA




1.3 Over-nutrition (obesity)

DM, AS, CT, PR




5.0 Hyper-tension

CT, DM, SA, CE




6.0 Ulcers

SA, CS



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)



Characteristics
High expectation of life; youth do not think about death (“too young to die”)
Tendency to under-estimate the consequences of illness

Needs
Skills to cope with the realities (hence, negligence) about treatment

Methodology
Life experiences, testimonies
Group discussions
Case studies

CRC
Articles 27, 1; 24, 2c

SCI


3.0 Allergies





3.1 Effects and management of allergies

CT, PS, SA




4.0 Diabetes





4.1 Common forms of diabetes

DM, PS, SA




4.2 Effects and management of diabetes

CT, CS, PS, EM, CE



Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)



Characteristics
Youth to accept that these things can happen to anyone - learn to handle them
Sensitive - if with defect, it influences self-esteem, feel rejected

Needs
Need to look beyond physical beauty
Acceptance, understanding, counselling

Methodology
Case studies, life experiences, testimonies
Group discussions

CRC
Articles 27, 1; 24, 2c

SCI - develop story


2.0 Inherited abnormalities

SA, EM, FF, IR




2.1 Causes, signs and symptoms

AS, SE




2.2 Prevention and treatment

CT



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION K:
MENTAL HEALTH

Characteristics
Ignorance about mental illness
Superstitions often put forward as explanations
Impressionable - not formed beliefs, values and convictions
In face of difficulties and problems, they fall back to family beliefs

Needs
Need to empathise with the mentally ill

Methodology
Real-life situations
Guest speakers, resource persons (Doctors, Psychiatrists)
Training in use of leisure, recreation

CRC
Articles 23, 1; 24, 3

SCI
Case studies


1.0 Concept of mental health

CT, SA, CS, CE




1.1 Stress

EM, IR, EC, FF




1.2 Types/conditions; signs and symptoms; causes and effects

EM, IR, EC, FF



Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)

MENTAL HEALTH
Continued

Characteristics
Anxious about sexual performance
Conflicts between their dreams and the reality
Volatile, want independence
Other specific traits - too bright, cannot cope
Adult-adolescent relationships not ideal, often in conflict

Needs
To learn to face reality

Methodology
Case studies
Guest speakers, resource persons
Guided and informal group discussions
Testimonials

CRC
Articles 23, 1; 23, 2; 24, 3

SCI
Create a story


2.0





3.0 Neurotic illnesses

CT, SA, CS




4.0 Organic psychotic illnesses

CE, EM, IR




5.0 Psychological disorders

EC, FF, PS




6.0 Alcoholism and drug abuse

PS, CR




7.0 Mental disorders with old age

PS, CR




8.0 Sexual disorders

PS, CR




9.0 Mental disorders

PS, CR




10.0 Mental disorders in childhood and adolescence





10.1 Causes, effects, prevention





11.0 Mental disorders associated with AIDS





12.0 Homicide, suicide, attempted suicide





13.0 Legal, Social aspects of mental disorders




Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION L:
ORAL HEALTH

Characteristics
Age-group is a habit-forming stage
Still tied to cultural-background relationship, norms and taboos
Swaying between peer influence and sibling ties, cultural
Vulnerable
Cultural myths and misconceptions still strong on ‘false teeth’

Needs
Guidance on how to care for their mouths
To be able to cope with peer influence
To select cultural practices which will not affect their teeth

Methodology
Informational - practicals, demonstrations (i.e. tooth brushing)
Experiences (sharing life experiences)
Case studies

CRC
Articles 23; 24

SCI
Research (domestic)


1.0 Concept

CT




1.1 The mouth

CT, SA




1.2 Care of the mouth

DM, SA




2.0 Cultural practices

DM, SA




3.0 Effects of poor health care

CT, AS, PR, PS



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

ORAL HEALTH
Continued

Characteristics
Eat indiscriminately, active and do not concentrate on real issues
Strong peer influences, need to identify and belong

Needs
Guidance on types of food to eat

Methodology
Stories
Projects
Case studies, testimonies

CRC
Articles 23; 24

SCI
Develop story


4.0 Diet and oral health

CT, DM, PS




5.0 Drugs and oral health

PR, EC, SA



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION M:
ESSENTIAL DRUGS

Characteristics
Not keen on medication hence, take under/improper dosage
Information obtained from unauthentic sources
Have misconceptions about drugs

Methodology
Field visits to observe storage
Resource persons
Case studies
Testimonies, life experiences
Guided discussions

CRC
Articles 23; 24


1.0 Concept of essential drugs

CT




1.1 Sources of essential drugs

DM, AS, PS, CR, PR




2.1 Drug use and doses

CT, PS




3.5 Storage




Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)



Characteristics
Still impressionable and have not formed own convictions

Methodology
Resource persons
Case studies
Group discussions

CRC
Articles 3; 24


2.3 Drug storage and labels

DM, PS, Cl




3.0 Traditional drugs

CT, PR




3.1 Names of drugs

CT, DM




3.2 Diseases cured by traditional drugs

CT, DM




3.3 Sources of traditional drugs

CT, AS, CRT




3.4 Uses and doses




Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)



Characteristics
Peer influences
Have a tendency to underestimate the consequences of misuse
Still experimental

Methodology
Group discussions
Guest speakers, guided discussion
True life experiences

CRC
Article 24


2.0 Pharmaceutical drugs

CT, PR, DM, PS




2.4 Drug abuse/misuse

SA



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION N:
ACCIDENTS AND FIRST AID

Characteristics
Adventurous
Lack of information, can be careless
Active - prone to accidents
Experimentation, exploration, curiosity, questioning, looking for answers (cause and effect)

Methodology
Demonstrations, discussions and life experiences
Guest lecturers

CRC
Article 24


1.0 Accidents and first aid. What it is

CT, PR, EC




2.0 Poisoning

PR, PS




3.0 Snakes and snake bites

PS, AS




4.0 Bites and stings

PS, AS




4.1 Animal bites





4.2 Common insect bites





5.0 Burns and scalds




Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

ACCIDENTS AND FIRST AID
Continued

Characteristics
Adventurous (games quite risky, e.g. climbing trees)
Lack of information, can be careless
Active - prone to accidents
Experimentation, exploration, curiosity, questioning, looking for answers (cause and effect)

Needs
Personal and environmental hygiene, and the relationship between the two
Engaged in practicals, need to take care Involved in domestic chores

Methodology
Practicals, observation in the environment
Demonstrations (for first aid)
Resource persons
Field visits e.g. to health centres/facilities
Group discussions

CRC
Article 24


4.3 Ticks and spiders

CT, PS




4.4 Scorpions and centipedes

CT, PS, DM, AS




5.1 Special types of burns

CT, PS, EM




6.0 Traffic accidents

AS




7.0 Wounds and cuts

CT, PS, EC



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

ACCIDENTS AND FIRST AID
Continued


Characteristics
Sensitive age group - disappointment can easily lead to shock (i.e. relationship fantasies)
Youth sexually active

Needs
Need to be aware of HIV/AIDS, since injuries are common
Differentiate from normal period discharge from bleeding

Methodology
Demonstration, group/class discussions
Case studies
Role plays

CRC
Article 24

SCI
Develop story


8.0 Drowning and near drowning

DM, AS, PR




9.0 Shock

PS, DM, CE




10.0 Bleeding

PS, CT, CE, SA



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION O:
ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM


Characteristics
Experimental stage hence, need guidance (i.e. groups trials)
Many are surrounded by alcohol brewers
Surrounded by people that have abused alcohol, living with alcoholics

Needs
Knowledge on effects before starting a habit

Methodology
Group discussions
Role plays
Testimonies, life experiences
Stories, counselling

CRC
Article 24

SCI


1.0 Alcohol

CT, DM




1.1 Types

CT, DM, PR, AS




1.2 Use(s)

PS, CRT, CE, CS



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM
Continued

Characteristics
No solid convictions yet (values, beliefs, etc.)
The habits Victims of certain environments

Needs
Living in environments conducive to starting the habits
Identity - desire to identify

Methodology
Group discussions
Role plays
Testimonies, life experiences
Stories, counselling

CRC
Article 24

SCI


1.3 Short term effects

CT, DM, PR, SA




2.0 Alcoholism





2.1 Causes and effects of alcoholism

PS, CE, CS, NG




2.2 Long term effects




Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM
Continued

Characteristics
Experimental age group
The habits
Victims of certain environments

Needs
Identity - desire to identify
No solid convictions yet (values, beliefs, etc.)
Living in environments conducive to starting the habits

Methodology
Group discussions
Role plays
Testimonies, life experiences
Stories, counselling

CRC
Article 24

SCI


1.0 Alcohol

CT, DM, PR, SA




2.3 Treatment and prevention




Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)

ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM
Continued

Characteristics
About to get out of school system (rules, protection)
Feel a big degree of untampered-with freedom
Strong group/peer influences (group, behaviour)

Needs
Want to become ‘adult’
Want to be recognised

Methodology
Guest speaker from a law court, enforcer
Group discussion
Role plays
Testimonies, life experiences
Stories, counselling

CRC
Article 24

SCI


3.0 Alcohol and the Law

CT, SA, DM, PR




3.1 Liquor law





3.2 Other laws pertaining to alcohol





3.3 Shortcomings of law




Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

SECTION P:
SMOKING

Characteristics
Critical stage for habit formation
Exploration/experimental stage
Peer influence
Body changes - emotional, physiological
Anxious to become ‘adult’
Emulating role models (film stars, etc.)

Needs
Want to look mature, sophisticated and independent
Want to associate with their peers
Need life skills on this habit

Methodology
Testimonies, true stories
Experiments
Case studies
Role plays
Talk shows
Guest speakers - medics
Films - effects of smoking
Demonstrations

CRC
Articles 33; 14

SCI
Create a story


1.0 Tobacco





1.1 Composition of tobacco

PR, CE, CS




2.0 Different ways of using tobacco

DM, CR




3.0 Reasons for smoking

SA, AS




3.1 Smoking as a habit

SE




4.0 Effects of smoking on a human body





4.1 Active and passive smoking





5.0 Characteristics of smokers





5.1 Drinking of alcohol and smoking





6.0 How to avoid/stop smoking





6.1 Campaign against smoking

CT



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

SECTION Q:
DRUG DEPENDENCE

Characteristics
Very adventurous/experimental
In search of an identity (group)
Body changes - emotional, physical

Needs
Knowledge on effects of drug dependence and addiction

Methodology
Resource persons
Case studies
Group discussions

CRC
Articles 33; 34

SCI


1.0 Drugs, dependence and addictions

SA, CT, SE




2.0 Causes of drug dependence

DM, PR, AS, CS, CE, EC



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)



Characteristics
Very adventurous/experimental
In search of an identity (group)
Body changes - emotional, physical

Needs
Skills to avoid drug dependence

Methodology
Resource persons
Case studies
Group discussions

CRC
Articles 33; 34; 3, 24

SCI
Develop a story


3.0 Drugs of dependence

CE, PR, SA




4.0 Consequences of drug dependence

SE, SA




5.0 Treatment of drug dependence





6.0 Prevention of drug dependence




Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)



Characteristics
Getting on into the world, and may be tempted to traffic drugs (mainly about drug trafficking)
Daring and risk-taking age group

Methodology
Group discussions
Guest lecturers
Case studies
Talk shows
Films and videos

CRC
Article 33


7.0 Drug trafficking

CT, DM, AS




8.0 Drug dependence and the law

PR, FF, CR




9.0 International cooperation

CR, NG



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

SECTION R:
TRADITIONAL AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS

Characteristics
Most vulnerable and impressionable by cultural institutions and systems
Age group, in search of identity

Methodology
Group discussions
Focus group discussions

CRC
Articles 5; 9; 10, 2; 24, 3

SCI


1.0 Traditional belief

CT, AS, SA



1.1 Trade beliefs that promote health

DM




1.2 Traditional belief harmful to health

PR



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

TRADITIONAL AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
Continued

Characteristics
Age for cultural rites and passage
Very impressionable in terms of spiritual beliefs - heavy peer influence
In search of meaning

Methodology
Group discussions
Case studies (diverse)
Role plays (diverse)

CRC
Article 24, 2

SCI
Female genital mutilation (FGM)

2.0 Religious beliefs

CT



2.1 Religious belief that promote health

AS, CT, PR, SA




2.2 Religious beliefs that are harmful to health

AS, CT, PR, SA



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION S:
BODY SYSTEMS

Characteristics
Take life for granted, ignorance of the body system

Needs
Understand themselves
Understand what happens within themselves

Methodology
Informational - illustrations
Demonstrations
Guest lecturers
Visual aids (health kits)
Video tapes


1.0 Body systems

SA, CT




2.0 Circulatory system

SA, CT




2.1 The heart

SA, CT




2.2 The blood vessels

SA, CT




2.3 Blood

SA, CT




2.4 Lymphatic system

SA, CT




2.5 Health aspects

SA, CT




4.0 Digestive system

SA, CT




4.1 The food canal

SA, CT




4.1 Teeth

SA, CT




4.3 Enzymes

SA, CT




4.4 Health aspects

SA, CT



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

BODY SYSTEMS
Continued

Characteristics
Very active

Needs
Need to appreciate body systems and surrounding environment - body postures, reading habits, etc.

Methodology
Informational - illustrations
Experiments
Visual aids (skeleton models, plastic models of body parts, health kits)
Films, video tapes
Interactive methods


5.0 Excretory systems

SA, CT




5.1 The kidneys

SA, CT




5.2 The skin

SA, CT




5.3 The lungs

SA, CT




5.4 Health aspects

SA, CT




1.0 Musculo-skeletal system

SA, CT




1.1 The none tissue

SA, CT




1.2 The axil skeleton

SA, CT




1.3 The appendicular skeleton

SA, CT




1.4 Joints

SA, CT




1.5 The muscle

SA, CT




1.6 Health aspects

SA, CT



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)



Characteristics
Need to have positive attitudes, names for body parts
Pressure of sexual expression/practice

Needs
Personal hygiene for sexual parts
Girls need to know their anatomy
Need access to health services
Sexual pressures and habits (e.g. masturbation for both sexes)

Methodology
Talk shows, films and videos
Focus group
Law - sex and defilement

CRC
Children till the age 18

SCI
Choosing to wait


3.0 Respiratory systems





3.1 Lungs

CT, SA




3.2 Tissue respiration

DM




3.3 Health aspects

PR




6.0 Reproductive systems

SE




6.1 Male reproductive system





6.2 Female reproductive system





6.3 Health aspects




Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)

BODY SYSTEMS
Continued

Characteristics
Body transition from the familiar ‘child’ body to ‘grown-up’ adult
Peer influences and competition
Myths and misconceptions, predominant notions
Anxious to be adults

Needs
Knowledge and understanding of themselves

Methodology
Talk shows, films and videos
Focus group
Law - sex and defilement

CRC
Children till the age 18

SCI
Choosing to wait


8.0 Endocrine





8.1 Endocrine glands

CT, SA




8.2 Hormones

SE




8.3 Health aspects

CE, CS




7.0 Nervous system

PR




7.1 Structure and function of nervous system





7.3 Reproductive health




Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

SECTION T:
HEALTH-SERVICES IN UGANDA

Characteristics
Broadening consciousness of wider world
Some are in need of health services and facilities
Some are responsible for younger siblings at home

Needs
Need to know where to go for help, and access to services (and reproductive health)
Need to value health facilities
Information so as to make referrals

Methodology
Guest speakers, talks
Question-answer discussions
Informational/content
Research of health services available in their localities

CRC
Articles 17, a; 24, 1

1.0 Health services

IR




2.0 Decline of health services





4.0 Recovery of health services

CT




5.0 Current organization

CRT




5.1 International organizations





5.2 Local authorities





5.3 Health care delivery systems





5.4 Multi-sectoral collaboration