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close this bookLife Skills for Young Ugandans- Secondary Teachers' Training Manual (UNICEF, 254 p.)
close this folderSection Four: Sample Activities
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHEALTH
View the documentWATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
View the documentFAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS
View the documentCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES
View the documentORAL HEALTH
View the documentSMOKING
View the documentDRUG ABUSE

(introduction...)

Part One of this section provides an introductory unit on health in which a few activities are provided and suggestions are given as to how to begin integrating the Sara Communication Initiative and Children’s Rights issues into the training programme from the outset. Part Two then provides sample lesson formats for some of the units, in line with the analysis of the syllabus in Section Three which include the suggested lifeskills based on the general characteristics and needs of the learners.

Each activity has been prepared with emphasis on life skills education through interactive/participatory methodology. The activities have also taken into account the rights of children in Uganda, the needs of the Ugandan girl child and gender issues.

General Objectives

1. To introduce the students to a broad concept of health which includes the interaction between environment, community and the individual and the role of life skills in promoting health.

2. To integrate the Sara Communication Initiative (SCI) and Children’s Rights issues into Health and other courses.

HEALTH

Introduction

The WHO definition of health states that... “health is a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity..”

This section addresses health in all its diversity. The students are at a stage of transition and experiencing many physiological, mental, psychological, social and spiritual changes. As a result their characteristics and needs are changing also and unless they are addressed, it can lead to confusion and internal conflicts. This section gives a variety of suggestions on how to address their needs while, at the same time, fullfiling the syllabus requrements.

Details of characteristics and needs of the students are contained in the table on page in the manual.

TOPIC

CONCEPT OF HEALTH

Objectives

By the end of the topic students should be able to:

1. Explain the meaning of health in relation to their social, physical, mental and spiritual environment.

2. Demonstrate an awareness of their health and how to promote it.

3. Put into practice critical thinking skills in making health realted decisions.

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, decision making, critical thinking.

Materials

Handouts containing pictures and descriptions of the four characters, case studies.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the students into groups and ask them to read the handout and discuss the questions below.

(i) Who is more healthy and why?
(ii) How could each character improve her/his health?
(iii) What factors lie within the control of each character and what factors do not?

2. Groups present their answers to the whole class for discussion.

Learning Points

Some definitions of Health

· Health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and not simply the absence of disease or infirmity. (WHO, 1964).

· Our bodies are very complicated structures made of many parts each with its job. As long as each part performs its job correctly, at the right time, we are healthy. (School Health Text 1984).

· A process of adaptation... the ability to adapt to changing environments, to growing up and ageing, to healing when damaged, to suffering and to the peaceful expectation of death. (Illich 1976).

Hints

· The aim of the first activity is to evaluate the perspectives from which the students view health in its broadest sense and to use the examples to build on that knowledge. Therefore, the tutor should bring out issues of mental, social and spiritual health if the students fail to do so.

· Summary table of health characteristics.

Character

Social

Mental

Physical

Spiritual

Mr. Kizito

Womaniser
Rich
Drinks a lot

Commanding/ bully

Fights
Bad eating habits
Fat with big stomach

Religious?

Mrs Kaggwa

Widow
Poor
Peasant farmer

Badly dressed

Religious

(complete the table)

· To avoid repetition, each group should report one major point as they go around the class (refer to section of dealing with large classes).

· Tutors should bring out issues of mental, social, spiritual and physical health if the students

Extension Activities

1. Ask students to work in their groups to define health and what is needed in order to maintain good health.

2. What advice would you give to each of the four characters?

Picture 1:

Mr Kizito: He is a fat man, obviously rich wearing expensive clothes. Although he is fairly old, a young woman is hanging on to his arm.

Description:

Mr Kizito is 45 years old and he works in a parastatal. He is rich and lives with his family in a big house he has built just outside Kampala. In the morning he has no breakfast but when he gets to work he orders some welt salted mchomo which he eats while he reads the newspaper. In the afternoon he usually has a leg of chicken and one beer. In the evening he drops into the local bar for ‘a few beers’ and discussion before going home. Sometimes he takes another girl but he insists on wearing a condom. On Sundays he goes to church and tries to stay with his family the whole day. At work, Mr Kizito is not popular because he always like to command the other workers. He has even been known to hit one of them.



Picture 2:

Mrs Kaggwa: She is a peasant woman wearing a long colourless dress and a headscarf. She is not wearing shoes.

Description:

Her husband was killed during the liberation war. She has a small farm of bananas, sweet potatoes, beans and green vegetables. She has four children who all go to school. Although Mrs Kaggwa works very hard, the children have a sweet potato before going to school and then the main meal is in the evening. In the middle of the day they cannot eat.

The family eats green vegetables every day but Mrs Kaggwa keeps a few hens so that they can eat chicken on Sundays after going to church. She feels very lonely and abandoned without her husband. She gets her strength from her faith in God and her faith in her children who are all doing well at school.



Picture 3:

Mr Okello. About thirty years old, well dressed and thin.

Description:

He is the LC1 in his village. He used to work hard for the village but he has changed recently, since he believes that he has not received recognition for all the hard work he does. So he has taken to pocketing some of the village contributions for himself. He doesn’t drink but, ever since he was in the liberation war he has been smoking 20 cigarettes a day. Recently he divorced his wife and married a young girl in the village.



Picture 4:

Martina: She is dressed in a secondary school uniform. She looks very smart.

Description:

Martina is in S3. She is one of the best students in the class and everyone expects her to go to high school. She hates boys and refuses to go to any dances or other social activities. She spends all her time with the books. Maybe one reason why she hates boys is that she has a twisted leg which makes her feel that she looks ugly and so she is afraid that all the boys are laughing at her.


Picture 1


Picture 2


Picture 3


Picture 4

ACTIVITY THREE

HOW DO I REMAIN HEALTHY?

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Explain the meaning of health in relation to their social and physical environment.
2. Demonstrate the ability to think creatively in making decisions relating to their health.
3. Identify and analyse factors in their environment that currently affect their personal health.

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, decision making, creative thinking

Materials

Case studies for role plays, large sheets of paper, markers.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Students brainstorm on all the factors in the physical and social environment that affect health.

2. In the same groups as in the previous activity, students analyse which factors lie outside their control (NC), which they can partly control (PC) and which they have a great amount of control over (LC).

3. Tutor explains that life skills are those skills that enable individuals to have more control over their health and their lives.

4. In groups, students prepare role plays on the following situations (one for each group).

(i) Paulina is in S2. She was Richard’s girlfriend for one year before agreeing to have sex with him when she realised that Richard was going out with one of her friends. Now she is pregnant with Richard’s baby. He is in S4. She goes to confront him.

(ii) Kato has been rejected by his girl friend, Rose, because he drinks too much. As a result, he starts drinking even more. He meets Rose on the road and tries to convince her forcibly to come back to him.

(iii) Mariamu is in S3. She comes from a poor family and has been going to discos every weekend in the hope of finding men to give her money. Her best lover was a 45 year old manager. She meets him on the street and he is very thin and obviously very ill.

(iv) Atieno left school in P7 to get married to a rich young man in the village who paid a big bride price to her father. She was soon pregnant. On her last visit to the clinic she was told that because she is still very young, she is in danger of losing her baby. She goes home to tell her husband (and her/his parents).

5. For each of these role plays, the students should discuss the following:

(i) What are the health or health related problems outlined?
(ii) To what extent are the problems caused by the situations in which they live?
(iii) What measures could they have taken to avoid their problems?
(iv) What life skills will be needed by each of the characters in order to improve their health and/or behaviour.

Learning Points

· A health problem is the actual illness e.g. malaria.

· A health related problem is an adverse/undesirable situation which, if not prevented or dealt with effectively will lead to actual illness e.g. in an under-five child, shortage of an adequate balanced diet is a health related problem.

· Clarify physical, mental, social and spiritual well being and the relationship between them.

Hints

· Each role play should not be more than 5 minutes. The aim is to start the students thinking themselves into the situations, not produce full dramas.

· Ensure that the classroom discussion focuses on all aspects of health and is open.

· You should be aware of the diversity of opinions and help students accommodate varying and divergent views.

· Focus on helping students internalise what they would do in that situation.

Extension Activity

1. Groups develop plays around the situations they role played, for later presentation to the class/college/community.

TOPIC

HEALTH AND GENDER

ACTIVITY ONE

WHO IS MORE AFFECTED?

Objectives

By the end of this activity, the students should be able to:

1. Identify differences in health problems facing men and women and reasons for them.

2. Explain their own feelings concerning gender roles and how they are changing/may change.

3. Take steps to address current imbalances in their own lives and environment.

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, creative thinking, empathy.

Materials

Questionnaires, large sheets of paper, markers, handouts.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Hand out the following questionnaire. Each student places their answer on a scale of 1 to 5. 5 means that they fully agree and 1 means that they don’t agree at all.

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

(i)

Boys are stronger than girls.

1

2

3

4

5

(ii)

Cooking is a girl’s job.

1

2

3

4

5

(iii)

Girls don’t have time to study because of all their chores.

1

2

3

4

5

(iv)

Girls wake up before boys.

1

2

3

4

5

(v)

At school, girls do more work than boys.

1

2

3

4

5

(vi)

Boys are more intelligent than girls.

1

2

3

4

5

“Girls don’t have time to study because of all their chores”


Figure

“Boys are stronger than girls”


Figure

2. Each person shows her/his answers to her/his neighbour and discusses it with her/him.

3. Students divide into groups according to sex and write down the different activities they do:

· on schooldays.
· at weekends.
· in the holidays.

4. Each group presents a list of what each does.

5. Tutor asks the follow-up questions:

(i) What do we learn from these lists?
(ii) What does it tell us about the health of boys and girls?
(iii) The Convention on the Rights of the Child, it states that:

· States should ensure that no child is discriminated against on the basis of status, ethnic origin, religion, sex etc. (Article 2)

How is this relevant to the above discussion?

Learning Points

· In Uganda men are generally considered heads of families and decision making is largely dominated by them.

· There are gender disparities in access to education, economic opportunities and health care in the country.

· There is bias in favour of education for boys coupled with issues of early pregnancy resulting in the high drop-out rate of girls from school.

· There are imbalances in employment by sector and sex. Within the agriculture sector, women are the major food producers.

· Women perform most of the household chores and are concentrated in low paying jobs.

· As a basic human right, there is need to improve women status, raise the level of income of individuals and family.

· People are born female or male, but learn to be girls or boys who grow into women and men.

· They are taught what the appropriate behaviour and attitudes, role and activities are for them, and how they should relate to other people. This learned behaviour is what makes up gender identity and determines gender roles.

Hints

· Gender issues are sensitive and therefore the ground rules should be strictly observed in order to ensure that it is not just a fight between the boys and the girls.

· Help both sexes appreciate the dilemmas and choices of the opposite sex.

Extension Activities

1. Ask students to identify the gender issues that affect the health of an individual, family and community.

2. Ask students to suggest types of communication activity which promote the behaviour change towards healthy living.

ACTIVITY TWO

MRS SEMPALA IS LATE

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Identify gender stereotypes and associated health problems facing men and women.
2. Analyse their own feelings in relation to gender roles.
3. Take steps to address current gender imbalances in their lives and environment.

Life Skills to be developed

Empathy, problem solving, critical thinking

Materials

Large sheets of paper, markers

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Prepare a few students to do the role play before the class.

2. Ask the students to do the role play.


Figure

Mr Sempala is busy cleaning the house. He is carrying a baby on his back and a small child is pulling at his legs wanting something. He is obviously tired but dinner is also cooking on the fire. He talks about his problems as he works, that there may not be enough food when his wife comes home from work in the council.

After his situation is made clear, his wife returns. She is a little drunk and is angry that dinner is not ready. The children hide behind their father.


Figure

3. Students discuss in groups the following questions:

(i) What do you think about this situation?
(ii) How did you feel when you were watching the role play? Why?
(iii) What do our feelings show about how we view roles of men and women in society?
(iv) If the role play were the other way round, would we have felt differently? Why?

Learning Points

· Gender describes those characteristics of men and women which are socially determined in contrast to those which are biologically determined.

· The distinction between sex and gender is made to emphasise that most of the so-called differences in roles are socially determined.

· Many of the students’ reactions come from the way they have been socialised which leads to an unconscious gender stereotyping.

· Many aspects of division of labour change from one place to another and one time to another. For example, men do cook when it is paid employment or the food is not regarded as traditional (such as roast meat and chips).

More learning points

· Women and men must be given equal opportunity at all levels of health and development activities because it is both a matter of justice and a recipe for faster development.

· We usually see contradictions when we are asked to play another person’s role. Women often carry more of a burden than we think.

· Health is not only the absence of disease or informity. Mental health can be affected by the way society views and treats us.

Hints

· Gender roles are very sensitive and therefore ground rules should be strictly observed.
· Avoid reinforcing stereotypes of men and women.
· Be aware of your own, as well as your students’ assumptions about gender.
· Students may think there is one right answer and wait to know your own personal stance. Be objective and facilitate open discussion rather than providing your own opinions early on.

Extension Activity

1. Students read the dialogue from the beginning of The Special Gift:

IN THE COUNTRYSIDE NEAR A SMALL TOWN IN AFRICA THE HOT MID-DAY SUN IS BURNING FIERCELY. WOMEN AND GIRLS ARE GATHERING NEEDED FIREWOOD. SARA AND HER FRIEND AMINA. TWO SCHOOL GIRLS, HAVE COLLECTED AS MUCH FIREWOOD AS THEY CAN FIND AND ARE HEADED FOR HOME WHERE MORE WORK AWAITS THEM. SARA’S PET MONKEY, ZINGO, IS ALSO GATHERING WOOD TO HELP SARA.


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure

2. In groups, discuss how Sara and Amina could convince their relatives to allow them more time for homework.

3. Role play the discussions.

4. Plenary discussion:

(i) How did you feel trying to convince your mother/uncle?
(ii) How easy is it to do so? Why? What other methods could they have used to convince their relatives? (eg calling in another adult, the teacher etc)

TOPIC

INTRODUCING THE SARA COMMUNICATION INITIATIVE

Objectives

By the end of this topic students should be able to:

1. Explain the process of translation from knowledge to behaviour.
2. Identify and analyse factors that hinder the translation of knowledge into behaviour.
3. Introduce the Sara Communication Initiative as a role model for health promotion and development of equity and empowerment of the girl child.

ACTIVITY ONE

KEEPING THE MESSAGE

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, self-awareness.

Materials

Handouts on Sara, Amina, Juma.

Time: 30 minutes.

Procedures

1. Divide students into groups of 6 people according to their mother tongue. Ask them to stand in lines.

2. Explain to the class that this is a translation competition from English to vernacular and back to English.

3. Call a member from each group and give them the same English statement to translate.

4. S/he will then call forward the next team member and give his/her translation to him/her who has to translate it back to English. This process goes on till the last person in the group does the final translation.

5. Ask the last member of each group to write their translation on the board. After they have finished, write original message on the board too.

6. Groups discuss the following questions:

(i) How did you feel when you were doing the exercise? Was it easy or difficult? Why?
(ii) Why is translation so difficult?
(iii) What can we learn about communication from this activity?

Learning point

· Translation exercise reveals how easy it is for messages to be lost. This has implications on why people have not translated knowledge to behaviour

Hints

· If dividing class into mother tongue groups is sensitive you could form 2 groups using a language understood by all.

· Make sure that the other members of the team are far enough away not to hear the translations to earlier members in the team.


Figure


Figure

Sara handout

Sara is 14 years old. She lives with her mother and younger brothers and sisters in the compound of her uncle who is a farmer. Her father is in town where he is trying to save money to buy a farm and build a house. He sends money home for his children’s education. He is very proud of Sara because she is his first child and is doing so well in school.

Sara is determined to be a scientist in her life and she has already shown that she can be. Together with her friends, Amina and Juma, she has built a smokeless stove which has become the model for the whole village because it improves the kitchen environment by reducing the amount of smoke and also reduces the amount of time women and girls have to spend looking for firewood. She says that her aim it to be either a doctor or an animal doctor so that she can help her village in the future.


Figure

Amina handout

Amina is an orphan. Both her parents died three years ago and she lives with her sister who works in the local bar. Amina is very good at mathematics but she sometimes get discouraged at school because of her home problems. Recently she decided to go to town to look for a job as a domestic worker but she was cheated by a lorry driver and, if Juma and Sara had not arrived in time to save her, she was in danger of being raped. Since then, she helps Juma’s brother with his accounts for which he helps her with her school fees. At the same time, she has set up a health club, together with Sara in order to discuss how they can best develop their lives and health.


Figure

Juma handout

Juma lives with his parents and his elder brother Themba who drives a pick up truck. His mother also runs a shop. He is very good at languages and is one of the best footballers in the school. Some students say that he wastes his time playing football but he argues that people who are fit or who have healthy bodies can study better.

Maybe because Juma does not have a sister, he and Sara are like sister and brother and they do most of their homework together. Last year they did a joint project on the jobs done by different member’s of the family which won first prize at the school.

ACTIVITY TWO

FROM KNOWING TO DOING

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, creative thinking, self awareness and self esteem.

Materials

Handouts of Sara, Juma and Amina

Time: 30 minutes.

Procedure

1. Remind the class of what was learnt from the translation exercise.

2. Divide the class into groups and give them the handouts. Ask them to read and answer the questions that follow.

3. Discuss the groups’ answers in plenary.

4. Explain the Sara Communication Initiative to them, show them the materials and invite them to borrow the book etc.

Learning points

· These children are good examples of how to translate knowledge into practice.

· They are also good examples for student teachers that their pupils or students already have a lot of knowledge in their heads.

· Sara and her friends are to be uses as role models for students and will appear throughout the course.

Questions for group activity

(i) What picture do you get of these three children?
(ii) To what extent do you think they translate knowledge into practice?
(iii) Would you like such students to be members of your class? Why/why not?

ACTIVITY THREE

WHY DON’T WE TRANSLATE?

Time: 40 minutes.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, creative thinking, self awareness

Materials

Four cartoons on sheets of paper, large sheets of paper, markers.

Procedure

1. Divide the students into groups and give each group a set of cartoons.

2. Groups discuss the following questions:

(i) What is the message being given by the character in each cartoon?
(ii) What do you see from the character giving the message in each case?
(iii) Why do you think they are not putting their knowledge into practice?

3. Groups report back to the plenary for further discussion.

4. Wrap up the activity by saying that the main aim of life skills training is learning how to put knowledge into practice.

Learning Points

· Having knowledge does not always translate into behaviour.

· We need life skills in order to bridge the gap between what we know and how we relate. We need to first appreciate that what we know and what we learn actually has relevance to the world we live in and can therefore be applied practically.

Hints

· In case of a large group please refer to ‘dealing with large classes/groups’.

· The more the students discuss, the more they will explore factors that influence their behaviour and/or change of behaviour.

Extension activity

1. Students develop their own cartoons based on the same idea of knowledge not being translated into practice. These can be put on the classroom walls.


Cartoon One


Cartoon Two


Cartoon Three


Cartoon Four

WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

Introduction

In the unit, the students will be able to appreciate the importance of caring for and protecting water to make it safe for use as well as keeping and living in a clean environment. They need to develop life skills such as critical thinking and decision making to be able to get the best out of the environment while at the same time protecting it.

What should be taken into account when covering content is that different age groups have different characteristics and needs which have to be addressed in relation to the concepts of water and environmental sanitation.

Details of these are covered within the tables in Section Three of this manual.

TOPIC

DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY

ACTIVITY ONE

DISCUSSION ON DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Describe various ways by which water from different sources can become contaminated and how this can be avoided.

2. Discuss how water could be made safe for domestic use.

3. Use safe clean water for all their needs.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, problem solving.

Materials

Notebooks, pens, school water source, community water source.

Procedure

1. Divide the class into groups of 5-8 students.
2. Each group discusses:

· sources of domestic water.
· how water gets home from the source.
· how water is stored at home.
· possible ways by which the water may be contaminated:

(i) at the source.
(ii) at home.

· how to make water safe for domestic use.

3. Each group reports to the whole class.


Picture showing a protected spring

Learning Points

· Sources of water include wells, springs, rivers, rainwater, lakes and streams.
· Ways of water contamination, such as defecation, animals, use of dirty containers should be pointed out.

Hint

· If the groups are many, the teacher should ensure that the groups do not repeat points that are mentioned by others. This could be done by asking each group to provide one point at a time, in turn.

Extension Activity

1. Visits to different water sources.


Piped water source

ACTIVITY TWO

VISITING A COMMUNITY WATER SOURCE

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Locate a community water source.
2. Discuss the need for protecting water sources.

Life Skills to be developed

Problem solving, critical thinking.

Materials

Notebooks, pens.

Procedure

1. Teacher introduces the lesson by asking some questions about the previous lesson.
2. Teacher gives instructions about visit to the water source.
3. Class visits nearest community water source.
4. While at source, students write down:

· type of water source.
· aspects that make the water source safe or unsafe.
· ways of improving the water source.
· any other relevant comments.

5. Back at school, teacher divides the class into groups and requests each group to write a report on what they have observed during the visit.

Learning point

· Apart from water being protected, students should be able to note that human activities contribute a lot to contaminating the source and that there is a need to sensitise the community about safe water supply.

Hint

· If the water source is far from the school, the teacher may carry out the activity in a double period.

Extension Activities

1. Groups are requested to visit the school water source in their spare time and compare it with the community water source. Points to consider should be similar to those they used during the visit to the community water source.

2. During the next period the teacher requests different groups to present their reports to the rest of the class. This is followed by concluding remarks on the activity.

FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS

Introduction

A family is a group of people living together. It is the fundamental unit in society where a child is socialized right up to adulthood. Since there are many types of families, the children always have different roles and responsibilities in their family structures. The factors that promote good family relationships include practise and demonstration of love, feeling of belonging, good communication, adequate income, companionship, and equitable sharing of resources. It is important that the children understand themselves and their relationships in the families.

This section addresses the characteristics of a good family structure and a wide variety of particular skills to be developed. Details of characteristics and needs are contained on page... in the manual.

TOPIC

FAMILY STRUCTURE

ACTIVITY ONE

RELATIONSHIPS IN A FAMILY

Objectives

By the end of the activity students should be able to:

1. Name the people in their families.
2. Identify their roles and relationships in the families.
3. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of their family structures.
4. Put into practice the skills of empathy and critical thinking,

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, empathy, self awareness and self esteem.

Materials

Pieces of paper for drawing, coloured crayons or pencils, instruction sheet for drawing.

Procedure

1. Ask participants to answer the following questions.

(i) Which people do you consider to be members of your family?
(ii) How do family members relate in your family structure?
(iii) Which family members do you feel closest to? Why?

2. Ask the students to draw a diagram according to the following instructions.

(i) Draw a diagram of your family. Draw circles to represent girls/women and squares to represent boys/men. Represent yourself as a circle or square according to your sex, and colour it completely to distinguish it from the rest.

(ii) Include all the people you consider part of your family, whether they live in your household or not. They do not have to live in your household. Shade the symbols in different colours to distinguish the other members.

(iii) As you draw, distinguish the order of positions you feel you and other family members hold in your family structure.

(iv) When you have finished drawing, use loops (strings) to connect your personal symbol with two or more of the family members’ symbols. These connecting loops (strings) will illustrate how you relate in the family structure, above, below or equal.

(v) When you finish, draw a frame around the portrait. Decorate it in any way you wish.

3. Students display and explain their portraits. Ask the group to identify one or two examples of how members in your family relate in your family structure.

4. Ask the students to answer the following questions:

(i) What are the advantages and disadvantages of your family structure?
(ii) If you were able to change one thing about your family, what would you change?

5. Ask for volunteers to share their answers with the rest of the class.

6. Discuss the issues that arise with the students.

Learning points

· A family structure doesn’t necessarily consist of a father, mother and children. Many (happy) families are single parent, polygamous, include children living with stepparents, relatives etc.

· A good family structure addresses the right of a child:

“... to grow up in a peaceful, caring and secure environment, and to have the basic necessities of life, including food, health care, clothing and shelter” CRC, Article 27 Sections 1 and 2.

· A good family structure promotes appropriate direction and guidance to the child, without oppression. Article 5 of the Rights of the Child.

· Answers to 4 above could include: Father is absolute authority. Mother does not have much authority; boys are above girls; or above females (mother and daughters inclusive); mother and father together share authority and children are below; role of grandmother or uncle (etc.).

Hint

· These are sensitive issues and you should make sure that the ground rules are followed, including the right to pass.

Extension Activity

1. Ask students to write down what is important about living in a family for the next class.

ACTIVITY TWO

GIVE AND TAKE

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Practice the spirit of give and take in their families.
2. Explain children’s rights and responsibilities in the context of the family.
3. Demonstrate the skill of positive interpersonal relationships.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, interpersonal relationship.

Materials

Large sheet of paper or chalk board, three sets of paper/cards for each student.

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Distribute one card to all the students.

2. Write the phrase “give and take” on large sheets of paper and ask each participant to write down on his/her card what the phrase means.

3. Ask 4 volunteers to read out their definitions. Come to an agreement on a correct and acceptable definition.

4. Explain that “give and take” is a key element in all successful relationships but is a especially in a family.

5. Distribute another card to all the students and ask them to write down numbers from 1 to 10.

6. Ask students to fill in up to 10 ways in which they give to the family.

7. When they have finished ask them to write 1-10 on the reverse side of the card and fill in up to 10 things they get or take from their families.

8. Divide the students into groups. Each group prepares a consolidated list of what they give to and what they take from their families.

9. Write “privileges and responsibilities” on a large sheet of paper and explain that privileges are what we take from the family and responsibilities are what we give to the family.

10. Groups present their “privileges” and “responsibilities” from their consolidated lists.

Learning point

· It is important to realise that the students recognise that there are many things each person gains from her/his family.

Hints

· Point out that while some of their colleagues enjoy all these privileges, there are some families where adults are missing or are not able to provide their adolescents with all the things listed above This does not mean that the family has no value.

· Point out that though not all adolescents have all these responsibilities many of their colleagues do. They could be the responsibilities of other members of the family.

· It may be worth looking at different responses of males and females. For example it may be clear that girls actually give more than boys to the families while boys take more.

Extension activity

1. Students prepare answers to the following questions for the next lesson:

(i) How fairly are privileges divided up in your family?
(ii) Who seems to enjoy the most privileges? Why do you think so?
(iii) Who distributes the privileges?

TOPIC

FAMILY STRUCTURE

ACTIVITY

“FATIMA OVERWORKED”

Objectives

By the end of this activity, students should be able to:

1. Explain division of labour within the context of the family.
2. Explain how such a division of labour usually affects the girls adversely.
3. Explain the relevant children’s rights with regard to non-discrimination
4. Take steps to address the unequal division of labour in their own homes and communities.

Materials

Copies of the case study.

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Divide the students into groups. In this case the groups could be single sex.

2. Ask the groups to read through the case study and answer the questions that follow it. Different group members take it in turns to read aloud the parts of Sara and Fatima.

3. Group members present their answers to the plenary for discussion.

Learning Points

· Many studies now show that girls have to do far more work at home than boys and that this seriously affects their ability to study and climb the educational ladder.

· A good family should not overburden some of their members (on grounds of sex or any other criteria) with more responsibilities than they can comfortably bear. It is based on sharing and respect for all.

· The issue of culture needs to be confronted. So many cultures have changed that greater work sharing in the home is quite acceptable.

· Article 29 Section 1d, of the CRC spells out equal opportunity and treatment to a child, regardless of sex.

· While we normally refer to child labour where the child works for another person, child labour is a serious problem inside many families. Children have the responsibility to work in the home but not to the extent that it interferes with their lives. Particularly with regard to girls, the justification is that girls will have to impress their future husbands through hard labour to sustain the family income and ensure a stable marriage. Instead it leads to girls being pushed out of school and being unable to look after their children properly.

Hints

· The activity should help the adolescent develop a positive attitude towards responsibilities of household chores.

· If the response point towards few responsibilities being given to the boys, and more to the girls, the lecturer should point out that responsibility given to a child in the affairs of a family prepares them for better and more effective control over one’s life when they grow up. So both boys and girls need to be prepared.

· The lecturer could make use of the first Sara Communication Initiative (SCI) episode which is concerned with the issue of excessive work for girls.

CASE STUDY

Sara: Hey! Fatima, why were you dozing throughout the lessons today?

Fatima: I was tired.

Sara: Even during the first lesson in the morning?

Fatima: Yes.

Sara: What were you doing last night?

Fatima: A lot, starting from yesterday.

Sara: What do you mean?

Fatima: Well, in the first place when I went back home last evening, I had to fetch water two miles away, enough to keep the family going till I collect more today in the evening.

Sara: Sure?

Fatima: Yes, after which I had to gather enough firewood as well.

Sara: That’s quite some work. When do you do you homework?

Fatima: Most times I don’t. I have to prepare and serve supper, then clean the dining place and wash dishes before I finally go to bed.

Sara: I thought Selemani was your brother, doesn’t he help you?

Fatima: No. I’m told it is all the girls’ work.

Sara: I get the same comments from my uncle.

Fatima: Well, and this morning I had to dig my portion of the vegetable garden, prepare breakfast, and leave the family’s midday meal ready. Last night I went to bed around midnight and by 5 o’clock this morning, I was up again. That’s my daily bread. I am always tired.

Sara: I thought I had too much to do, but you have to do twice as much. I think we should let our teacher, Mrs Matata know about it. She may be able to guide us.

Fatima: That’s a good idea.

(i) Why is Fatima so tired? Do you think this is a common problem?

(ii) From Sara’s replies, what kind of life do you think she leads as well?

(iii) What is the effect of such a situation on Fatima’s and Sara’s chances in life?

(iv) What do you think of Selemani? Why doesn’t he help?

(v) How fairly are responsibilities divided up in your family? Who seems to have the greatest responsibilities? Why do you think that is so?

(vi) Are there responsibilities that you feel are too great for you to handle as an adolescent? If so which and why?

(vii) If you were Fatima, what would you do in this situation?

(viii) If you were Selemani what would you do?

(ix) If you were Ms Matata, how would you address the issue of fairness and culture?

TOPIC

CULTURAL AND ADOLESCENCE: CULTURAL FACTORS

ACTIVITY ONE

TALKING WITH OUR PARENTS, PART ONE

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Identify sources of poor communication in family situations and ways of overcoming them.

2. Communicate better with their parents/guardians and other adults.

Life Skills to be developed

Creative thinking, effective communication, negotiation

Materials

None

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Divide students into groups to answer the following:

(i) How much do you know about your parents/guardians when they were young? Interests/activities/aspirations in life etc.

(ii) To what extent can you talk to your parents/guardians about their past? Would they be willing to answer your questions if you asked?

(iii) Of what value would it be to you to know about your parents/guardians when they were young?

2. Groups report to the plenary for discussion.

3. Brainstorm on ways of improving child-parent communication.

4. Groups develop parent questionnaire.

5. Wrap up activity by reminding students to be very tactful in the way they ask their parents.

Learning points

· It is possible for parents and children to have healthy communication.

· Adolescence is a time of rapid changes that may lead to conflicts and confusion because they are not always understood by older people even if they had similar problems in their childhood.

· Changes in taste, fashion etc often cause conflict because many adults see them as against culture.

· The youth of today may well do the same as their parents when they grow older. It is important that we learn to communicate effectively in order not to have the same problems in the future.

Hints

· The initial group discussions will give you an insight into the kind of families your students come from. Use their responses to enrich classroom discussion.

· Deal with some of the difficult situations in an open minded way. Do not be moralistic in your responses.


Figure

Extension activity

1. Students discuss the questionnaire with their parents and feedback is given in a future lesson.

SAMPLE QUESTIONS FOR PARENTS

(i) What was being an adolescent like for you?

(ii) How did you feel when you were my age?

(iii) What did you enjoy doing when you were my age?

(iv) What responsibilities did you have in your family when you were my age?

(v) Do you think young people today have better or worse times than you did? Why?

(vi) If you could change one thing about the time when you were young?

(vii) What was your family like?

(viii) What do you like most being a parent?

(ix) What is the biggest responsibility of a parent?

(x) What advice would you give to adolescents today?

(xi) What lessons did you learn from your parents or guardians, and other adults that you try to pass on to us now?

Guidelines to participants on how to get information from their parents:

1. Find a convenient time and make an appointment with your parent, and request about 30 minutes of his/her time, on a day agreed upon.

2. Be prepared with your questions, paper and a pen or pencil, before your appointed day.

3. Explain why you are doing this exercise with your parent/guardian. There is a class activity to learn about how the world was in the time when their parents’/guardians were young and how their family members related to one another. Explain that the information will be useful in the next lesson.

4. Take notes to help you remember. Do not write everything down, but record specific answers to the questions you have prepared. You may also want to write down any especially interesting quotations.

5. At the end of the exercise with the parents, the children should thank their parents/guardians for availing them their time.

6. When they have finally established a more comfortable environment with their parents/guardians, the children should ask them what they felt about the following quotation from The Rights of the Child’, “Article 13 section 1.

“The child shall have the right to freedom of expression”

7. The children should be ready to discuss this last (No. 7) issue in their presentation of findings, to determine the course of the next activity.

ACTIVITY TWO

TALKING WITH PARENTS, PART TWO

Objectives

By the end of the activity students should be able to:

1. Identify factors that lead to poor communication between parents and children.
2. Explain differences between generations in terms of adolescence.
3. Put into practice skills of communicating effectively with parents/adults.

Life Skills to be developed

Effective communication, negotiation, creative thinking.

Materials

Students’ assignments, large sheets of paper, markers

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Ask students how they felt carying out the assignment of talking to their parents/guardians.

2. Divide the class into small groups and ask them to discuss the following questions.

(i) What was it like having to ask your parents questions?
(ii) What new information did you learn?
(iii) How did your parent/guardian feel and react about you asking them questions?
(iv) What surprised you most when you were talking with your parents/guardians.
(v) What were their comments about the rights of children?
(vi) How do you feel now having sat down and talked with them?
(vii) How do you think this will help future communication with your parents?
(viii) How would you be similar or different as a parent if you had adolescents?
(ix) Any other comments?

3. Groups report back to plenary for further discussion.

Learning Points

· The children need to know that they have something to learn from their parents. (Older generation).

· Poor communication between generations is often the source of misunderstanding since both sides think they are not understood.

· This exercise was one way of trying to improve communication and understanding. The process should continue and build on the communication established.

· Adults have a lot of experience and can be a valuable source of help and guidance which the students can make use of.

Hints

· To avoid repetition in group feedback, each group should report one major point at a time.

· The children need to be made aware that on top of rights they have responsibilities. (Refer to Section One of the manual for a list of rights and responsibilities)

· The guidelines given to students for talking to their parents should form a basis of their having better communication not only with adults but also among themselves.

ACTIVITY THREE

ASSERTIVENESS WORKS

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Explain the importance of good communication in solving problems.
2. Put into practice the skill of assertiveness (as opposed to passivity or aggression).

Life Skills to be developed

Effective communication, assertiveness

Materials

Large sheets of paper, copies of Fatima’s work schedule

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Explain to the adolescents that one way of making communication more effective is to choose the appropriate way of conveying the message in a difficult situation.

2. Read the following scenario aloud:

Fatima has been coming to school late, and always with unfinished homework. As a result, her performance is poor, but not because she is stupid. Her usual day runs like this:

5.15 am

Light fire and prepare a family’s breakfast.

5.30 am

Wash clothes, including her brother Selemani’s bedsheets because he wets his bed.

6.00 am

Dig her portion in the garden.

7.00 am

Collect water from the well, and gather firewood.

7.45 am

Prepare lunch and leave on the fire.

8.00 am

Run to school.

8.30 am

Arrive, 30 minutes late.

8.30 am

Clean toilets and pick rubbish around the school compound as a punishment for coming late to school.

2. Distribute paper to students and ask them to write down what they think Fatima should do to improve her situation?

3. Students present their answers. Write them down under the appropriate heading, PASSIVE, AGGRESSIVE or ASSERTIVE.

4. Divide the class into three groups, PASSIVE, AGGRESSIVE and ASSERTIVE according to the answers they gave. Each group discusses the following questions.

(i) How will Fatima feel within herself, after making the response you chose?

(ii) How do you think Fatima’s parents/guardians would feel if she responds the way you chose?

(iii) What is the best or worst thing that would happen if Fatima makes your response?

5. Groups report back to plenary for further discussion.

6. Use their responses to clarify the difference between passive, aggressive and assertive responses. Conclude by showing that an assertive response is usually the most appropriate and effective because it states clearly the person’s position without being antagonistic.

Learning points

· PASSIVE RESPONSE

· If you behave passively, it means you have not expressed your own needs and feelings, preferring to suffer quietly It may also mean that your attempts to express yourself have been so weakly done that your concerns will not be addressed.

· If Fatima behaves passively by not saying anything, she may develop resentment against her parents and be angry with herself. Whenever she gets to school late she may become furious, and may empty her anger on her colleagues at school, or the teachers on duty. She could end up being misunderstood both at home and at school, and may never be able to state her case, either way.

· A passive response is not usually in your best interest because it allows other people take advantage of you, and violate your rights. However, there are situations when being passive may be the best alternative at the time. Therefore, you must assess the situation at hand. If you feel it is dangerous or not very predictable, choose the most appropriate response that will keep you safest.

· AGGRESSIVE RESPONSE

· If Fatima refuses to do the work disrespectfully in a rebellious way, she may feel satisfied with herself for a moment. This may not guarantee that her response will not instigate her parents to aggresively assert their position as superior. They may exert all available force to make her submit.

· An aggressive response is never in your own or anyone else’s best interest because it usually leads to more conflict.

· ASSERTIVE RESPONSE

· When you behave in an assertive way, it means you have expressed what you want or feel, frankly but with respect without violating the other person’s rights or stepping on them.

· If Fatima asks her parents for audience and politely expresses herself with valid explanations about how she feels and suggest how her situations could be improved, she would have respected her parents, but also stated facts. Hopefully her parents will realize their unfair distribution of tasks and redress the situation. Fatima would have asserted her rights and she will feel proud about it, though there is chance that the parents may still feel offended and ignore Fatima’s concern.

· Though an assertive response has the greatest chance of success, and guarantees getting what you want without hurting others, at times it can be out of place. If tempers are high, or people concerned are depressed or hurt, being assertive may not be the best choice. Good timing must be observed when the situation is calm and conducive to dialogue.

· The major skill being fostered is ASSERTIVENESS. While Adolescents are encouraged to be assertive before their parents/guardians to defend their rights, they must be reminded that they have a responsibility to:

“Work for the cohesion of the family, to respect his/her parents [elders and other children] and to assist them” From National Council for Children - Uganda

· Adolescents must be reminded that, it takes practice, with several failures at times to acquire the skill of assertiveness - it doesn’t happen overnight.

· For assertiveness to be effective, the situation and timing must be appropriate.

· A good family is where members express themselves freely and share responsibilities, concerns and experiences fairly without overburdening a single member.

· Adolescents need to know that their parents/guardians have a responsibility of ensuring they enjoy their childhood. It is their right to be children and to develop slowly into adults. Nothing should be forced on them which is above their age. “The Rights of the child, “Article 31, Section 1.

Hints

· When you introduce the topic, keep in mind that speaking out our minds to our parents/guardians or adults is not considered the norm of most of the cultures in Uganda. The level of freedom with their parents also will vary among participants. Some will come from families in which speaking up for oneself, or refusing to carry out a task, especially from an adult or a male, is considered rude or inappropriate.

· You do not want to encourage adolescents to behave in a way that could have unpleasant consequences for them in their cultural or family circles. It is important however, for the children to know that there are situations where speaking out will yield positive results.

· You also have to note that being frank and speaking out calls for a lot of precaution on the side of the speaker.

Extension activity

1. Ask the students to respond to the following:

(i) Think of circumstances where passive communication may be safest, even if your needs may by met.

(ii) Have you ever behaved aggressively in a situation? How did it work out?

(iii) Have you ever behaved assertively in any situation? How did it work out?

(iv) When is easier, and when is it more difficult, to be assertive? Give examples.

(v) In what kind of situations do you feel you will have to act assertively?

(vi) Have you heard people getting a negative reaction when they tried to speak out assertively? Explain.

(vii) Does acting assertively always guarantee your getting your needs or wants or feelings met?

ACTIVITY FOUR

THE ROLE OF THE ADOLESCENT IN PROMOTING THE HEALTH OF THE FAMILY

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Explain how they can contribute to health in the home.
2. Demonstrate the skill of peer resistance.

Materials

Large sheets of paper, markers.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Write the following terms on the board/large sheets of paper.

· Social health
· Emotional health
· Mental health
· Physical health

2. Divide participants into groups of 4 - 6 people.

3. Assign one item to each group, and ask them to brainstorm on how they understand the term (Note: This does not have to be a definition as such).

4. Ask each group to present their findings for discussion.

5. Put up final findings on the wall for reference.

6. In their original groups, students discuss how they could contribute towards the social, mental, emotional and physical health of their families. Each group deals with their original item. Each group member should make at least one suggestion.

7. Groups present their ideas to the plenary for further discussion.

8. Hang final lists on the wall and agree with the students that they will remain there as a permanent reminder of their role in promoting health in their families.

9. Conclude by asking the students to discuss briefly the following questions.

(i) What did you discover from this activity about your role in promoting health in your family?

(ii) What opportunities and limitations do you think you can face in promoting health?

(iii) Which areas are easier for you (physical, mental, social, emotional?)

(iv) What similarities and differences did you find in the families?

Learning points

· The report could use some of the examples below:

What I could do to promote the Social Health of my family:

1. Greet my parents and siblings in the morning before I go to school.

2. Help my mother prepare meals.

3. Assist my younger brother to prepare his clothes and books for school everyday.

4. Share fun and laughter with my family members.

5. Not make noise when my sister needs concentration on her homework.

6. Respect everybody’s privacy - not search anybody’s bag or belongings without their permission.

7. Not hurt other family members.

8. Take time to listen to other family members’ concerns, issues or problems.

9. Keep the family’s confidentiality.

What I could do to promote the physical health of my family:

1. Boil drinking water.

2. Help in cleaning the house everyday.

3. Open the windows every morning.

4. Collect all the rubbish around the compound.

5. Cover all our food.

6. Place a small container of water near the latrine, for washing hands after visiting the facility.

7. Help my mother plan a balanced diet.

8. Have a small garden with greens and pineapples to minimize the family expenditure.

9. Care for the sick members of my family.

10 Help my younger brother brush his teeth every morning.

What I could do to promote the emotional health of my family:

1. Understand when my parents can not afford to meet all my needs.
2. Give comfort when one of us is hurting.
3. Join in the family’s celebrations.
4. Participate in the family’s prayers or workshop.
5. Help reduce conflict between family members.
6. Reassure my mother and father that I appreciate them and what they do for me.
7. Do my part in the household chores or responsibility.
8. Not hurl insults or humiliate my younger brother.
9. Share in the happy moments of my sister or brother when they succeed.
10. Work to promote the good image of our family.

What I could do to promote the mental health of my family:

1. Not create tension by what I do or say.

2. Not support conflict when my father and my brother/sister don’t seem to agree.

3. Let my family know where I am after 6.00 pm.

4. Accept and help other members to accept a situation about which we can’t do much to change.

5. Appreciate the little we have and make the best out of it.

(The Facilitator is free to adapt, add or make new lists or exercises).

Hints

· The students need to realize their important role as members of their families who can influence the health of their families in many ways, by translating what they learn from school into action at home.

· You could use The Special Gift’ as an example of activity to promote health through stopping air pollution, and a measure against deforestation. (Refer to the Sara Communication Initiative, “The Special Gift.”)

· The participants (adolescents) must be encouraged to review what exactly they have been doing in promoting the health of their families, and making resolutions for the better.

· The exercise above aims at promoting a sense of responsibility and creativity for the adolescents, it also aims at emphasizing a sense of membership to their families.

Extension Activities

Ask the students to:

1. Write how they can improve their own lives in order to contribute to improving their family’s health.

2. Develop an Action Plan for themselves. It should not be too ambitious but one that can be implemented. The Action Plan could look like this:

(i) My aim is.............................................................................................................
(ii) The steps I need to take are:

(a).......................................................................................................................
(b).......................................................................................................................
(c).......................................................................................................................

(iii) The way(s) to do this are......................................................................................
(iv) I need support from..............................................................................................
(v) It will take (how long)............................................................................................
(vi) I will know it has worked if or when........................................................................

ACTIVITY FIVE

DEVELOPING A SENSE OF SELF-WORTH

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Identify those behaviours which influence children negatively.
2. Explain their own strong points and how they can develop them.
3. Describe the positive approach to bringing up children.
4. Put into practice positive behaviours based on their growing self-esteem.

Materials

Text of poem, and “Who am I”, paper, markers.

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Divide students into pairs and ask them to share with their partner things they remember from their childhood which hurt or disappointed them.

2. Pairs give examples of this to the plenary. Write down their examples on a large sheet of paper/chalkboard.

3. Students compare experiences briefly.

4. Explain that everyone goes through experiences during their childhood which affect how they look at themselves when they grow up.

5. Distribute pieces of paper to each student and ask them to draw a picture representing a shield divided into six or eight parts.

6. Ask students to put a spear through their shield for everything they remember as having hurt or disappointed them.

7. Ask students to keep their shields for further reference.

8. Read the following poem to the students.

TEACH THE CHILDREN WELL I

If a child lives with criticism, he learns to condemn

If a child lives with hostility, he learns to fight

If a child lives with ridicule, he learns to be shy

If a child lives with shame, he learns to feel guilty

If a child lives with tolerance he learns to be patient

If a child lives with encouragement, he learns to try his best

If a child lives with praise, he learns to appreciate

If a child lives with fairness, he learns justice

If a child lives with security, he learns to have faith

If a child lives with approval, he learns to like himself

If a child lives with acceptance and friendship, he learns to find love in the world.

(Nolte)

9. Explain that the poem refers to both boys and girls. The flow of the poem would be interrupted by writing he/she all the time.

10. Read the poem a second time more slowly and ask the students to answer the following questions.

(i) What is the main point of the poem?
(ii) How can you compare the poem to what you represented on your shields?

11. Ask students to use the poem and their shields to write six statements under the title ‘Who am I?’

12. Ask for volunteers to read out their statements. Stress the importance of giving positive images of themselves and give the following example of a positive self-image:

Who am I?

I am a girl and I am proud of it.

I am only 3 feet 5 inches tall and I like myself

I am dark skinned, I am beautiful

I am the only one like myself

I am special

I am unique.

Extension Activities

1. Ask the students to answer the following questions:

(i) What aspects of your life can you not change (eg appearance, relatives etc)? Can you change your physical features by worrying about them?

(ii) Can you ever exchange your parents for others?

(iii) What should you do about those things you cannot change about yourself or about your life?

2 Make a resolution to tell yourself the following words, every morning before you get out of bed:

“I AM UNIQUE, I DON’T LOOK LIKE ANYBODY ELSE IN THE WHOLE WORLD. I AM SPECIAL BECAUSE I AM ME”

Learning points

· Even when your childhood was nasty, you can determine to change your self-image into a positive one.

· Adolescents may not be able to influence or alter the opinion other people hold of them, but they can change their own opinions about themselves.

· The power to fully love yourself and hold a positive self-image lies within yourself.

· The individual is the final authority in uplifting or destroying her/his up your self image.

· It takes practice and determination to build a lasting sense of self-worth.

· The skill being emphasized in this unit is SELF-ESTEEM. The way one behaves is largely determined by the level of self esteem one has.

Hint

Stress that, although the favourable conditions mentioned in the poem are more likely to lead to higher self esteem, every student from whatever background can build their self esteem.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Introduction

There are communicable and non-communicable diseases. To develop better health promoting attitudes and values, learners need to know the differences and what action responsibilities to assume in preventing types of diseases.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. List 7 communicable diseases that are common in their area and how they are spread.
2. Identify behaviours and ways that promote the spread of these diseases.
3. List ways and behaviour that can help to prevent the spread of the listed communicable diseases.

ACTIVITY ONE

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making and problem solving.

Materials

Slips of paper - Activity ‘Communicable and non-communicable diseases’.

Time: 60 minutes.

Procedure

1. Begin the activity by introducing the difference between diseases or sickness we can “give” to each other and those we cannot “give” to each other, and others that may be transmitted to us from other sources.

2. Give out cards or slips of paper and ask the students to write down diseases or illnesses they know. They should write at least two but should not limit their imagination.

3. Collect the slips of paper and have a volunteer read them out one-by-one. As the class decide which category each belongs - communicable or non-communicable (see facilitator’s resource below).

Describe the illness, how we get it (vectors, etc.) and emphasize how we can protect ourselves from communicable illnesses. Brainstorm ideas in small groups. Collect feedback as a whole group and make a list on a large sheet of paper.

4. Conclude the activity with the discussion points below:

(i) Why and how do we get communicable diseases?
(ii) Why and how do we get diseases that are not communicable?
(iii) Why do some communicable diseases become epidemics (for example malaria, AIDS, etc.)?

Facilitator’s resource

The following list is a guide to some communicable and non-communicable diseases and illnesses.

Description

Communicable

Non-communicable

Cold

Yes


Measles

Yes


Sore throat

Yes


Flu (common cold)

Yes


Asthma


Yes

Upset stomach


Yes

Chicken Pox

Yes


Malaria

Yes


Tuberculosis

Yes


Dysentry

Yes


Ear infections


Yes

Cavities (holes) in teeth


Yes

Nose bleeds


Yes

Mumps

Yes


Typhoid

Yes


Allergies


Yes

Scabies

Yes


STDs

Yes


HIV/AIDS

Yes














Make additions to the list. It is not exhaustive.

Hint

· If the class is very big, you may choose to let the children discuss in pairs or groups of 4. You may need to give them more slips of paper.

Learning Points

· Modes of transmission - from human to human, from animal to human, from other vectors (insects, etc.) to humans, air, water, etc.

· Concept of carrier is a person with a disease, who does not suffer from it abut can pass it on. Asthma and sickle cell (anaemia) are passed on genetically. (List a few others you can think of).

· What you and I can do to prevent transmission is maintain healthy practices.

Extension Activities

1. Ask 3 students to talk about their personal experiences with malaria and flu (common cold).

(i) How did they get it?
(ii) How could they have avoided it?

2. Dysentry could be communicable. What situations would lead to this?

3. How can we prevent/protect ourselves from contracting cholera, and malaria as individuals?

4. Have a resource person, from the health centre or clinic nearest to the school, to come and give a talk.

5. Look around in your community and see situations that could lead to the spread of communicable disease. Each person identifies at least 5 situations to bring back to class for discussion.


Figure

ACTIVITY TWO (suitable for boarding schools)

Material

Case study on “Sharing things”.

Time: 60 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the class into male and female. The sub-divide each group into smaller ones of 6 to 8 people.

2. Explain to the class that this activity is to help understand to a greater detail the concept of communicable and non-communicable diseases, and how our lifestyles may be associated with these diseases.

3. Give out copies of the case study of “Sharing things”. Each group should be given 20 minutes to read and answer the associated questions.

4. Ask the groups to reconvene. Ask 4 volunteers (2 boys and two girls) to share their answers with the rest of the class.

5. Discuss the following:

(i) Why do people (peers) find themselves sharing things (basins, buckets, clothes) in school?

(ii) Do you think people are aware that they might contract diseases/infections? Why not?

(iii) Has any of you been pressured to share your things? What were the circumstances?

“Sharing things”

Ocero had a friend called Alenyo. They were neighbours back home. In school they were in separate houses of residence. When Ocero was in Senior One, his mother gave him a basin, a bucket, plates and all other things to make his life comfortable and self-sufficient.

“Remember not to lose anything, Ocero,” she said before she left.

A few weeks later, Ocero couldn’t find his basin. He had seen the senior boys using it. He wondered how to get it back. He told Alenyo. Alenyo came and helped him look around. A few days later, Alenyo found it in his house of residence. He took it to Ocero.

One day, Ocero noticed a rash on his hand and some whitish spots on his chest. On consulting his neighbour, he was informed that it was a skin disease called ‘ring worms and skin rash.’’

Questions for discussion

(i) How did Ocero get the skin rash?

(ii) What should he do to get rid of it?

(iii) What other diseases or infections could we get from sharing things? What diseases are peculiar to boys? Which ones are peculiar to girls?

(iv) What things do we normally share out amongst our peers that could lead to infections? List at least 5 of them.

(v) Could we get STDs through sharing?

TOPIC

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

Introduction

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) - also known as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) - are on the increase in Uganda. Research reveals that children are sexually active, without the necessary precautions, nor the relevant information. In 1993/94, 31.7% of the girls 15 to 19 years of age were HIV positive compared to boys (of the same age) who were 6.0%. This is from the AIDS Control Programme (ACP) records and figures are different today.

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. List ways in which STDs are spread.
2. Appreciate the need for skills that can lead them out of risky situations.
3. Identify and discourage risk-taking behaviour.

ACTIVITY ONE

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, decision making and problem solving.

Time: 60 minutes.

Materials

Copies of the quiz, “What do you know about STDs?” and case study, “Dear Auntie, I think I was tricked!”

Procedure

1. Start the session by introducing the topic, ‘Sexually Transmitted Diseases.’ Ask the students whether they have heard of STDs and ask a few of them to say what they know about STDs. Explain to them that there is a quiz you would want them to fill in, to check how much we know. Emphasize that it is not a test but is rather used for discussion. Explain that you will not ask individuals for their scores.

2. Pass out the quiz, “What do you know about STDs?” and ask each person to fill in the statements individually. This exercise should take about 5 to 7 minutes. A ‘T’ answer will represent ‘true’, and ‘F’ will represent ‘false.’

3. Divide the students into groups of 4 and ask them to share their responses. See if can come out with a uniform list. If they do not agree on certain numbers, that should not worry them. This exercise should be about 20 minutes long.

4. Call the class back to order and ask them to share their responses. Look out for key questions that you may want to discuss. You do not necessarily have to go through the whole list. Suggested numbers for discussion may include the following:

1, 4, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13 - dealing with myths
1, 8, 14, 15 - dealing with how responsible they are.

5. Wrap up the activity by going over some facts about STDs, for example types - gonorrhoea, syphilis, genital warts, vaginitis, herpes, etc. (Consult a medical person).

“What do you know about STD?” handout

Fill in this questionnaire after reading each statement. If you think the statement is true then mark ‘T,’ and ‘F’ if you think it is false.

Statement

True or false

(i)

You cannot get an STD if you have sex only once.


(ii)

Gonorrhoea is an STD.


(iii)

STD stands for ‘Sexually Transmitted Disease.’


(iv)

STDs are easily cured by penicillin.


(v)

Having an STD means you are a strong man.


(vi)

Some STDs can kill.


(vii)

HIV is an STD.


(viii)

If I had an STD, I would tell my partner about it.


(ix)

All STDs can be cured by traditional medicine.


(x)

Condoms reduce the chances of spreading STDs.


(xi)

Only prostitutes have STDs.


(xii)

You cannot get an STD in Senior Two.


(xiii)

You cannot get STDs if you have sex standing up.


(xiv)

I can protect myself from contracting an STD.


(xv)

If I suspected having an STD, I would see a doctor or a nurse.


(xvi)

AIDS has no cure.


* Use this exercise to see how much the students know about STDs. Questions (i), (v), (ix), (xi), (xii), (xiii) reveal the myths and misconceptions the students have, while questions (viii), (xiv), (xv) reveal how individuals would handle a situation personally. These areas can be tackled in group discussions.

Learning points

· Question (i): STDs and number of sexual contacts.

It does not matter how many sexual contacts one has in order to contract an STD. Once is enough. Children should understand this clearly. Note however, that having one partner decreases the risk caused by having multiple ones.

· Question (v): STDs and manhood.

There is often a fallacy that STDs mean ‘manhood.’ Men have been known to boast about having STDs. STDs are a health problem and people should be encouraged to have them treated as soon as possible. Having many partners should not be considered as manhood either. It only increases the risks.

· Question (vx): Seeking for help.

It is wise to seek professional advice and get full treatment for STDs. People have a myth that treating themselves always leads to the cure. This is not true and individuals should be discouraged from diagnosing and treating themselves. They should seek professional help and treatment.

· Question (viii): It is safe to tell your partner when you have an STD.

It is safe to tell your partner when you get an STD. This is because you may have gotten it from him/her or may pass it on to him/her. Communication helps both of you to stay safe and get better and good treatment. It decreases the risks of contracting other STDs including HIV/AIDS.

· Question (xiii): STDs and sexual positions

Youth often argue that if you have sex in this position or that, then yoy may get an STD or avert getting one. STDs are contracted as soon as people have sex. Children need to be clear on this.

· Question (xi): Protection against STDs

It is important that the students realize that they can protect themselves from STDs by their own correct choice of responsible practices.

ACTIVITY TWO

Procedure

1. Each group joins with another to form groups of 8.

2. Pass out the letter, “Dear Auntie...,” and ask each group to read it and discuss the questions.

3. Have the group select one person to share the ideas it came up with in a plenary.

4. Conclude the activity by emphasizing the need for us to always adapt what we hear to our own personal situations.

“Dear Auntie, I think I was tricked...” handout

Dear Auntie,

I am a young girl in Senior Three, I recently went to a party with my best friend. While at the party, my friend encouraged me to dance and introduced me to some boys. I did not want to but she pressured me to do so. Since I did not want to annoy her I talked to three boys.

Many people were drinking (alcohol) but I do not and I managed to refuse. I kept taking Coca-cola. I remember feeling very sleepy after coming back from the toilet. My Coca-cola tasted different. I think I was tricked.

When I was in the dormitory, I overheard somebody say that now I was a woman like everybody else. When I asked my best friend later what this meant, she just laughed.

I have now missed my period. Auntie, am I pregnant? Do I have AIDS? Am I still a virgin? I can no longer eat because I am worried. Please help me.

A desperate girl,

S 3.

Questions for discussion

(i) What do you think happened to this girl?
(ii) What factors exposed her to risk?
(iii) How would you respond to this letter? Write a reply.
(iv) Do these things happen in school? How can we protect ourselves?

Hint

· The climate in the class will determine how much the learners share. If it is too formal, they shall concetrate on trying to develop ‘the right answer.’

Learning points

“Dear Auntie...” is a scenario that helps relate basic facts about STDs and sex to real life situations. It is important that the students realize that they are not invicible and that they too can get an STD. Be specific about the signs and symptoms of the common STDs. Some points for discussion:

· Betrayal

Youth treasure trust. They want to trust and be trusted. That is the essence of peer groups. A betrayal of trust is a very big let-down that can lead to greater emotional problems.

· Pressure vis-a-vis sense of belonging

This age group is subject to pressure. Often those who have had sex want others to be in the same boat. It is advisable that we help children see that they do not have to ‘follow the group’ in order to fit in.

· Skills

The presence or absence of skills is usually manifested by particular behaviour(s). It is crucial that children develop skills so that they are able to analyse their situations, know what they want and be able to resist peer pressure.

· Girl child and gender issues

Society often views women as sex objects. This misconception is usually formed at this stage. Boys need to know that they ought to respect girls but, similarly girls need to know that their role in society is not based on sexual favours. They have a right to say ‘no.’ This resolve needs to be developed this early.

· It is important that the students realize that they are not invicible and that they too can get an STD.

· Be specific about the signs and symptoms of the common STDs.

Hints

· For both activities, it is essential that the children enjoy the completing them. This depends a lot on how you introduce the sessions.

· Ensure that the children discuss and that the talkative ones do not dominate the discussions.

· Pick out highlights of their results and discuss those in plenary. Discussing every thing may not be as effective.

· Do not demoralize. Understand the children and appreciate their points of view.

Extension Activities

Students can do the following:

1. List down 4 STDs that are rampant and their signs and symptoms.
2. Write 4 reasons it is good to tell a partner that one has an STD.
3. Watch the film “Consequences” and ask the youth to look out for the following:

(i) Unsafe behaviour.
(ii) Points where Rita could have said ‘no.’
(iii) The point at which the course of the film could have changed to better results.

4. Find out the types of STDs common in the area and the age groups most affected.
5. Where do youth get their STD treatment?

TOPIC

AIDS

ACTIVITY ONE

SOCIAL FACTORS IN THE SPREAD OF AIDS

Introduction

AIDS is one of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases, as it may have been mentioned by the students during discussions in the previous activities. In Uganda, the onset of HIV/AIDS according to the AIDS Control Programme (ACP) 1994, is the ages of 12 to 15. This means that it is contracted within this age group (Senior 1 and Senior 2).

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. List 4 ways in which HIV is contracted and 4 ways it is not.

2. Name 2 situations or circumstances which could predispose an individual to the risk of contracting HIV.

3. Appreciate the need to and list ways in which one can say ‘no’ to sex.

4. Assess levels of risk, behaviours and categories among peers and community.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, peer resistance, effective communication, empathy, negotiation, assertiveness and coping with emotion.

Time: 60 minutes

Materials

Copies of the activity sheet, “Dealing with our beliefs, values and opinions,” the “ Namata role play” and newspaper clippings on stories that say something about HIV/AIDS, rape and defilement.

Procedure

1. Introduce the topic by telling the students that AIDS is a communicable disease, and that it is also an STD. The reason it is being handled separately is because of the fact that it is an epidemic in the country, as well as a pandemic (pan means ‘across,’ pandemic means ‘an epidemic across nations’). Many of us have lost friends and loved ones and are aware of the effects of AIDS. AIDS has many complicated issues surrounding it. This activity looks at a few.

2. Divide students into groups of 4 or 5 students. Give each group a pair of statements from the activity sheet, “Dealing with our beliefs, values and opinions.” They may pick up a statement of choice. You could write the statements on slips of paper, roll them up and ask one person from each group to pick two pieces.

3. Ask one person to give the group’s input on only one of their statements. Ask the class for any responses to these inputs.

“Dealing with our beliefs, values and opinions” handout

This activity may be used as a discussion starter. Any one of these questions may be used alone.


What do you think?

(i)

Most boys exaggerate their sexual experiences when talking about them.

(ii)

When girls say ‘no’ to sex, they really mean ‘yes!’

(iii)

Girls want sex more than boys, it is only that they fear to ask for it.

(iv)

A boy should have sex before marriage so that he knows what to do. However, women should be virgins at marriage.

(v)

If you do no have sex, your penis shrinks and you suffer from backache.

(vi)

Only careless people get STDs.

(vii)

Clean people do not get STDs.

(viii)

A man cannot be raped, only a woman can.

(ix)

A man should not say ‘no’ to a woman who has asked him for sex. It is cowardly.


Figure

4. Ask these general questions:

(i) Where do we get our beliefs, values and opinions from?
(ii) Are they always right?
(iii) How do we know when to accomodate or change our beliefs and when not to?

5. Summarise using some of the learning points below.

6. Merge two small groups to form large ones of about 8 to 10 children. Give each group a copy of the Namata role play to be discussed for about 5 minutes.

7. The students act out the role play.

8. Lead the students in a discussion about the issues which came up.

“Namata role play” handout

Namata lives in Buyikwe. In her village men think that women should never say “no” to a man who makes a pass (asks for sex). Namata has read a tot about STDs and AIDS in school. She has also read many newspaper articles about how men oppress and take advantage of women. She is determined that this should never happen to her.

Role play

Namata was reading and completing her assignment, when the head prefect walked into the class. He told Namata she had been called by the teacher on duty.

Outside the class, he told her how much he liked her...

Questions for discussion

(i) What did Namata do in that situation?
(ii) Why did she do it?
(iii) Is love shown by having sex?
(iv) What skills does one need to ensure that one does not have sex until s/he is ready?
(v) What skills do boys need to respect a girl who says ‘no’?
(vi) What skills do boys need to appreciate that love and sex are not the I same thing?

Learning points

· Beliefs, values and opinions are formed as we grow. They are a result of our individual background - the homes we come from, our parents’ values, our own experiences as we grow, our friends, religion or beliefs in God and other factors.

· Beliefs, values and opinions should always be handled in a context of others as well as the knowledge and accurate information that we have. It is important that we know our own beliefs and always think about the good of others.

· Myths are twisted ‘truth.’ Very often they are based on selfish ideas and are usually in the interest of one party (individual or group). We should always check what we believe against available knowledge and information.

· Girls should not be looked upon as sex objects. They are individuals like any male, have ambitions, dreams and goals which they should persue.

· There are laws that deal with issues such as rape, defilement and sex with minors (Uganda Penal Code). The following is a quote from “The rights of the child.”

“Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse.”

This means that we are all responsible for the protection of children (under 18) against such behaviour.

Hints

· If the role plays were similar then proceed with the discussion points on the activity sheet.

· If the role plays were not similar, hold a discussion with the youth about some of the differences observed.

· It may be interesting to divide the groups up by gender and see what sort of role plays they come up with. It is most probable that they will be different. (Feel free to use your own discretion to decide which grouping is best).

Extension Activities

1. What behaviour is associated to each of the following different risk categories - high risk, low risk and no risk. Give examples.

2. Give out the AIDS Control Programme (ACP) 1993 graph, “The distribution of AIDS cases in Uganda.” Ask the students to give reasons - contained in the secondary school health kit on HIV/AIDS - why:

(i) AIDS cases seem non-existent in the ages 5 to 9 years?
(ii) AIDS cases start at 12 years onward?
(iii) more girls than boys get HIV/AIDS?

3. Get newspapers (The New Vision, The Daily Monitor, The Crusader, Straight Talk, etc.) and record stories that talk of AIDS, HIV, sex, defilement and rape, etc.

(i) What explanation can you give some of these activities?
(ii) How can girls be protected from sexual exploitation and manipulation?
(iii) Narrate the story that touched you most. Explain why.

4. What is the relationship between AIDS and economic factors? Why do people give sexual favours for economic gifts and rewards?

ACTIVITY ONE

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES AND AIDS

Introduction

In the last activities, students discussed communicable and non-communicable diseases as a foundation point. At this level, more concetration is laid on STDs and AIDS basically because this is meant for a higher and vulnerable age group - Senior Four students. These students are about to go out of school either for long holidays, or even forever and are therefore prone to sexual activity.

Objectives

By the end of the class, students should be able to:

1. Name 5 STDs, explain how they are transmitted and how they can be prevented.
2. Know ways in which they can avoid risky situations and behaviour.
3. Discuss ways for looking after sick people.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, problem solving, self awareness, assertiveness and peer resistance.

Time: 60 minutes.

Material

Copy of the story, “Can you tell you have an STD?

Procedure

1. Tell the group that while in Senior Two, they learn about STDs. This activity looks at STDs to analyse the factors the surround its transmission and the associated complications.

2. Divide the class into groups of 5 or 6 students and give everybody a copy of the story, “Can you tell you have an STD?” Ask them to read it and discuss one of the stories on each.

3. Let the group reassemble after about half an hour. Ask a volunteer from each group to share what their responses were to each question. Allow a little room for clarification from the other participants of the group.

4. Discuss the following questions:

(i) Could Kato and Nafuna have avoided getting STDs?
(ii) What factors contribute to Nafuna desiring many partners? Is she secure? How could she develop a good self-image and influence her behaviour and attitudes.

“Can you tell you have an STD?”

Below are two stories of young people - Kato and Nafuna - from different parts of Uganda.

Kato

Kato was a great athlete in school and was therefore popular with the girls. When in Senior One, he was one of the best table tennis players and was in the school team. However, being in Senior One, not many people noticed him.

Kato’s popularity started in Senior Two, when he showed more of his skills in sport. By Senior Three, he was the best dancer in the school and a member of the school football team. This made him popular with the girls.

One day when Kato was in the toilet, he noticed that he was having difficulty urinating...

Questions for discussion

(i) What are the commonest signs and symptoms of an STD?
(ii) What symptom did Kato manifest?
(iii) How would he have got the infection? When (duration) would he have contracted it?
(iv) How would he have prevented himself from getting infected? (v) What should Kato do in this situation?

Nafuna

Nafuna was in Senior Two. She was definitely the most beautiful but this did not give her confidence. She was the only daughter from a family of 17. Her mother was the third wife.

To keep friends, Nafuna would easily have sex with them and in fact among the boys she was referred to as ‘school bus.’ They just wanted to use her then drop her.

One night, after bathing she realised that she was having an abnormal discharge.

Questions for discussion

(i) What do you think is the matter with Nafuna?
(ii) What should Nafuna do about her condition?
(iii) If you were Nafuna, who would you confide in?

5. Group leaders present findings to plenary and wrap up activity.

Hints

· Look for ways and means to correct wrong thinking, risky beliefs and particularly myths. Address this by highlighting a few of them and bouncing them back to the group.

· Youth at this age have lots of myths, correction should be done with a lot of tact. Do not moralize!

Learning Points

· Review signs and symptoms of STDs.
· Review local names of common STDs and treatments offered (herbs, etc.).
· STDs are not the only consequences of unprotected sex. Pregnancy is another.


Figure

ACTIVITY TWO

“SEX... IS EVERYONE DOING IT?”

Introduction

Most youth have the belief that everybody is having sex. As a result they think thay are missing out and want to do something about it. This therefore may predispose people to contracting STDs/AIDS. This activity challenges some of these attitudes.

Time: 60 minutes.

Material

Copy of the activity sheet, “Sex... is everyone doing it?”

Procedure

1. Inform the students about the fact that people often make (erroneous) assumptions about sexual activity. We want to explore the social issues surrounding STDs.

2. Divide the class into 2 or 3 groups and give out to each a copy of the activity sheet, “Sex... is everyone doing it?” Tell them that they have 40 minutes to do this activity. Encourage everybody to discuss in their groups and share their independent views.

3. Reconvene the groups for general guided discussions. Ask the groups to explain why they chose to end the dialogue the way they did.

(i) Was it easy to reach concensus (agreement) in the group?
(ii) Did Kapere have sex or not? If not, how did he resist the pressure? What skills did he use?

Hints

· Ensure that the usually quiet students are encouraged to get involved in the discussion and that the loud and talkative ones do not monopolise the discussion. If the likelihood of talkative students dominating the group work is high, seek alternative ways of grouping the class.

· A friendly conducive environment is critical for discussion. Some groups may discuss outside the classroom if that helps.

· Look up the treatment of common STDs so that you direct the discussion with confidence. Find out the rampant STDs in your locality.

“Sex... is everyone doing it?” handout

Kapere and Ongom were good friends since primary school days. Ongom was clever and joined a good secondary school in Senior One. Kapere was not as clever and he joined this school in Senior Three. Ongom was so glad to be re-united to Kapere. “I will show you around,” he promised Kapere.

When the school dance (‘Senior Four Social’) was organised, the school invited a girls’ school to attend. Ongom thought he could introduce Kapere to some facts of life.

Ongom: “Kapere, tomorrow is the school social and 1 want to make sure you know what to do...”
Kapere: “That is kind of you man. What exactly do you mean?”
Ongom: “I am aware that you have not had a lover...”
Kapere: “So...”
Ongom: “So tomorrow I want to get you one...”
Kapere: “But... I do not want...”
Ongom: (angry) “Everybody is calling you a ‘woman’... do you want that? Prove yourself man. I have always been protecting you...”

Questions for discussion

(i) What do you think is happening in the story?
(ii) Does manhood mean having sex?
(iii) What options does Kapere have? What should he do if he does not want to have sex?
(iv) Read through the dialogue again, and write an end to it.

Extension Activities

1. Discuss the following:

(i) What leads young people to get involved in sexual activity?
(ii) What can young girls do to avoid being sexually used and abused by men?
(iii) What are some economic factors that lead people to engage in sexual activity?
(iv) What are the economic implications of HIV/AIDS on the nation?

2. Consider calling a resource person. Ask students whether they have any particular person in mind.

3. Ask the class to collect newspaper clippings on stories that say something about HIV/AIDS. Hold a discussion on their findings (which may be done in groups).

TOPIC

AIDS - SEXUAL TRANSMITTED DISEASE

Introduction

AIDS has been a big issue and crisis in Uganda for more than 10 years. The greatest concern is the fact that it is the youthful population that is most affected. This population therefore needs to be given a supportive physical and social environment and be made aware of the nature and dangers of risky behaviour.

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. List 5 ways in which HIV can be contracted (behaviour situations).
2. Clarify situations that are risky and develop skills to get out of them.

ACTIVITY ONE

“WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT AIDS?”

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, peer resistance, effective communication, negotiation, assertiveness and coping with emotion.

Time: 60 minutes

Materials

Questionnaire, “What do you know about AIDS?”

Procedures

1. Give out the questionnaire on “What do you know about AIDS?” Ask each individual to read through and answer each question. Tell them it is not a test but a way to clarify one’s thinking, and that no one will be asked their individual answers.

2. After this activity, collect all the papers and then redistribute them so that people do not have their own answers.

3. Lead a discussion based on key questions of your choice.

4. Correct the myths surrounding HIV transmission and cure.

(i) Where do we get our values from? Beliefs?

(ii) How do we know whether our opinions are accurate?

(iii) What should we do when we discover that what we held so dear is actually wrong?

(iv) Essay question: What is the role of social relationships, age and money in the transmission of HIV/AIDS.

(v) What skills or behaviours could help stop young people from being at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS?

Handout “What do you know about HIV/AIDS”

This is a quiz to held students assess the information they know about HIV/AIDS scientific and behavioural facts. Please mark ‘T’ for true, and ‘F’ for false” after reading each statement carefully. It is not a test.


Statement

True or false

(i)

AIDS is an STD.

(ii)

You cannot get AIDS from somebody who has AIDS.

(iii)

You cannot get HIV/AIDS if you use a condom.

(iv)

It is easier for a young girl to contract HIV than an older woman.

(v)

You can see and know somebody who is HIV positive.

(vi)

AIDS really means American Invention to Discourage Sex.

(vii)

AIDS can be cured if you eat dog soup.

(viii)

You cannot contract HIV if you have sex only once.

(ix)

You can cure AIDS by having sex with a virgin.

(x)

It is people with HIV, and not people with full-blown AIDS who spread the virus.

(xi)

People with AIDS have signs and symptoms.

(xii)

People with HIV have signs and symptoms.

(xiii)

You can contract HIV/AIDS from a classmate/schoolmate.

(xiv)

It is not possible to abstain from sex till marriage.

(xv)

Sex drive is an appetite that needs to be satisfied like hunger.

(xvi)

You develop health problems if you do not have sex.

(xvii)

Girls have a right to say ‘no’ to boys (their lovers) who ask for sex.

(xviii)

Sex means that a girl loves you.

(xix)

A relationship with no sex does not last for long.

Learning points

· Emphasize the facts about HIV/AIDS (transmission, etc.)

· Emphasize the role of social relationships in the transmission in Uganda is through hetero-sexual transmission.

· Explain the merits of regular medical check-ups, and the role of hygiene in the prevention of STD transmission.

ACTIVITY TWO

“RAPED, DEFILED AND DISGRACED”

Materials

A copy of case study, “Raped, defiled and disgraced.”

Procedures

1. Divide the class into group of 8 to 10 learners. Ask them to read through the case study and to discuss the questions attached. This should take about 25 minutes.

2. Call back the group and have a winding up discussion.

Hints

· AIDS is a social issue and hence a lot of emphasis is laid on sexual activity because of the critical stage at which learners are at. Rape and defilement are ways that some people may contract STDs and/or HIV/AIDS. We want to use this story to explore factors that may lead to rape.

· Encourage a lot of discussion among the learners themselves, before you offer guidance. Unless people talk it is difficult to know what faulty/dangerous information they may have.

Handout “Raped, defiled and disgraced” case study

In the Bible there is a story of a brother who had sex with his stepsister. The boy was Amnon, and the girt, Tamar. They were both children of King David, King of Israel.

Amnon had a beautiful sister whom he desired so much so much that he wanted to make love to her. His desire was so strong that Amnon fell sick. King David was concerned about his sickness and asked what he could do to help. Amnon sent back a message saying that he requested his sister to come and serve him food.

When Tamar came to serve him, Amnon chased everybody away. When she came closer, he grabbed her and made love to her. When he had finished the Bible tells us that, “... he hated her with a hatred stronger than the love he had for her.” Amnon chased Tamar away, “Go away.” Tamar refused. She cried saying he had to take responsibility for disgracing her...

Questions for discussion

(i) How could a girl in Tamar’s situation have got out of such a situation?
(ii) If you were Tamar, who would you tell? What action would you take against Amnon?
(iii) What laws do you know that protect girls from such actions?
(iv) Why do men take advantage of women?
(v) Culture says that, “Such matters between family members are private.” As a result, many abused children do not talk. What do you think about this? What should be done to change that?


Figure

Learning points

· Difference between HIV+ status and AIDS

· Many people feel that they can rely on their eyes to tell who is HIV+ and therefore ‘dangerous’ for sexual activity and who is not. This is not the case. An HIV+ person may be sick for many years before s/he develops regular signs that people can see. Before that time s/he could have infected many more people.

· AIDS is a state where the person is ill and has regular signs and symptoms that can be seen. This is usually the terminal state of the HIV disease. It is rare that people at this stage spread the virus because people are cautious of them.

· The difference between the above two stages is that one cannot be detected by the eyes (HIV+) whereas the second one often can be (AIDS).

· Young girls (14 to 20) and mature women (21 to 29) body differences

· The lining in the private parts of a girl (vagina) is not as well developed as that of an older woman. It is thinner and not ready for sexual activity.

· The chances of a young girl getting HIV than an older woman may be said to be greater because a young girl would get more bruises in sexual activity due to thinner vaginal lining and because there are fewer vaginal secretions intended for sexual activity.

· A young girl of between 14 to 20 years is also not ‘ready’ for child-bearing activity.

· Sex and love

· Many young people feel and think that the test of true love is sex. As a result they may pressure the friends of the opposite sex for love.

· Distinction needs to be made between sex (an activity) and love (a mutual friendship/relationship). It is healthy to have friends of the opposite sex to broaden our understanding of the opposite sex and to fulfil our desire to reate as male and female.

· Premature sexual activity may often ruin friendships and the development of persons, because the interest may be turned to physical intimacy.

· Assertiveness and saying ‘no...’

· Traditional views of sex always have men asking for sex and girls responding. Boys often do not accept ‘no’ for an answer.

· In this era of AIDS both men and women or boys and girls need to appreciate that women are not sex objects to be wooed and conquered for sex. As a result men/boys need to accept ‘no’ as an answer and to respect it.

· Women/girls on the other hand need to develop skills of how to say ‘no’. These skills may need to be practiced. A good ‘no’ is said with confidence, and where both the body language and the words are matching and saying the same thing.

· Some of the reasons why there are more girls with HIV than boys between 12 and 24 years of age may be partly due to the inability of girls/women to say ‘no’ to sexual advances.

· AIDS has no cure

· It is useful that young people know that there is no cure as yet for AIDS. This should be presented in a manner that they see and understand the scientific argument. Take time to find out common local drugs that have been said to cure AIDS and hold a discussion on them.

· Impotence and abstinence

· Children often argue that if they are not sexually active, their private parts (boys’ penises) will shrink and the girls will develop cramps. This is not true. Penises do not atrophy (shrink) because of ‘non-usage’ in sexual activity.

· Abstinence should therefore not be discouraged or thought to be impractical due to the above belief. It is a myth and needs to be presented as a myth and an untruth.

Extension Activities

1. Consider calling in a person living with AIDS to give a talk about how social/economic factors influence the spread of AIDS.

2. Film show on, “Philly Bongoley Lutaaya.”

3. Film shows on, “More Time,” which deals on relationships and, “Making Choices.”

4. School visit to a Post-Test Club - where people living positively with AIDS - may be visited and discussions held.

ACTIVITY THREE

“SHARING THINGS’

Materials

Copies of stories on “Alenyo has a skin disease” and “Regina contracts an STD.”

Procedure

1. Explain to the participants that sharing of clothes is very common in secondary schools, most especially in Senior Four. We are going to examine behaviour and lifestyle that lead people to such situations.

2. Divide the class into 4 groups. Pass out the stories, “Alenyo has a skin disease” and “Regina contracts an STD.” Ask 2 of the 4 groups to handle a similar story, and the other 2 to handle the second same story.

3. Ask the groups to reconvene and ask 2 people to share thoughts from their group (one for the story of the boy and another for the story of the girl).

4. Conclude the discussion with some of the questions below.

(i) What things pressure us into sharing clothes and other items?
(ii) How could we ensure that we stay safe from infection?
(iii) What did you think about Regina getting an STD by sharing items? Did it scare you?

“Alenyo has a skin problem” handout

It was coming to the end of the year and it was a time of excitement. There was a lot of activity. “... socials only for Senior Fours?” one Senior Two boy was heard asking another.

Alenyo was frantic. He did not have suitable clothes, perfume, shoes. How would he impress the girls? Alenyo decided to get a Senior Two boy who came from a rich family. He would strike a deal. If he promised him some food, he would probably agree to lend Alenyo some clothes, a pair of shoes and perfume.

Alenyo enjoyed the social. Three weeks later he was still talking about the two gins he had met. He had even received three letters! Boy, wasn’t he popular.

One day while showering, he noticed some things on his skin. What could it be? Where did it come from?

Questions for discussion

(i) What do you think Alenyo observed on his skin?
(ii) Where do you think he got it from?
(iii) What behaviour could have led Alenyo to get this infection?
(iv) What could he have done to prevent this?
(v) What other things do boys share that could cause them risk?
(vi) What hygienic behaviour could we practice to ensure we do not contract infections?


Figure

“Regina contracts an STD” handout

It was a Senior Four social and Nakalema was in need of good clothing. She sat down and planned what to do. Regina was a Senior Two gin and her father was a Member of Parliament for Akukulu county. They were rich.

On the social day, Nakalema asked Regina for some clothes, including some new under-clothing. Akello was another girl who came to Regina and borrowed her basin and comb. Regina did not want to lend anything but the excitement in the air was so great she could not resist.

One month later, Regina noticed that she had a thick white discharge. “What on earth is happening to me?” she wondered. When it persisted, she decided to go and ask her favourite teacher, Miss Matata. She was told that she had an STD. Regina was shocked, how could this be, she had never had sex. She cried and explained to Miss Matata. Miss Matata believed her.

Questions for discussion

(i) Where do you think Regina contracted the STD from? How did she contract it?
(ii) What other infections could she have got from sharing things?
(iii) What advice would you give Regina in her present situation? How would you advise her to protect herself in the future?

Hints

· Allow the groups time to discuss exhaustively. The discussion, especially the Regina story, may help them address the issue of hygiene, which they perceive as risky.

· Be ready to handle clarification about common infections. You may need to consult the school nurse or another medical person, or in fact ask them to talk with the children.

Extension activities

1. Write a story about what skills and behaviour Regina needs to have in order to help herself stay safe (Do this in the 4 groups).

2. Find out from the Senior Five and Senior Six in your school whether they used to borrow clothes for the Senior Four social. Ask them why they think this practice was in their schools.

ORAL HEALTH

Introduction

This section addresses the importance of caring for the mouth. The healthy practices that an individual has to observe to promote good oral health are discussed.

The consequences of poor oral health arising from poor diet, cultural practices and drugs are highlighted.

TOPIC

CARE OF THE MOUTH

ACTIVITY ONE

HOW AND WHEN TO BRUSH THE TEETH

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Make toothbrushes from twigs
2. Demonstrate proper techniques of brushing the teeth and cleaning the tongue
3. Explain the importance of keeping the teeth and tongue clean

Life Skills to be developed

Self-awareness, self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, decision making.

Materials

Twigs to make local tooth brushes/tooth brushes and tooth picks, toothpaste, salt mixed with soda bicarbonate, clean water.

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Ask the students the following questions:

(i) What do you use to brush your teeth?
(ii) When and how do you brush and clean the teeth and tongue?

2. Show students how to make a local tooth brush.

3. Demonstrate to students how to use a tooth brush (local or modern) and the correct way of brushing the teeth.

4. Distribute twigs to each student.

5. Students make a tooth brush (local) by chewing one end of the twig and sharpening the other end to a point.

6. Put toothpaste or salt on the brush with a bit of water.

7. Practice using the stick (or tooth brush) in pairs

8. Discuss the importance and correct way of brushing the teeth and cleaning the tongue.

9. Conclude the activity.

Learning Points

· Brushing you teeth wrongly drags your gum away from your teeth and breaks the membranes, so germs (microbes) get in and cause tooth decay (dental caries). The teeth have to be removed or filled with cement.

· Using the sharpened end of a toothpick to remove food stops food packing into spaces between teeth and giving germs (microbes) a home.

· It is important to brush teeth and clean the tongue regularly and thoroughly to remove all plaque and food remains. Rinse your mouth with safe, clean water.

· Brushing the teeth removes bad breath.

· Brush your teeth and gums every day and before going to bed.

· Each person should have their own tooth brush or brushstick.

· Use salt or tooth paste when brushing, not broken sticks, charcoal, sand or other hard materials.

· Use safe and clean water.

· You should eat healthy food not too many sweets.

· Using teeth as a tool when opening bottle tops is dangerous for the teeth.

Hints

· You should have enough toothbrushes/brushsticks for all the students.
· Discourage the use of sand and charcoal while brushing the teeth and cleaning the tongue.

Extension Activities

1. Answer these questions:

(i) What types of food are most likely to get stuck between your teeth?
(ii) Why do you get a nasty taste in your mouth when bits of meat get stuck for some time?

2. Read newspapers which have information on health for any dental tips.

TOPIC

EFFECT OF POOR ORAL HEALTH CARE

ACTIVITY ONE

EFFECT OF NOT BRUSHING THE TEETH REGULARLY Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Name the common oral diseases
2. Describe the development of dental caries and periodontal diseases.
3. Practise good oral health care

Life Skills to be developed

Self-awareness, self-esteem, decision making and critical thinking.

Time: 40 minutes.

Materials

Healthy and unhealthy teeth, charts, pictures, transparencies, dil. hydrochloric acid, two small containers, large sheet of paper, markers.

Procedure

1. Review the importance of brushing the teeth and cleaning the tongue regularly.

2. Divide the students into groups and give each group a large sheet of paper and marker pens.

3. Students discuss the statement “What can go wrong when teeth are not regularly brushed?”

4. Groups report back to plenary for further discussion.

5. Teacher shows differences between healthy and unhealthy teeth and development of the diseases in teeth and gums.

6. Students discuss the overall effects of not brushing the teeth.

Learning Points

When teeth are not brushed regularly:

· teeth get brown and black holes which look ugly.

· the holes are small at first but if they are not filled by a dental worker, they turn into big holes which hurt.

· the person concerned normally has a toothache, bad breath and may even have a boil or abscess in gums surrounding the teeth.

· decayed teeth can affect the health of the rest of the body.

· the teeth may be so decayed that they have to be taken out.

· when teeth and gums are not cleaned properly, plaque forms around them at the base of the tooth.

· a diet with a high sugar content often produces particularly heavy accumulation of plaque.

· if plaque is allowed to accumulate, it can calcify and harden to form tartar (black-brownish spots on the teeth).

· the gums become inflamed and one develops gingivitis and destruction of the peridontal tissues (peridontal disease).

Hints

· Use real teeth specimens, pictures and film slides to show differences between healthy and unhealthy teeth and charts/transparencies to show development of the diseases in teeth and gums.

· Emphasise Article 24 of the CRC which states:

“To ensure the provision of necessary medical assistance and health care to all children with emphasis on the development of primary health care.”

Extension Activities

Students can do the following:

1. Share their own life experiences for example by discussing:

“A bad oral health experience I had.”

2. Prepare an advertisement about dental health, spelling out how to prevent formation of cavities.

3. Find out the prevalence of individuals with missing teeth or with teeth that have turned brown and assess whether this is connected with the way they care for them. But this should not cause embarrassment to your colleagues. Be polite and respectful.


Brush your teeth regularly and visit the dentist when you can.

TOPIC

DIET AND ORAL HEALTH

ACTIVITY ONE

GOOD AND BAD FOODS FOR THE TEETH

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Distinguish foods which promote good oral health from those which lead to poor oral health.

2. Identify foods which have only a few nutrients and are bad for the teeth.

3. Choose more healthy foods.

Time: 30 minutes

Materials

Biscuits, sweets, toffees, sugar cane, milk, vegetables, eggs, sodas, carrots, pawpaw.

Procedure

1. Divide students into groups and ask group leaders to collect foods from the teacher’s bench.

2. Groups discuss which types of food are good or bad for the teeth and why and list other foods which are good or bad for the teeth.

3. Groups present their findings to the plenary for discussion. Write down all answers and guide class to come up with a list of common foods which promote good oral health.

Learning points

· Bacteria + food containing a lot of sugar = acid + caries
· Foods containing a lot of sugar include cakes, jam, biscuits and sweets.
· Common foods which are good for the teeth include fruits, vegetables, sugar cane.

Hint

· Adolescents tend to be attracted to foods which damage the teeth when used excessively. You should not be judgemental on this but encourage them to choose the healthier foods.

Extension Activities

Students can answer the following questions:

(i) What foods do you like at home? Are any of them likely to affect your teeth? Why?

(ii) What advice would you give family members and friends about foods they should eat to protect their teeth and gums?

ACTIVITY TWO

EFFECTS OF DIET ON TEETH

Objectives

By the end of the class, students should be able to:

1. Distinguish between foods that promote good oral health and those that lead to bad oral health.

2. Identify peer influences that promote poor oral health.

3. Choose healthier foods.

Life Skills to be developed

Peer resistance, self-awareness, self-esteem

Time: 40 minutes.

Materials

Container (ie big empty bag), items to represent fruits)

Procedure

1. Ask students to volunteer to role play “That is Not Grub”.
2. Give typed copies of the instructions of the play to volunteers.
3. Volunteers role play while the others observe.

“THAT’S NOT GRUB. WHAT WILL MY FRIENDS SAY?”

Today is a visiting day at Orogo Secondary School. David, an S.2 in the school, is looking forward to his mother’s visit and the usual ‘grub’: biscuits, sweets, chocolate, cakes, jam, orange squash, rice and chicken which make him popular among his friends. In fact, they won’t go for lunch today because they’re expecting to enjoy David’s grub as usual. David is their man!

When mother arrives, she is so pleased with herself for having supplemented David’s grub, as he requested on her last visit. From her ‘Kikapu*’ she sorts out in front of David all she has brought for him: ‘bogoya*’, ‘fene*’, pawpaws, oranges, mangoes, avocados, sugarcane and pineapples. David is shocked. How could his mother do this to him? How does he walk back to the company of his friends? What will they say?

Footnote

kikapu* - a type of woven mat basket
bogoya* - A type of plantain eaten ripe

fene* - jack fruit

4. Class divides into groups to discuss the following questions:

(i) Why did David worry about what his friends would say?
(ii) Why do you think David did not appreciate the types of food mother brought for him?
(iii) What kind of ‘grub’ do you normally like?
(iv) What adjustments would you make in your ‘grub’ in order to improve your diet?

5. Group leaders present findings to plenary and wrap up activity.

Learning Points

· If a person eats sugar frequently, his teeth will be attacked by acid many times and gradually cavities will develop in the teeth.

· The most important factor is not the total amount of sugar that is consumed within a given period but the number of times sugar enters the mouth.

· Calcium, phosphorous and vitamin D are essential for the formation and development of teeth. Fluorides are important for prevention of caries.

Hints

· Ensure good time management.
· Promote the fresh foods commonly found in Uganda rather than packaged foods.


Eat nourishing foods as well as fresh foods to keep your teeth healthy.

Extension Activity

Graph on Fluoridation and accompanying questions.

(Adapted from “An Integrated Approach to Biology for East Africa” by Sopers and Smith)

TOPIC

ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM

Introduction

Due to their curiosity and their wish to try out new things, as well as their growing wish to assert themselves and be regarded as adults, adolescents are often tempted to try alcohol. This is expecially true if members of their peer group are already drinking, since they tend to value the opinions of their peer group more than their parents and other adults who they view as outdated and unnecessarily restrictive. They are often influenced also by those adults they see drinking, especially if the adult drinking (to excess) is then the one who is telling them not to drink.

They therefore need to be given a supportive physical and social environment and be made aware of the nature and dangers of alcohol abuse.

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Explain the reasons for taking alcohol and its dangers.

2. Differentiate between alcohol use and abuse.

3. Counteract the rumours, myths and misconceptions advanced by peers about taking alcohol.

4. Demonstrate responsible behaviour with regard to alcohol.

Time: 40 minutes

Materials

Newspaper cuttings on alcohol related accidents, advertisements for beer, Penal Code concerning alcohol.

Procedure

1. Divide the class into groups and ask them to read the dialogue aloud in pairs. Choose two students to read in front of the class.

2. In groups discuss:

(i) What are some of the reasons John and his friends give for drinking? What do you think of them?

(ii) What other reasons do other people (who you know) have for drinking?

(iii) What strategies did Sam use to avoid drinking? Which do you think were the most effective?

(iv) What do you think happened next?

3. Groups prepare a role play of a few minutes to present to the rest of the class on how the evening between John and Jane, as well as Sam and Gertrude ended.

4. After the role plays, the class discusses the following questions.

SCENARIO FOR ROLE PLAY

John is an S.4 student in Kamkam S.S. who drinks a lot. He has invited Jane, an S.2 in Kamwenge S.S. to go out with him on the weekend. He takes his father’s car to go and meet her. They expect Gertrude and her boyfriend Sam, their great friends, to join them.

At Ange Noir, Gertrude joins Jane and John in persuading Sam into trying a little Pilsner or “Chairman’s”, or even a little “Uganda Wa’.” He won’t die after all! Who doesn’t want to be great, anyway? Life is worth all the fun. And that is the greatest moment Gertrude has been looking forward to. She couldn’t continue moving with a “falla*” of a boyfriend who is a step behind.

Sam is perplexed. He wasn’t prepared for this.

Footnote

falla* - slang for an unfashionable/non-sophisticated person


Figure

(i) Which role play did you think was the more realistic? Why?

(ii) What dangers, risks, or behaviour problems do you think alcohol drinkers have? (Use statistics to illustrate the problems among youth in families and society).

(iii) Have you ever been persuaded to drink? How did you feel?

(iv) What are the best ways to resist pressure?

(v) How would you get home from a social event if your driver had been drinking alcohol? What would you say? What would you do?

Learning points

· Alcohol, even in small quantities, affects the brain.
· It is a myth that people can drive better etc. after taking alcohol. Alcohol slows down the reflexes.

Hints

· Refer to newspaper cuttings on deaths caused by incidences related to alcohol. And advertisement language for Alcohol.

· Photocopy Penal Code on Alcohol.

· Make sure you praise each group for their presentation before you you ask for comparisons.

· If there is not enough time, the last questions could be answered as an extension activity.

· Encourage class members to relate their real experiences.

Extension Activities

1. Look at advertisements on alcohol and discuss what the advertisements are trying to say. Why do they seem to be convicing?

2. Design your own advertisement or campaign poster against the drinking of alcohol by students.

3. Debate: “Alcohol should be banned”.

Two local examples of advertisements on alcohol.


Figure


Figure

SMOKING

Introduction

Smoking is being promoted with more vigour today as new brands of cigarettes hit the market. Most adolescents may, initially, have no intention of smoking but in their search for identity, to belong, to experiment or simply to pass time and enjoy themselves, they become involved in smoking too. They don’t want to lose out on the currently popular activities advanced by mass media especially since this is a stage when values fluctuate between those of their parents and those of their peers.

The masculine cowboy figure, the images of success and dominance all appeal to adolescents, especially male adolescents. They therefore need to be aware of the influences surrounding them, so that they can confront them, as well as being aware of the effects of smoking so that they can make informed decisions.

TOPIC

WHAT INFLUENCES PEOPLE TO SMOKE

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Name four ways in which tobacco may be used.
2. Explain the influences which may lead to people smoking and how it can affect them.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, self-esteem, empathy

Time: 40 minutes.

Materials

Large sheets of paper or chalkboard, markers, or pens and pencils, masking tape or pins, smoking advertisements from the newspapers, case study, “Ibara.”

Procedure

1. Divide class into groups of five to eight people.
2. Distribute the case study or write on chalkboard or large sheet of paper.

Ibara lived in Kabale. His parents grew and smoked tobacco. From his infancy, Ibara saw his mother smoke and chew tobacco. His father too used to put dried tobacco leaves in a big pipe and send him to light it with burning charcoal, it. Ibara would then smoke a little before handing it to the old man.

Ibara started smoking cigarettes when he was fourteen and soon became a chain smoker. He also chewed, sniffed and at times put dried leaves of tobacco in a pipe and smoked it like his father.

3. Each group discusses the case study and records its findings. The discussion can be centred on the following questions.

(i) How many different ways was tobacco used in Ibara’s home?
(ii) In your opinion, why did Ibara choose smoking?
(iii) If you were Ibara, would you have done any differently? Why?
(iv) What were the influences on Ibara’s decision to smoke tobacco?
(v) Who is a chain smoker?

4. Each group presents its findings for class discussion.

5. Show one smoking advertisement to the class (an example is shown on the next page). Discuss how it tries to attract people to smoke.

6. Distribute other advertisements for group discussion.

(i) What is the message of the advertisement?
(ii) How is it trying to make smoking attractive?
(iii) According to the advertisement what is the advantage of smoking?
(iv) How realistic is the advertisement

7. Each group writes its points on a sheet of paper and puts them on the wall below the advertisement.

8. Students move round looking at the adverts and the analysis of the other groups. They can add further points if they wish.

9. Wrap up activity by soliciting similar or other influences which lead people to smoke (including peer pressure which will be looked at in a later lesson).

Learning points

· Some of the answers as to what influenced Ibara could include the fact that he grew up in a tobacco growing area and family, the example of his parents, curiosity and adventure, practice (from lighting his father’s pipe), search for approval and compliance with family norms.

· Advertisements are most effective when people do not realise how they work. Students should come to see how the advertisements are directly appealing to certain emotions within them, which are not connected at all to the actual fact of smoking (for example, the smoker always has a beautiful girlfriend) to convince them to smoke.

Extension activity

1. Ask students to collect other examples of cigarette adverts from billboards, newspapers, radio and television and write a similar analysis of them to put up in the classroom.


Figure

TOPIC

DECISION MAKING IN SMOKING

Introduction

Adolescents are confronted with a variety of complex issues concerning their growing independence and search for identity. Thus, although, this is the age when abstract thinking which links present action to future consequences is just beginning to develop, many teenagers tend to let their lives take their course without thinking about it too much. Making decisions is a complicated process.

At the same time, the ability to make sound decisions is crucial in life. That is why decision making as a skill must be learned and practised - before it is too late.

ACTIVITY ONE

MAKE YOUR CHOICE

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Explain factors that influence decision making.
2. Illustrate different styles of decision making.
3. Use the appropriate style in relation to smoking.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, self-esteem and decision-making

Time: 40 minutes.

Materials

5 parcels, each one containing a number of items wrapped in paper:

Parcel 1:

Items like sweets, bananas, money wrapped in old newspaper.

Parcel 2:

Stones, bottle tops, etc beautifully wrapped in gift paper.

Parcel 3:

Empty biscuit packet stuffed with paper, perfume bottle filled with water, sticks covered with biro tops and some bundles of paper made to appear like money wrapped up nicely.

Parcel 4:

Stones, bottle tops etc wrapped in old newspaper.

Parcel 5:

Books and a mathematical set, wrapped in nice but not colourful paper.

Each parcel should be labelled with its number.

Procedure

1. Place parcels in a row on a table behind the class

2. Divide the class into four teams and explain that the purpose of the game is for each team to win the best deal for itself.

(i) Each team has 200 points which they can use to bargain.

(ii) The most valuable parcel is worth 250 points. The second most valuable is worth 150, the third 100, the fourth 50 and the fifth nothing. Therefore the best deal is connected with the winning the most valuable parcel.

3. Each team chooses one volunteer to go to the back of the classroom and choose the parcel they think has the best contents.

4. Volunteers draw lots as to who is the first to choose.

5. Volunteers choose in turn. They are not allowed to touch the parcels. Members of the team can give advice. After each one has chosen, teams are allowed to negotiate for an exchange of parcels by offering extra points to the other team in order to get the parcel they want.

6. Allow the representatives of each team to pick up their parcels and feel them. They can tell the rest of their team what they feel. Each representative is also allowed to hold the fifth parcel which has not been touched. On the basis of what they feel, they can again try to renegotiate an exchange of parcels through the giving and taking of points. Alternatively, they can bargain for the 5th parcel by giving 100 points to the lecturer.

7. After the negotiations have been completed, the lecturer allows each team to open their parcels. Students decide together which is most valuable, with the lecturer having the casting vote if necessary. Teams add up the points remaining to them together with the points for their parcel.

8. Ask the teams to consider the following questions.

(i) How easy was it to choose a parcel the first time? Why?

(ii) On what did they base any negotiations for a change of parcels the first time?

(iii) When they felt the parcels, how much did their knowledge of what was inside change? To what extent did it provoke them into bargaining for a different one?

(iv) How did they decide how much to bargain? Did they make any calculations as to how many points it was worth giving away in the bargaining?

(v) How did they feel when they opened their parcels? Any regrets? Self-congratulation?

9. After teams have considered these questions and presented them briefly to plenary, ask them what this game taught them about the process of decision making.

10. Conclude the activity by reiterating that this was a game and therefore no serious consequences of our choices were suffered. However, the same processes are applied to all our decisions for which we have to take the consequences. Ask students to give examples in their lives where decisions have to be made with similar kinds of circumstances.

Learning points

· In the discussion of this, the following facts should come out:

(i) Collecting information or facts is important in decision making.

(ii) Choosing a parcel without sufficient information is a clear demonstration of how we often make decisions with little or no information. Even though we only have outside impressions we make decisions and often get quite emotional about them and develop all sorts of reasons to justify our decisions.

(iii) After feeling the parcels, they were able to make more informed decisions. However, once again the information was incomplete and the possibility of making the wrong decision was still quite high. The way different team members made decisions about whether to bargain or not etc. is a sign of how much we consider before making decisions in our lives.

(iv) After opening the parcels, it was very clear which decisions should have been made. This also happens often in life. We are wise ‘after the event’ but it is sometimes too late, which is why we have to be very careful about what decisions we make beforehand.

· Decision making is a process.

· Just as forming a habit is a process, so is rejecting a habit and adopting another.

· There is no right or wrong decision but there are principles and the individual must take responsibility for her/his own actions.

Hints

· The lecturer should not be tempted to provide a ‘dos and don’ts’ approach to behaviour change.

· The lecturer should try as much as possible to develop the students’ ability to reflect on their own behaviour and decide whether they need to change.

ACTIVITY TWO

TO SMOKE OR NOT TO SMOKE?

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of smoking.
2. Make informed and health promoting decisions in their own lives, especially in relation to smoking.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, empathy.

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Students remain in the same teams as the previous lesson.

2. Explain that they are going to apply the process of decision making to the issue of smoking - whether to smoke (or continue smoking) or not.

3. Ask half the groups to draw up reasons for smoking and the other half to draw up reasons for not smoking. Explain that they do not have to agree with the reasons they draw up: the aim is to understand the reasons for smoking or not smoking.

4. Ask the 2 sides to present their arguments one by one. For each argument, the other side is allowed to present a counter argument. Each side takes turns to present an argument. The teacher writes their arguments in a table on the chalkboard/flip chart:


Negative aspects

Positive aspects

(i)



(ii)



(iii)



(iv)



(v)



(vi)



(vii)



(viii)



(ix)



(x)



5. Explain that at the end they must weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each decision. If the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of a chosen option, then go ahead and take the decision. Groups discuss what decision they would take.

6. Write the following factors involved in deciding to start or stop smoking.

(i) Having the information required to make a good decision.
(ii) Recognising the situation that requires decision making.
(iii) Recognising alternatives.
(iv) Recognising consequences.
(v) Respecting oneself and one’s values in taking a personal stand.
(vi) Being consistent with personal values and convictions.
(vii) Recognising setbacks including social pressures.
(viii) Consciously making a decision is better than making no decision at all.

Ask students to discus how these issues are related to the decisions. Which are the most important (eg personal values, the values of one’s friends, etc)

7. Conclude the activity by explaining that making decisions is not easy and we can often resist what we logically know to be the right decision because of other personal and emotional factors. This is not something to be ashamed or proud about but to be confronted before the negative consequences take effect.

Learning points

· Decision making in issues reflecting our health depends both on our knowledge and our self-esteem.

· Some of the reasons for smoking may include:

(i) relaxation.
(ii) to get rid of fatigue, boredom and idleness.
(iii) to identify with my friends.
(iv) to get rid of my worries.
(v) to overcome timidity.
(vi) to get rid of anxiety.
(vii) it makes my brain work better
(viii) to become confident.
(ix) to look mature.
(x) to look sophisticated
(xi) just like my dad.
(xii) because smoking is for successful people.

· Reasons for not smoking may include:

(i) can cause cancer.
(ii) contributes to other diseases.
(iii) anti-social habit. Leaves a smell.
(iv) causes bad breath etc.
(v) affects the health of other people who are with me.


Figure

Hint

· Bring out the conflict that often occurs between what we know we should do and what we want to do.

TOPIC

SMOKING AS A HABIT

Introduction

While adolescents may not have the intention of becoming permanent smokers, more often than not those who begin fail to stop. At the outset, they may be mainly concerned with their image among their peers than any real enjoyment of smoking. This can have serious consequences because even after the issue of image has disappeared they may still be unable to give up smoking because of its addictive nature.

Objectives

By the end of the session, students should be able to:

1. Identify and explain the different influences which lead adolescents to become habitual smokers.

2. Analyse the process of habit formation

3. Identify and put into practice those life skills which will enable them not to form such habits or break them when necessary.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, assertiveness

Materials

Cards or sheets of paper, copies of the case study, markers or pens and pencils

Procedure

1. Divide the class into groups. Ask each group to prepare a mime on why people decide to smoke. The mimes should be brief and amusing and not more than 1 minute each.

2. Explain that for a person to become a habitual smoker, it takes time because it is a process.

3. Write the characteristics for the process on the chalkboard

· Stage 1

Persuasion

· Stage 2

Approval

· Stage 3

Intention

· Stage 4

Practice

· Stage 5

Continuing smoker

4. Ask each group to discuss among themselves what stages were shown in their mimes.

5. Distribute case studies. Do not disclose the stages that correspond with the case studies. Give the students a chance to discover for themselves.

6. Each group discusses its case study, responding to the questions that follow them.

7. Each group record its findings ready for presentation. If there is time, groups can start to present to the plenary. Otherwise the presentations will be done in the next lesson.

8. After all groups have presented, wrap up the exercise with the following processing points.

(i) What did you learn from the discussions?
(ii) What surprised you?
(iii) What did you hear from your peers that was different from what you expected?
(iv) What do you think about smoking? Has your attitude changed as a result of the previous activities? Why/why not?

Learning points

· ‘Mr Okello’s hobby’ corresponds with CONTINUING SMOKER.

· ‘Letter to Dr Apollo’ corresponds with PERSUASION.

· ‘Rita okays smoking’ corresponds with APPROVAL.

· ‘Emma and Joy at the crossroads’ corresponds with PRACTICE.

· ‘Richard makes a decision’ corresponds with INTENTION.

· Some individuals do not necessarily go through each stage.

· Sometimes we ‘unconsciously’ form habits without giving them much thought. But this should not be used as an excuse.

· Learners should be encouraged to know what is best for them and stand up for it.

Hint

The class may have smokers. The lecturer may have to begin the lesson with formation of ground rules (see Section 2 of the manual for examples) in order to protect the dignity of such persons.

CASE STUDIES

Mr Okello’s hobby

Okello was a chain smoker for twenty years. He smoked at least 20 cigarettes a day and believed he could not do without a puff. No matter what his friends said, he would not be convinced. His doctor told him that he had problems with his lungs and recommended that he immediately stop smoking but Okello did not take heed even when he showed signs of acute ulcers. He could not give up smoking.

Questions for discussion

(i) At what stage of habit formation was Okello? Explain
(ii) What options did Okello have? Why did Okello choose the option he did?
(iii) Is it easy to stop smoking? Why?
(iv) If you were Okello, what would you say to young people after visiting the doctor?
(v) How can you support someone who is:

· a smoker already
· a non-smoker who is tempted to experiment with cigarettes


Rita okays smoking

Rita while smoking a cigarette tells her class ‘smoking is the fashion. It makes you cool. I’m telling you, when the smoke enters your blood your brain works better. You feel so good and you show the world that you’re great.’

Questions for discussion

(i) At what stage of habit formation is Rita? Explain
(ii) What are the main reasons for Rita’s smoking? Do you agree or disagree? Why?
(iii) What are your feelings about Rita?
(iv) What life skills does Rita have/need?
(v) Do you think it will be easy for Rita to give up smoking? Why/why not?
(vi) How could you help Rita if you were one of her classmates?


Figure

Letter to Dr Apollo

I am in Senior Two. I have a rich friend who is willing to give me free cigarettes and booze if I am willing to accept them. All my friends smoke. I feel I should not start smoking but I fear I will lose my friends. Dear Dr Apollo, please help me.

Rebecca Kale

Questions for discussion

(i) At what stage of habit formation is Rebecca? Explain
(ii) What dilemma do you think Rebecca is faced with?
(iii) What consequences do you foresee?
(iv) How would you help Rebecca?
(v) What action should be taken first?
(vi) What do you admire in Rebecca?
(vii) What life skills does she need?

Emma and Joy at the crossroads

Emma and Joy are in Senior Three. They have a friend called Robinah who recently started smoking. Every break time she has a few puffs in the school toilets and she encourages her friends to smoke. They tried once but didn’t like the taste much even if it gave them a thrill to be trying something new. Robinah is always trying to convince them to try again.

Questions for discussion

(i) At what stage of habit formation are Emma and Joy?
(ii) On what criteria are they likely to base their decision?
(iii) What life skills do they have/need?
(iv) If you were their classmates, what would you advise them?

Richard ‘gathers his guts’

Richard left early for school. He wanted to pass by the shops and buy his first cigarettes. He had had enough of those classmates of his who laughed at him for being afraid to smoke. He had tried one or two of theirs and although he didn’t really like them, he was determined to buy some cigarettes and then casually offer them round to the group during breaktime. They would then all smoke together behind the latrines before going back to class.

Questions for discussion

(i) At what stage of habit formation is Richard? Explain.
(ii) Why do you think he has reached this stage?
(iii) How do you feel about him?
(iv) What life skills does Richard have/need?
(v) What would you say to Richard if you were one of his classmates?

Extension Activity

1. Give the following handout to the students.

HANDOUT

Dialogue “Ways to say No to smoking”

(i)

Saying “No thanks”

Dora

“Would you like to smoke?”



Sheila

“No thanks”

(ii)

Repeated refusal or keep saying “no”

Dora

“Just smoke and feel good”



Sheila

“No”



Dora

“Come on Sheila”



Sheila

“No”



Dora

“Just try it”



Sheila

“No please”

(iii)

Walkaway

Dora

“Just a puff”



Sheila

“No” and walks away

(iv)

Cold Shoulder

Dora

“Hey are you saved?”



Sheila

Ignores with a cold shoulder

(v)

Change the subject

Dora

“This cigarette has a nice taste”



Sheila

“Come on Dora. The examination is knocking at the door. Let’s go to revise chemistry.

2. Students discuss the different methods.

(i) Which method do you think is the most effective and why?

(ii) How would Dora feel in each of these? If Dora is your friend, which is the best way of resisting her, while at the same time keeping her friendship? Is it possible to refuse to smoke and keep your smoking friends?

(iii) What life skills is Sheila showing here?

(iv) What other ways can you think of to say no?

(v) What do you feel about friends who try to convince you like this?

TOPIC

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING

Introduction

While adolescents smoke, they rarely think about the negative effects their actions have upon those around them. Teenagers usually feel on top of the world and tend to be ‘egocentric’. Even those who don’t smoke do not realise that inhaling smoke from other people’s cigarettes is harmful to their lives. Both parties do not realise that they have a part to play in helping one other without necessarily appearing to condemn one another.

ACTIVITY ONE

QUESTIONNAIRE ON PERSONAL CONVICTIONS

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Explain and internalise the need for thinking through the effects of one’s behaviour on others.

2. Defend their rights assertively without being offensive.

3. Utilise different strategies that facilitate peaceful co-existence between smokers and non-smokers.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, interpersonal relationships, decision making, peer resistance.

Time: 40 minutes.

Materials

Checklists for each student, or large sheet of paper with checklist written on it, copies of case study, chalk or masking tape, markers or pens and pencils.

Procedure

1. Divide class into groups of five to eight people

2. Distribute checklist to each member of the group. If this is not possible, write on chalkboard or large sheet of paper.



True

False

Frequency

(i)

Whatever 1 do, 1 think about myself first.




(ii)

I’m not bothered about someone else’s personal activities.




(iii)

Smoking is solely the responsibility of the smoker.




(iv)

Smoke from cigarettes is just as bad as that from cars and lorries or even firewood.




(v)

Even if I don’t smoke, I should leave smokers alone. We all have our rights.




(vi)

One man’s meat is another man’s poison. The same applies to smoking.




(vii)

My health can’t be affected even if I sit next to a person smoking.




3. Each student fills in the checklist first without consulting anyone else.

4. In their groups, members compare their responses and tally in the frequency column.

5. Each group answers the questions below:

(i) What did you like about the activity?
(ii) Is it easy to think about others when an action is pleasant to you? Why?
(iii) Why is it difficult to base your actions on other people’s feelings?

6. Distribute the case study ‘Amina and Joseph’ to all students or write on chalkboard/large sheet of paper.

AMINA AND JOSEPH

Amina is Joseph’s girlfriend. She is a very attractive and respectful lady. She loves Joseph and would never wish to hurt him. Joseph smokes at least 10 cigarettes a day. He smokes even when they’re having meals together, or watching TV or when they are out for walks. Even in his bedroom, Joseph smokes a cigarette before going to sleep. Amina does not smoke and the smoke from Joseph’s cigarette sometimes makes her cough. She doesn’t like the smell of cigarettes on his clothes or in his mouth. But she doesn’t want to offend him by registering her discomfort.

7. Groups answer the following questions.

(i) Who of the characters in the story is the active smoker and who is the passive smoker?

(ii) What is lacking in Amina’s and Joseph’s friendship?

(iii) If you were Amina what would you do differently?

(iv) If you were Joseph and Amina told you she didn’t like you smoking, what would you do/say?

(v) What effects does Joseph’s smoking have on Amina’s health?

(vi) Who suffers most, Joseph or Amina? Why?

(vii) What life skills do Joseph and Amina have/need?

8. Groups report their answers one at a time and class discusses each question.

9. To wrap up, discuss the following questions:

(i) Who is a passive smoker?

(ii) How is a passive smoker affected by an environment of smokers?

(iii) If you were a passive smoker, what steps would you take to protect your health?

(iv) Is smoking outside buildings or within special areas for example in aeroplanes enough protection for the passive smoker? Explain

(v) If you were/are a smoker, where and when would/do you smoke?

Learning points

· Passive smoking refers to those people who are non-smokers but who indirectly and involuntarily inhale smoke from other people’s cigarettes or pipes.

· Passive smokers can suffer worse consequences than active smokers because smoke from half-burnt tobacco is more harmful than that from fully burnt tobacco.

· Active smokers inhale smoke after the tobacco is fully burnt while passive smokers take in smoke from the half-burnt tobacco.

· Passive smokers are exposed to respiratory diseases, cancers, ulcers, bronchitis, emphysema, heart problems and skin diseases.

Hints

· The lecturer should not seek to bias participation of the class. All should be given a chance, smokers and non-smokers.

· Emphasis should be laid on life skills needed by individuals to co-exist with active or passive smokers; and to make the appropriate decisions for themselves.

Extension activity

1. Write exercise on chalkboard/paper.

You have been chosen as chairperson of the health committee in your area. What measures would you put in place to protect people from passive smoking.

2. Groups discuss exercise and prepare their list of measures for presentation in the next lesson.

DRUG ABUSE

Drug abuse is a growing problem in Ugandan society. Because it is known to be illegal, the full extent of the problem is not really known but children, both in and out of school, are being tempted to experiment with drugs, at the very age when they are prone to adventure. It is therefore very important to bring these issues into the open and prepare the youth to confront such temptations.


Figure

ACTIVITY

ARAALI’S CHOICE

Objectives

By the end of this session, students should be able to:

1. Explain the 3C’s method to good decision making.
2. Make good decisions concerning drugs.

Time: 40 minutes

Materials

Chart, pen, pencil, markers, exercise books.

Procedure

1. Write the three C’s to Good Decision Making on a large sheet of paper or the chalkboard and tell students to copy them down.

2. Give the case study of Araali’s Choice to the students and ask them to fill in the 3 Cs with reference to Araali and make a decision for him.

ARAALI’S CHOICE

Araali is a student at Kawaalya Secondary School. He is a very good footballer and is very popular in his class. Then his rival for popularity introduces marijuana into the class and convinces several of Araali’s best friends to start smoking it. It becomes the fashion in the class and those who have started smoking it laugh at the others for being so childish. Araali’s girlfriend has even smoked it twice and is putting strong pressure on Araali to give it a try. What should Araali do?

3. After each student has filled in the 3 Cs and made their decision for Araali, divide the class into groups to discuss their answers.

4. Groups report back to plenary for final discussion.

5. Conclude the activity with the discussion points below:

(i) What do you think of this model? Do you think it can help people make decisions?

(ii) How can you explore all the possible consequences of a choice before making a decision?

(iii) Which are more likely to help you make a good decision, your feelings or your thoughts?

(iv) How do you prioritise your choices?

(v) In what situations do you think this model might be useful to you? Why?

Learning Points

· Three C’s To Good Decision Making.

(i)

Challenge (or decision) you are facing.......................


Figure




(ii)

Choices you have.....................................................


Figure


Choice 1..................................................................



Choice 2..................................................................



Choice 3............................................................................





(iii)

Consequence(s) of each choice


Figure


Positive

Negative



................................................

..........................



................................................

..........................



................................................

..........................





(iv)

Your decision is........................................................


Hints

· Give enough time to all the students to come up with their choices and consequences. Do not hurry them otherwise the discussion will not take place properly.

· Other situations may concern whether to remain in school, love relationships, smoking etc. as well as issues of drug use and abuse.

Extension Activity

1. Ask students to produce similar scenarios where young people are faced by different choices. These can be used by the lecturer in later classes.