This manual is intended for teachers who are teaching
agriculture or gardening to the upper classes of primary school. Its aim is to
provide a realistic pedagogical background to primary school agriculture, in
line with current reforms.
Such factual information has to relate first and foremost to the
pupils environment if one of the main aims is to be achieved, namely making
school more relevant to the people. Since the two major types of environment
treated, tropical rainforest and humid savannah, are typical for the humid
tropics, it is hoped that the manual may be of value in African countries with
similar natural conditions.
The present book, volume I, entitled Pedagogy, covers the
pedagogical background. This volume is divided into three parts:
- Pedagogical Foundations,
- Examples for Practical Use.
Under Pedagogical Foundations, we discuss several pedagogical
approaches-regarding the inclusion of agriculture as a subject in primary
school, give a short analysis of agriculture teaching in Cameroon and an
East-African country, and propose a scientific approach which is adopted
throughout the manuals.
Under Teaching Methods we discuss topics of practical importance
in everyday school life, e.g. the "scheme of work", the structure of teaching
units, various indoor and outdoor activities as part of primary school
agricultural instruction, the use of scientific methods of observation and
These discussions, which are sometimes of a general nature, are
given a practical basis in part three. It contains a number of lesson notes and
teaching units organized according to the principles laid down in the first two
parts. In addition, it includes a few background information texts written by
teachers. These notes illustrate how classroom teaching and practical work may
Volume II will provide factual information on questions which
may arise when teaching agriculture.
This manual could not have been written without the help of many
people who cannot all be named here.
Special thanks are due to the Government of the United Republic
of Cameroon who made my stay in their beautiful country possible, and to the
Cameroonian educational authorities who supported IPAR research and pilot
project work in Environmental Studies with patience, sound advice, and
invaluable administrative assistance, as well as to the German Agency for
Technical Cooperation which agreed to fund this follow-up work to the project.
I am greatly indebted to Mr. V.J. Divine, a member of the senior
staff at IPAR-Buea, who taught me a great deal about Cameroonian agriculture and
Rural Science, and who gracefully submitted himself to the rigours of extensive
I would also like to mention the contributions of those
Cameroonian teachers, colleagues, and friends who participated in the IPAR-Buea
school farm scheme and attended the respective seminars. Their contributions in
the form of written material and discussions have helped to make the manual what
Miss P. Smithson's and Miss Germann's art work deserves special
mention; it facilitates the reading and complements a large part of the text.
I would also like to express my gratitude to Dr. and Mrs.
Greenland who edited the manuals as far as language is concerned and, last but
not least, to Mrs. H. Winkler who never lost spirit in what sometimes was a very
tedious job typing and correcting the manuscript.