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close this bookPrimary School Agriculture: Volume I: Pedagogy (GTZ, 1985, 144 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
close this folderPart I: Pedagogical foundations of primary school agriculture
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View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Objectives for teaching agriculture in primary schools
close this folder3. Approaches to the teaching of agriculture
View the document3.1 Overview
View the document3.2 An appraisal of how agriculture is taught at present
close this folder4. A Science-Based approach to primary school agriculture
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View the document4.1 The relationship between agriculture and science
View the document4.2 Environment-Based school agriculture
View the document4.3 The Political dimension: Self-reliant development, social justice, and the link with traditional culture
View the document4.4 Objectives for primary school agriculture
close this folderPart II: Teaching methods
View the document(introduction...)
close this folder1. The scheme of work
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View the document1.1 The growth cycle of crops as a means to devising the scheme of work
View the document1.2 The principle of integration
View the document1.3 The physical strength of school children
close this folder2. The structure of teaching units
View the document2.1 Breaking down a scheme of work into units
View the document2.2 Defining objectives for the sub-units
View the document2.3 Indoor and outdoor activities in a sub-unit
close this folder3. Indoor activities
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View the document3.1 Classroom preparation of outdoor activities
View the document3.2 Follow-up of outdoor activities
close this folder4. Outdoor activities
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View the document4.1 Farm work
View the document4.2 Observational activities
View the document4.3 Experimentation
close this folder5. Special problems related to school farm work
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View the document5.1 Farm care during holidays
View the document5.2 Income
close this folderPart III: Examples for practical use
close this folder1. Teaching sub-units
View the document1.1 The maize harvest-integrating work, observation and classroom teaching
View the document1.2 Surveying farm plots - the use of the plane table
View the document1.3 Results of an experiment on pineapple farming
View the document1.4 Observing the growth of yams
View the document1.5 Planning maize farming
close this folder2. Lesson notes
View the document2.1 Lesson notes on tephrosia
View the document2.2 Lesson notes on rice
View the document2.3 Lesson notes on Land Tenure in Kake-Bakundu
View the document2.4 The integration of agriculture and mathematics
close this folder3. Teacher’s documentation
View the document3.1 Notes on Land Tenure in Kake
View the document3.2 Yam growing in Banyang area
View the document3.3 Traditional rites associated with the planting of maize in Bali(by V. Kette)
View the document3.4 Some corn dishes in Bali
View the document4. Record sheets


This manual is intended for teachers who are teaching agriculture or gardening to the upper classes of primary school. Its aim is to provide a realistic pedagogical background to primary school agriculture, in line with current reforms.

Such factual information has to relate first and foremost to the pupils environment if one of the main aims is to be achieved, namely making school more relevant to the people. Since the two major types of environment treated, tropical rainforest and humid savannah, are typical for the humid tropics, it is hoped that the manual may be of value in African countries with similar natural conditions.

The present book, volume I, entitled Pedagogy, covers the pedagogical background. This volume is divided into three parts:

- Pedagogical Foundations,
- Teaching Methods,
- Examples for Practical Use.

Under Pedagogical Foundations, we discuss several pedagogical approaches-regarding the inclusion of agriculture as a subject in primary school, give a short analysis of agriculture teaching in Cameroon and an East-African country, and propose a scientific approach which is adopted throughout the manuals.

Under Teaching Methods we discuss topics of practical importance in everyday school life, e.g. the "scheme of work", the structure of teaching units, various indoor and outdoor activities as part of primary school agricultural instruction, the use of scientific methods of observation and experimentation, etc.

These discussions, which are sometimes of a general nature, are given a practical basis in part three. It contains a number of lesson notes and teaching units organized according to the principles laid down in the first two parts. In addition, it includes a few background information texts written by teachers. These notes illustrate how classroom teaching and practical work may be combined.

Volume II will provide factual information on questions which may arise when teaching agriculture.

This manual could not have been written without the help of many people who cannot all be named here.

Special thanks are due to the Government of the United Republic of Cameroon who made my stay in their beautiful country possible, and to the Cameroonian educational authorities who supported IPAR research and pilot project work in Environmental Studies with patience, sound advice, and invaluable administrative assistance, as well as to the German Agency for Technical Cooperation which agreed to fund this follow-up work to the project.

I am greatly indebted to Mr. V.J. Divine, a member of the senior staff at IPAR-Buea, who taught me a great deal about Cameroonian agriculture and Rural Science, and who gracefully submitted himself to the rigours of extensive field research.

I would also like to mention the contributions of those Cameroonian teachers, colleagues, and friends who participated in the IPAR-Buea school farm scheme and attended the respective seminars. Their contributions in the form of written material and discussions have helped to make the manual what it is.

Miss P. Smithson's and Miss Germann's art work deserves special mention; it facilitates the reading and complements a large part of the text.

I would also like to express my gratitude to Dr. and Mrs. Greenland who edited the manuals as far as language is concerned and, last but not least, to Mrs. H. Winkler who never lost spirit in what sometimes was a very tedious job typing and correcting the manuscript.

Herbert Bergmann