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close this bookLife Skills for Young Ugandans - Primary Teachers' Training Manual (UNICEF, 190 p.)
close this folderSection Two: Methodologies and Training Session Activities
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Open this folder and view contentsPART A - General Activities
Open this folder and view contentsPART B - Specific activities that may be used to focus upon some of the key issues of Life Skills Education

(introduction...)


This section is divided into two parts. Part A looks at activities and methodologies which create a good atmosphere, build unity and openness among the participants and encourage participation. Part B looks at specific workshop activities for introducing life skills training.

SECTION OBJECTIVES

By the end of this section, participants should be able to:

1. Explain the purpose of ice breakers and energisers
2. Use the activities outlined in the section
3. Use life skills approaches and procedures in their daily teaching.
4. Develop simple life skills techniques for dealing with difficult participants during a class
5. Use participatory methodologies to elicit and build on participants’ knowledge and attitudes
6. Use the workshop activities as a means of introducing a training session on lift? skills

1.0 INTRODUCTORY AND PREPARATORY ACTIVITIES

1.1 Ice-breaking activities
1.2 Expectations and Tears
1.3 Laying ground rules
1.4 Team building
1.5 Coping with difficult group members
1.6 Energisers
1.7 Processing

1.1 ICE-BREAKING

PURPOSE

Ice breaking activities have the following purposes:

· Create a safe, warm learning environment from the outset.

· Encourage participants to mix with and get to know one another.

· Give all participants a chance to speak and be listened to in an environment where their experiences and opinions will be valued.

· Reduce individual feelings of isolation.

· Prepare all participants to become fully involved in later activities.

· Ice-breaking means breaking the ice, overcoming the cold (not warm), and tense atmosphere which may possibly exist before participants get to know each other.

At the beginning of a session, participants or first year students tend to keep to themselves or interact only with those they knew beforehand, They come from different places, have different backgrounds, experiences, qualifications etc. and often do not know how to break down the walls that exist between them. There is a need, therefore, for them to become acquainted with one another so that they are comfortable working together during the training. Thus, ice breakers should be used at the beginning of training sessions, or of a new year or term when the students do not know one another. They should not take too long, about 10-15 minutes.

EXAMPLE ONE

TOWN NAMES

Materials

Cards with half names of a town written on them. Enough cards for one per participant.

Procedure

1. Write cards with half names of towns. Each participant gets a card.

2. Participants look for the participant with the other half name of her/his town. i.e.

Card 1: MB-

Card 2: -ALE

Full name of the town; MBALE

3. Participants then sit in pairs and introduce themselves to one another using the following outline:

· Name....................................................................
· Where you live......................................................
· Where you went to school......................................
· What you have achieved.......................................
· Hobbies.................................................................
· A wish....................................................................
· Anything else..........................................................

4. Each participant presents his/her partner to the rest of the group.

Hints

· If the group is large, place pairs into small groups of about six for the last step. Otherwise the introductions tend to take a very long time.

· The facilitator can come up with a different set of cards (i.e. local foods, famous personalities etc. instead of towns) or points of introduction (e.g. like/dislike etc.)

EXAMPLE TWO

WHY I WAS NAMED...


Figure

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Invite participants to sit in a circle

2. Place a large piece of flipchart paper in the centre of the circle (and one on the wall for those who are unable to move on to the floor).

3. Ask each participant in turn, to write their name on the paper and explain briefly why they were given that name e.g. “My name is Nightingale because I was born at night”.

EXAMPLE THREE

CLUSTERING

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Facilitator tells participants that they have to find a partner according to one of the following criteria:

· likes the same kind of music.
· shares the same birthday month.
· shares the same favourite food.
· also has trouble saying “NO” to friends.
· enjoys playing football.

2. Ask participants to stand up and move around the room, identifying another person who fits one of the criteria.

3. After forming pairs in this way, each pair can be given topics to discuss for 2 minutes each e.g. An exciting/sad experience I will never forget, or things that make me laugh/sad.

Hint

· Facilitator can think of any other appropriate statements for clustering individuals and topics for discussion. S/he should not be limited to the examples given above.

EXAMPLE FOUR

REASONS WHY I CAN’T COME TO SCHOOL TODAY

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Ask participants to form a circle.

2. Each participant gives his/her name in turn and then gives a false reason why s/he can’t come to school. The reason for not attending school must begin with the same letter as the person’s name e.g. “My name is Joy and I can’t come to school today because there are no buses from Jinja”.

Hint

· The facilitator is free to think of statements beginning:

‘Reasons why I.....................................

EXAMPLE FIVE

THE NAME AND CARD GAME

Materials

A blank card for each participant, ball point pens or pencils, box or bag or basket.

Procedure

1. Give each participant a blank card.

2. Ask each participant to write the following on his/her card.

· complete name
· previous school attended
· favourite hobby

3. After all the cards are completed, collect and mix together in a container/basket. Each participant picks one card, but not his/her own.

4. After each participant has taken one card, instruct the person to find the owner of the card. Then ask each person to find out more information about the owner.

5. After 5 minutes tell everyone to be seated and ask each person to introduce the owner of the card which s/he has picked.

Hints

· Information which is too personal should be avoided.
· Allow some fun to create a more friendly atmosphere.

Feedback

At the end of each ice breaker, spend a few minutes asking the group some of the following questions. Do NOT ask all the questions every time.

· How did you feel during this activity?
· How do you feel starting a group in this way?
· How might you alter or adapt this activity?
· How have you benefitted from this activity?
· Do you have any comments about this activity?
· What other ice breakers do you know/have you used?
· Anything else?

1.2 EXPECTATIONS AND FEARS

PURPOSE

It is very useful at the beginning to allow participants to state their expectations and fears or concerns about the training. This brings into the open what people are feeling and allows the facilitator to clarify what can and cannot be done in the course of the training.

Expectations

Participants come to a training with certain expectations about what they may acquire in terms of knowledge or skills. It is important to give them an opportunity to express their feelings on what they expect to get from the training and also to say at the start what they think can or cannot be achieved.

Fears

The participants have fears about issues that may be a barrier to the attainment of the objectives. The fears should be dealt with to create a conducive learning environment.

The activity on the following page will help define the participants’ expectations and fears.

ACTIVITY

FINDING OUT THE EXPECTATIONS AND FEARS

Time: 30 minutes

Materials

Pieces of paper, chalk or marker, blackboard/flip chart/large sheet of paper.

Procedure

1. Prepare sufficient pieces of paper for the number of participants attending the session.

2. Tell every participant to pick a piece of paper and write down what they expect from the training on one side of the paper and fear from the training on the other side.

3. Participants exchange papers with their friends and read out what is written. Facilitator writes replies on the flipchart or blackboard for all to be made aware of individual expectations and fears.

OR Divide the participants into groups, read out the answers and then merge the similar ones. The group leader presents the expectations and fears to the class and you write on blackboard or chart.

OR Each participant displays his/her written work for the whole class to read and they are later merged by the teacher.

OR Individual participants read out their expectations and fears and the teacher merges them on the blackboard or flipchart.

OR Put the cards in the middle (so that they are anonymous). Shuffle the cards and redistribute so that students read out the card they are given while you put the points on the board/large sheet of paper.

4. Discuss all the expectations and fears with the participants. Explain that you hope everyone will acknowledge that people have certain fears and will support these individuals. Explain what you hope and think can be achieved during the training, and what cannot be achieved in the time available.

5. Hang the flipchart or leave them on the blackboard.

Hints

· During the training, go through the expectations to find out those which were met and not met. Do the same with fears to find out how they were overcome.

· Expectations and fears may be introduced at the beginning of every new unit or topic to be taught and at the end of it, particularly if the issue to be discussed is a sensitive one.

· Leave the expectations and fears on the blackboard.

· Not all the expectations will be met. Explain this. Also explain that participants can discuss issues during the break.

· To cater for some of the expectations which may not be met, you can use a story or case study; or give them homework which can be done during the participants’ free time or call a resource person to give a lecture touching on those issues being reflected in the expectations.

1.3 LAYING GROUND RULES FOR LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION

PURPOSE

Life Skills education involves an individual interacting closely with other people. During such interactions, group members will want to be listened to and respected. Some of the activities may involve revealing personal experiences that one would not ordinarily tell others. Therefore, group members need an assurance that in interacting with other members, their personalities will not be betrayed. Rules of behaviour need to be established. These can be called ground rules or keys to cooperation.

The ground rules should be decided upon by the group members themselves. This can be done in different ways. One way is suggested below. Alternatively you may wish to use the ‘Group Shield’ in the Team Building’ section that follows as a method for developing some ground rules.

ACTIVITY

DEVELOPING GROUND RULES

Time: 20 minutes

Materials

Small pieces of paper, each with a number relating to the number of participants.

Procedure

1. Write numbers from one to the last number in the class on small pieces of papers.

2. Each member picks a piece of paper with a number on it.

3. Number one pairs with two, three with four, etc. If the number in the class is odd, there can be three in a group.

4. Each member of the pair introduces himself/herself to the other and reveals her/his likes/dislikes and hopes for the way in which people will work together during the sessions.

5. The pair then discuss the rules they consider important regarding the discussions they will have.

6. 3 pairs join to form one group and come up with consolidated rules.

7. Participants discuss and agree on the rules to be adopted.

8. To wrap up, participants discuss the following questions:

(i) What do we do to a member who breaks the rules?
(ii) How will these rules be useful to the group during the course?

Hints

· Only one way of group formation is described here. There are other ways that groups can be formed e.g. using strings of different lengths, using combinations of letters for naming towns, etc. The teacher can also devise his/her own way of group formation. The essential point is that groups must be formed at random, with no systematic bias so that gradually each member of the group will meet and work with several others, thereby reducing the possibility of isolation and helping the integration of individual members.

· The interactions for negotiating ground rules can also be varied according to the size of the class. In the end, the negotiated rules should be agreed upon by the whole class and then adhered to in subsequent lessons.

· Because of the nature of Life Skills education, some of the rules that may come out are:

(i) Confidentiality
(ii) Respect for one another
(iii) Honesty
(iv) Listening to each other
(v) No ridiculing or derogatory behaviour towards anyone.
(vi) No value judgements about a person’s position.
(vii) Freedom to speak
(viii) The right to pass.
(ix) Being positive and constructive to the group
(x) Punctuality

Do not list those rules for the class, but only ask whether any that they may have omitted would be important for their group.

· Ways of enforcing the rules may include showing a “yellow card” to an offending member. If 3 people in the group show the yellow card then the individual must alter his/her behaviour or stop the activity s/he was doing. This should be done with humour and fairness to emphasize the importance of the rules rather than punish. The group should see that the rules are important for their cohesion and facilitative of acquiring the skills they are learning.

2.4 TEAM BUILDING

PURPOSE

Team building is a process which gradually transforms individual participants into group workers. A team has a common objective and a common strategy to achieve the objective.

Team building develops cooperation, builds good relations and makes learners active (Participants in pretest, Bushenyi).

The success of the team depends on each member being appreciated, building on their uniqueness and difference to enrich the variety of ideas, views or contributions for the general good.

For a team to function, every member should be given the opportunity to participate fully; learning to share, discuss, agree, disagree, persuade and adjust. Being a member of a team means looking beyond oneself and reaching out to others, and realizing that one has something to offer just like others. Life skills evolve around one’s ability to cope with the situations, circumstances, challenges of day-to-day life. Ability to get along with other people is one skill promoted through Team Building. The team spirit helps one to believe in oneself, boosting one’s self-esteem.

Some Team building Activities are described below. They can run through the whole session or workshops, varying in duration according to the purpose

ACTIVITY ONE

THE GROUP SHIELD

Time: 20 to 30 minutes

Materials

Large sheets of paper, marker pens.


Figure

Procedure

1. Randomly select participants in teams of 4 - 6 people.

2. Ask each team to choose a leader, moderator, observer, recorder and reporter.

3. Ask each team to draw the group shield with four parts (see below), under different titles, depending on topic.

4. Every member writes his/her name in the first compartment and says a little about their name e.g. why they were given that name.

5. Members discuss their hobbies/interests and the recorder draws or writes some of this in the top right hand compartment.

6. Members discuss what they can offer the group e.g. experiences, listening, support and these are written up by the reporter.

7. Group members agree on ground rules and write them down.

8. Ask each group to come up with a Group Name.

9. Lastly, the group must come up with a motto.

10. In turn, each group displays their shield. The facilitator draws out or asks the reporter to draw out some of the unusual or interesting points. Finally, read out and clarify/agree on the ground rules for the whole group.

Hints

· By writing one’s name in the first box, an individual registers as a member to the team, with a right to participate.

· Explaining what you have to offer:-

· Boosts self esteem

· Promotes self - awareness, as each participant looks into himself/herself to discover what s/he has to offer.

· Enforces active listening and positive contribution.

· Ground rules offer an opportunity for one to appreciate different perspectives, desires and concerns.

· Hobbies/interests: This allows one to express a part of oneself.

· Other alternatives could be included in the shield according to the group and the context.

ACTIVITY TWO

SPEAK OR NOT TO SPEAK

The aim of this activity is to practise getting along using non-verbal communication and to appreciate its advantages and shortcomings. It improves negotiation skills, listening skills and critical thinking.

Time: 30 minutes

Materials

Objects such as children’s toy cube dismantled. One object needed for every group.

Procedure

1. Divide participants into groups of 4 - 6 members.

2. Distribute objects such as a children’s toy cube, already dismantled.

3. Ask them to put the bits together without TALKING.

4. Ask groups how they felt working without verbal communication; and how easy or difficult it was for them to accomplish or fail to accomplish a given task.

5. Ask groups to exchange objects (if they succeeded in putting the first object together) or to continue with the current object if they failed to assemble it at the first attempt.

6. After 10 minutes, allow groups to use both verbal and non-verbal communication

7. Ask groups what are the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing both verbal and non-verbal communication.

Hint

· The trainer is encouraged to create his/her own team building activities as the need arises.

2.5 COPING WITH DIFFICULT GROUP MEMBERS (BEHAVIOURS)

PURPOSE

It is always possible that some of the participants work against the smooth running of the group. It is therefore important to be able to identify the types of behaviour that hinder the work of a group and strategies to cope with such behaviours.


Figure

Time: 45 minutes

Materials

Large sheets of paper, markers.

Procedure

1. Whole group brainstorms on types of behaviour which hinder group work.

2. List the behaviours on a large sheet of paper

3. Divide participants into groups of six or seven.

4. Allocate an equal number of behaviours listed to each group and ask them to devise strategies/life skills for coping with the behaviours they have been assigned.

5. Each group summarises on a large sheet of paper and presents to the plenary for discussion.

Hints

· To start brainstorming, ask participants to describe actual example/incidents

· Difficult group member behaviour can include:

· People who talk too much
· People who challenge everything
· People who never contribute
· People who never stick to the point
· People who are critical of everyone and everything.

· There is no one strategy to cope with certain types of behaviour though there are certain suggested strategies.

· The actual behaviours, and the strategies to deal with them could take the form of a role play.

· Hopefully the team building activities, and in particular the introduction of ground rules, will avert many of the more difficult behaviours that certain individuals may display.

2.6 ENERGISERS

PURPOSE

Communication experts observe that concentration span in a learning situation is initially high then gradually drops. To keep learners’ attention it is imperative that they are kept interested. Energizers help achieve this by breaking the monotony and stress of a learning session. They may be used to allow the participants a chance to stretch and move about. They are usually brief (3-5 minutes)


Figure

Hints

· Choose energizers that are conducive to your specific environment and situation; i.e. consider your age group, classroom size, how well you know the group and how well they know one other.

· Develop your own energizers for your group.

· Other energizers have been developed, look around for references that contain energizers.

EXAMPLE ONE

THE BUYIKWE POLICEPERSON

Materials

Basket, baton, (stick).

Procedure

1. Ask everybody to sit around in a circle.

2. Get a volunteer who shall start off as the policeperson.

3. The volunteer stands in the middle near the room, taps a person seated and runs and places the baton in the basket.

4. Policeperson should then run and occupy the place of the person that was tapped - referred to as a culprit.

5. The person who was tapped should aim at picking up the ‘baton’ from the basket and chase the policeperson and try to tap him/her before s/he sits down in the culprit’s chair.

6. If the policeperson sits down in the culprit’s place before the culprit taps him/her, then the culprit becomes the new policeperson and the game continues.

Hints

· The game is better if the circle is large so that there is a fair distance to run (3 to 4 metres).

· The ‘baton’ or stick should NOT be thrown in the basket but rather placed there.

EXAMPLE TWO

THE SOCIAL MAP

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Explain to the group that the floor area is really a map of Uganda, which direction is North etc. Agree with them where one or two towns/landmarks would be on the map.

2. Every participant should move to stand where their village/district is located.

3. The facilitator gives out the following instructions to the group who must respond appropriately in accordance with the perceived level of problem in their area.

· not a problem or issue - sit down,
· a small problem - kneel down
· rampant - stand up
· very serious problem - stand on tiptoe or jump

4. Facilitator reads out/presents a number of issues, problems:

· malaria
· Aids
· happy homes
· defilement/rape
· abstinence
· farming
· democracy
· good marriages
· drug abuse
· faithfulness
· equal rights for girls
· pre marital sex
· wife beating
· oppression of women
· condom use

5. The objective is to read the issues out quickly so that people have to move equally quickly.

Hint

· You may choose to stop the activity from time to time to foster discussion on a particular issue.

EXAMPLE THREE

NAFUNA SAYS (NAME GAME)

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Participants stand up and space themselves evenly around the room in such a manner that will not collide or hit each other.

2. The facilitator does a trial to ensure the participants have understood the instructions. For example, the facilitator gives out the following key:

You should only follow the instructions if they start with ‘Nafuna says’. For example ‘Nafuna says, hop on one leg’. ‘Nafuna says turn round’ etc. If the instruction is just called out on its own, for example, ‘turn around’, ‘raise your right arm’ etc., participants should not follow the instruction.

3. People who carry out the instructions when they do not start with ‘Nafuna says’ should sit down.

Hints

· This activity may/could be made more interesting if one of the participants is asked to call out the actions.

· Pick a name that is easy to pronounce, fun and not the name of one of the participants

EXAMPLE FOUR

SONGS (SINGING ‘O’ MCDONALD) - OLD MUKISA*

(Choose your own name)


Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Choose a popular song and select an energetic song leader.

2. Sing-a-long

3. In between the song/verses the choir/song leader may chant.

“ARE WE TOGETHER?”

“ARE WE TOGETHER?”

Participants should echo back with a loud clear answer “YES”

Suggestions for good songs

· Patriotic “Chaka muchaka songs”
· Football team slogans
· Nursery rhymes i.e. Old McDonald had a Farm.

Hint

· Actions could be added to it.

EXAMPLE FIVE

‘FISHERS OF MEN’ (A well known song)

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Participants start off seated

2. Song leader starts the song

3 While the song is sung, males stand up at each word that starts with ‘M’ and females stand up at each word that starts with ‘F’.

4. Song gets faster and faster (in Tempo).

Hint

· Only use the song if you know and/or the participants know it.

EXAMPLE SIX

ONE CHAIR LESS

Materials

Chairs/benches.

Procedure

1. Place enough chairs/benches in a circle for each participant to sit on

2. Facilitator stands in the middle, with no chair.

3. Facilitator calls out a task that gets people moving and swapping places. Nobody should return to the same chair/position. Examples of such statements could be:

· “all people putting on black shoes, change places”.
· “all people wearing T-shirts, change places”.
· “all people whose names start with the letter A, change places”.

4. As they move, the person in the middle also runs for a chair

5. The person who fails to get a chair stands in the middle and calls out the next instruction.

Hints

· To end the game the facilitator may consider ‘failing’ to get a chair so that s/he is deliberately left standing.

· This is a way of getting people into different pairs or small groups.

EXAMPLE SEVEN

SHOES

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Facilitator explains that s/he wants people to demonstrate the activity called out. Participants stand up and walk slowly around the room. When the facilitator calls out “running shoes”, participants must imagine that they are running.

2. Examples of other statements to use with participants:

· walking shoes (participants demonstrate walking)
· slippery shoes (participants demonstrate slipping around)
· quiet shoes
· dancing shoes
· army boots

EXAMPLE EIGHT

RAIN

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Participants stand in a circle facing into the circle

2. Participants pat their knees to make the sound of the type of rain mentioned.

Examples of statements - actions...

· a drizzle - (gently pat)
· a storm - (heavy patting)
· thunder - (a big clap etc.).

Hint

· This activity can be modified by you to be something else i.e. a dog and related statements; cow, horse etc.

EXAMPLE NINE

LEADING BY FINGER

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Ask participants to pair up.
2. Ask one to volunteer to be a leader and the other a follower.
3. The follower should close his/her eyes and stretch out her/his hand and offer 1 finger.
4. The leader puts out his/her finger and places it on the follower’s finger.
5. Leader then takes the follower around the room without any collisions.
6. The follower should keep eyes closed at all time.
7. After 2 minutes ask each pair people to exchange roles.

Hints

· This activity can be used more than once in different sessions and include questions on how people felt as they moved around the room. Consider both perspectives, leader and follower.

· This activity should only be used after the participants have become familiar with each other since it can sometimes be quite threatening.

EXAMPLE TEN

BRING ME... AN OBJECT

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Divide the class into teams (two or three).

2. (Explain that the objective of the game is for them to bring objects to you. The quickest team gets marks.

3. Facilitator then calls for objects.

· bring me......... an ear ring
· bring me......... a belt
· bring me......... a leaf
· bring me......... etc.

Hint

· Make sure there is no physical damage to any individuals, or embarrassment at having to remove certain items of clothing!

2.0 PARTICIPATORY METHODS

2.1 Brainstorming
2.2 Questionnaires
2.3 Ranking
2.4 Case Studies
2.5 Role Plays
2.6 Drawing
2.7 Discussion
2.8 Buzz Group
2.9 Tableaux
2.10 Story Telling
2.11 Processing
2.12 Utilising the Creative Abilities of the Participants/Students

PURPOSE

Since the aim of this initiative is to elicit, examine and develop life skills of the students, it is essential that participatory methods are used. They have several advantages:

· The more the students are engaged, the more they are able to develop their life skills. You cannot develop critical thinking by listening to lectures on the subject. Similarly you cannot develop the psychosocial skills without trying them out with others and practising them.

· Participatory approaches open up the syllabus in new ways because they start with the assumption that students already know many things. Thus, by eliciting what they know through different activities, the tutor is able to build on the knowledge they already have.

2.1 BRAINSTORMING

PURPOSE

Brainstorming is a way of obtaining as many views as possible in a short space of time. Participants, in groups, or in a whole class are encouraged to give as many ideas as they can think of on a particular subject.

This can be done anonymously using cards, or on pieces of paper, or by students calling out their ideas which are all written on the board. In this first stage, all ideas are accepted and no challenges are allowed.

After all the ideas have been exhausted, the tutor can ask the groups to prioritise, or choose the most important 3 or 4 or 5 ideas. This is a good activity when introducing a new topic.

EXAMPLE

1. Draw a large ship on newsprint with lines beneath it to depict water. Label the drawing RelationSHIP.

2. Ask students to give ideas on what keeps a relationship afloat. Once all the ideas have been collected, each group will draw their own ship on a sheet of paper and choose the five most important things required to keep the boat afloat. These can be written round the water line of the ship.

3. Students brainstorm again on what leads to the sinking of relationships. They then prioritise the five most damaging aspects that can be drawn as rocks near the ship.

4. Groups stick their ships on the wall. Students move around looking at the different ships.

5. Class discussion on why priorities differ. Other processing questions might include:

(i) What do you notice about the positive things listed for the different relationships?

(ii) What do you notice about the negative things?

(iii) When you were working in your small groups, how similar or different were the responses of men from women? Why do you think this is so?

(iv) Which qualities do you think are the most difficult to find in a relationship?


Figure

2.2 QUESTIONNAIRES

PURPOSE

These are different from normal research questionnaires since their aim is not to collect data but to give the students an opportunity to assess their own attitudes, feelings and emotions about a particular issue. Thus the questionnaires try to make provocative statements which will lead the students to confront truthfully what they think.

EXAMPLE ONE

1. Give out the questionnaire to all students to fill in individually. If there are no duplicating facilities, write the questionnaire on the chalkboard and ask students to copy and fill in.

CHECK OUT YOUR ATTITUDE

For each of the following statements write A (if you agree) D (if you disagree) or ?
(If you don’t know).

(i) Girls wearing short skirts are asking to be raped.


(ii) It is OK for a man to have more than one woman as long as he practises safe sex and provides for his children.


(iii) A wife is more likely to get AIDS than a prostitute.


(iv) Parents should talk to their children about AIDS.


(v) It is more important to send a boy to school than a girl.


(vi) To have sex with a girl before she reaches the age of 18 is defilement.


(vii) Women are more faithful than men.


(viii) Raising a child by yourself makes more sense than marrying a man you don’t love.



Figure

2. After filling in the questionnaires, students form groups and discuss their answers.

3. After reaching as much consensus as possible, groups present their answers to plenary.

Hint

· Because such questionnaires are very sensitive, the facilitator should be careful about how s/he introduces it and ensures that the ground rules for discussion are followed. The discussion, for example, should allow for tolerance of other peoples’ viewpoints.

· The facilitator does not have to go round finding out what each person believes. An atmosphere of confidentiality encourages participants to be honest in their answers.

· Some of the items in the questionnaire can also be connected to issues of knowledge e.g. the tutor can take advantage of this to provide the essential knowledge where necessary.

EXAMPLE TWO

1. Give the following questionnaire to the students in groups.

WHAT DO YOU VALUE?

· What would you do if:

(i) You won 20 million shillings in a lottery and you have to spend it quickly?
(ii) You have a free day with no responsibilities at all?

· What would you change if you could only change one thing:

(i) in your community?
(ii) in the world?

2. Students discuss in groups and present to plenary.

Hint

· These sort of open-ended questionnaires with no right or wrong, firm or fixed answers can enable students to discuss certain life issues and reach their own decisions from the choices available.

2.3 RANKING

PURPOSE

Ranking is another way of encouraging students to assess their own values and attitudes. They have to decide which aspects are more or less important to them and give reasons for their decisions.

This will allow them the opportunity to clarify their own values and attitudes.

EXAMPLE

1. Divide the students into groups and ask them to rank the following in order of importance.

WHAT IS MOST IMPORTANT TO YOU?

(i) Popularity
(ii) Academic success
(iii) A good salary
(iv) To own land
(v) Marriage and a family
(vi) To enjoy life

2. Groups present their ranking to the plenary for further discussion.

2.4 CASE STUDIES

PURPOSE

Case studies can be true or imaginary descriptions of a situation, or a character. They can be used:

· To provoke thought and discussion on various issues
· To give the tutor a chance to assess how much the students know about a particular topic.

EXAMPLE ONE

1. Divide the class into groups and distribute the case study.

Atieno comes from a poor family in Kampala. She went to school up to P7 after which she returned home to help her mother with her petty trading. When she was 16, a primary school teacher met her selling groundnuts on the street. He liked her and proposed marriage to her. He was quite young and handsome.

2. Ask the groups to answer the following questions.

(i) List the arguments for and against Atieno getting married.
(ii) If you were Atieno, what would you do? Why?

3. Groups report to plenary.

Hints

· It is vital that the case study does not give the answer, but rather provokes debate. If, for example, the case study showed Atieno getting married and dying in childbirth, there is no discussion, only a message.

· While this case study is directed at students’ attitudes to marriage and relationships, it can also be used by the tutor to find out the students’ knowledge on the law (defilement below the age of 18), the dangers of getting pregnant before the age of 18 and children’s rights.

EXAMPLE TWO

Comparative case studies such as the one in the Unit on “Our Health” at the beginning of Section Four.

EXAMPLE THREE

The case study could be in the form of a letter.

Dear Auntie,

We have started a health club in our school. We participate in child to child activities and try to advise people to keep their surroundings clean. The only problem is the local marwa bar which is always very dirty. It is owned by the LC1 and his wife is the main brewer. She just laughs when I try and explain to her.

What should I do in this situation as children often play in the dirt? Kato.

1. If you were the auntie, how would you reply to this letter?
2. Do you think that similar situations exists in your school/home area?
3. What do you think can be done to improve the situation?

2.5 ROLE PLAYS

PURPOSE

Role plays are not dramas with fixed characters and dialogue. They are rather presentations of situations which the students can act out in order to explore situations, feelings towards situations and different strategies to cope with situations. They are very useful in providing students with a chance to react to simulated situations and test how effective or valid their reactions might be.

EXAMPLE ONE

1. Explain the role play to the class.

Sara is a P7 girl preparing for the exams. When she goes to do her homework with her friend Mary, Mary’s brother, Michael who is S3 is always very keen to help her with her mathematics. One day, Sara finds herself alone with Michael. Michael reveals that he is interested in Sara.

2. Ask the class to divide into pairs and act out what they think would happen between Michael and Sara. Tell them to think about how each of them feels, what are their options, who is more at risk, what should they do.

3. Students discuss and act in pairs.

4. Ask for volunteers to act out in front of the class.

5. Students discuss on both the methods used by Michael to convince (or force) Sara and Sara’s different methods for coping with the situation.

Hint

· The situation could be linked to a lesson on STDs/HIV/AIDS to provide the knowledge element.

EXAMPLE TWO

A ‘rolling role play’

1. Explain to the students that they are going to do a role play in several stages so that they can act out how they would behave at each stage.

2. Give stage one of the role play.

You live in with your mother, your stepfather and your two brothers and one sister. One day you are left in the house on your own. Your stepfather calls you into his room. What would you do?

3. Ask for one student to act the stepfather and another the girl.

4. After they act the scene, call for comments on the behaviour of both the characters. If someone disagrees with the way either behaved invite them to come and act how they think the uncle or the girl should have behaved. If they are too shy, they can ask someone to act on their behalf but they should be encouraged to try themselves.

5. After all possibilities have been explored and discussed, move the role play one step forward.

The girl enters the room and finds the stepfather on the bed. He calls her to sit on the bed.

What would you do?

6. Repeat as above.

Alternative scenario

Stage 1: You have agreed to go with a friend to a birthday party. When you arrive there, you find that several people are already drunk. Your friend immediately joins the drinking and calls you to join him. You don’t want to drink.


Figure

1. What would you do?

After possibilities have been explored, the role play moves forward.

Stage 2: You have agreed to join in drinking a bit to keep company with your friends. One of them introduces marijuana and uses the same arguments that were used to convince you to drink.

2. What would you do?

Obviously this particular activity could be linked to a component on alcohol and other drugs to provide the knowledge input.

Hint

· It should be stressed that with role plays, as with case studies, the aim is not to provide messages but rather to provoke (self-) questioning that will eventually lead the children to making their own decisions and adopting particular coping strategies in specific situations.

2.6 DRAWING

PURPOSE

Drawing activities are another good way of encouraging students to represent their feelings. They can do this individually or in groups.

EXAMPLES

(i) One form of self introduction is to encourage students either to draw their lives the way they think they are heading and the way they would like to head.

(ii) Groups draw the health promoting/demoting school as explained in the next session.

(iii) Students could prepare a picture in groups on the roles and responsibilities of different members of a family, e.g. a boy child and a girl child.

2.7 DISCUSSION

PURPOSE

Discussions and debates give children the opportunity to gain knowledge, check out their own myths and misconceptions, learn new skills such as listening (critically) and clarify their attitudes and values. Ground rules are needed to ensure that all individuals are allowed to express their viewpoints.

2.8 BUZZ GROUPS

PURPOSE

These are not as formal as group discussions. They normally involve a brief discussion of participants with their neighbours in the room. They are used to allow informal discussion on an issue so that people can relax and try out their ideas before they are put to the test in a more formal discussion.

2.9 TABLEAUX

PURPOSE

Tableaux are a more stylised form of role play which encourage students to think and discuss certain issues within the context of working out how best to represent them.

1. Divide the participants into groups

2. Ask each group to prepare a ‘frozen statue’ that depicts, for example, the feelings and state of a pregnant schoolgirl, or the needs of an AIDS sufferer. You could either ask to each group to prepare a tableau on a similar issue or each group could take a separate issue and present it to the rest of the class for discussion.

3. After the presentation, the facilitator can ask several processing questions.

· Why did you choose such a tableau

· How did you feel when preparing the tableau

· How did you feel when you were the pregnant girl/angry father/AIDS sufferer etc.

· What could be done in real life to change the tableau to a more positive portrayal.

2.10 STORYTELLING

PURPOSE

Story telling is part of our childhood and upbringing. Everyone can remember some stories they were told and they are an important source of learning about life. They can be used to illustrate and discuss a variety of life situations requiring life skills to deal with them. Stories can be presented in many different ways, through traditional tales using animals such as those in Hare and Hornbill by Okot p’Bitek which were in fact originally created as a way of commenting on the life of the community and teaching life skills to the children. Alternatively stories can be used from the Sara Communication Initiative or the teacher, or students can make up their own stories to suit different situations. Stories can be told in different ways such as this letter below.

Dear Auntie,

I really want to study so that I can escape from this life of poverty but what can I do when I don’t even have time to study. I have really struggled to get to secondary school but as the subjects get more difficult, I think I am going to fail. Just imagine, I wake up every day at 5.00am. I fetch the water, sweep the compound and wash the clothes for my little brother and sister before going to school. My brother wakes up at 7.00 am, prepares for school and goes.

At school I do my best to study but because I ate nothing before leaving the house, when it gets to midday, I start falling asleep. The teachers get angry with me but what can I do. In the evening my brother weeds the garden while I do the housework and help my mother cook. After eating, my brother can start doing his homework but I have to wash the dishes first. After that I try to study but within half an hour, I am falling asleep.

At the weekend we both go to the farm but when we get back my brother goes to play football after which he says, ‘he has the job of bathing’ while I start to do the housework. My brother washes his clothes when he feels like it, but he makes sure I realise that he is doing me a favour. To tell you the truth auntie, although I do my best to help my mother, sometimes I pretend to be sick because that is the only way I can get a chance to rest.

So what should I do so that I can study like the others? My brother tells me that I don’t do well in class because girls are not as intelligent as boys. He says that boys are more curious which is why they do better in science. Sometimes I am tempted to believe with him because he always makes fun of the way I enjoy cooking. But then I remember that while he is playing with batteries and making his own little radio or torch, I am washing the dishes or fetching the water. When do I have the time to study like him? And if I was not so tired, wouldn’t I be as curious as he is?

Yours fed up,

Anna.

Questions

1. If you were the auntie, how would you reply to this letter?
2. Do you think that such a situation exists in relation to your school/home area?
3. What do you think can be done to improve the situation?
4. Why do you think boys tend to do better in science than girls?

2.11 PROCESSING

PURPOSE

As with the introductory activities, it is important that individuals have the opportunity to say how they feel about particular activities or situations and how it affected them. In this way the facilitator can assess her/his activities and to what extent they are being effective in engaging the participants and challenging them to think about the issues and life skills being raised through the activities. One part of such assessment is always observation of how participants are reacting, but processing questions allows a more reflective assessment and also encourages the participants to think about the purpose and value of activities rather than just participating in them.

Some questions that may be asked are:

· How did you feel about the activity?
· How (much) did it challenge your thinking/attitudes?
· How have you changed? (Or not?)
· How do you think the group has changed?
· What helped?
· What hindered?
· How might you apply this activity in training/teaching?
· Which life skills are promoted in this activity?

2.12 UTILISING THE CREATIVE ABILITIES OF THE PARTICIPANTS OR THE STUDENTS

PURPOSE

It would be a mistake for a facilitator to think that s/he has to produce all the material her/himself. Very often it will be the task of the facilitator to produce the preliminary activities but, after that, s/he can draw on the creativity and experience of the participants/students to produce supplementary activities.

This can be done in several ways.

EXAMPLES

· After presenting a case study, students can be asked to prepare case studies of their own which reflect different situations/dilemmas/problems they face.

· Students will act the role plays and, in cases where the tutor requires one participant in a role play to have a clearly defined or very persuasive role, instead of acting it him/herself can coach a student to do it on her/his behalf.

· If the tutor is not confident of her/his drawing skills (and for the purpose of teaching they do not have to be good) s/he can ask one of the students to prepare the drawing required in advance.

(introduction...)

Workshop A: How to Identify the Needs of a 13 Year Old Ugandan Child
Workshop B: What Are the Priorities for the Education of Children?
Workshop C: Introducing Life Skills Concepts
Workshop D: Attitudes to Life Skills
Workshop E: The Aims of Life Skills
Workshop F: The Health Promoting School
Workshop G: Promoting Self-esteem in School.

WORKSHOPS

Hint

· Make sure that you, as the facilitator have read thoroughly and understood Section 1 of the manual (you may wish to photocopy or write some of the information on a large piece of paper for reference during the training).

WORKSHOP A: HOW TO IDENTIFY THE NEEDS OF A 13 YEAR OLD UGANDAN CHILD

Objectives

By the end of the session, participants will be able to:

1. Identify the needs of a 13 year old Ugandan child, the influences on him/her, the factors around him/her and the current provisions made for him/her

2. Demonstrate the need for life skills education in response to his/her needs

Time: 45 to 60 minutes

Materials

Markers, large sheets of paper, cello-tape.

Procedure

1. Divide the participants into small groups of approximately 4-5 people

2. Give a large sheet of paper, markers and masking tape to each group.

3. Allocate tasks to be discussed to every group as shown below:

(i) The needs of a Ugandan child
(ii) The influences on the child
(iii) The factors to consider for a Ugandan child.
(iv) The current provisions for a Ugandan child.

4. Allow 15-20 minutes for the groups to discuss and draw up their findings

5. In plenary discuss and summarize the participants findings.

6. Discuss the following processing questions on the whole activity

(i) What has been learned about the Ugandan child?
(ii) How do you think schools are currently meeting the needs of the Ugandan child?
(iii) In what ways are schools currently not meeting the needs of the Ugandan child?
(iv) How might a school work towards meeting some of these needs?
(v) How will a life skills approach help the Ugandan child?
(vi) Any other comments?


Ugandan Child

Learning points

· Examples of some of the answers from participants in the pre-test workshops were:

(i) Needs

· Parental love and guidance

· Absence of conflict in a family

· Security, shelter, protection

· Education (formal and informal)

· To be trusted and respected

· Freedom of speech, expression

· Lifeskills such as self awareness, self esteem, decision making, problem solving, ability to withstand negative pressures and to communicate and negotiate their position and feelings..

· Ability to weigh and analyse situations

· Ability to take initiatives and be responsible

· Equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities etc.

(ii) Influences on the 13 year Ugandan child

· At home: Parents influence the training, discipline, responsibilities, love, financial support, education, values and attitudes.

Brothers and sisters - playing, sharing responsibilities
Aunts/uncles - counselling, cultural and traditional practices, financial support, accommodation, feeding etc.

· At school: Curricula - objectives, methods, contact teachers, resource materials, assessment. Students/pupils, support staff, school environment.

· Community: Neighbours, clan civic leaders, religious leaders.

· Social services: Health centres, schools, roads, Churches/Mosques,

· Culture: Beliefs, practices, ethnicity, dressing.

· Economic: Income generating activities

· Media: Newspapers, radio, TV, Videos,

· Environment: Social, physical, biological

(iii) Factors to consider

· Religion

· Cultural practices, beliefs,

· Level of education of parents and children

· School

· Boarding or day
· Mixed or single
· Rural, urban or semi urban
· Registered or not
· Private or Government

· Peer pressures

· Environment - Urban or rural, slums, outskirts, highclass residential areas.

· Economic, Social, Political factors.

· Constitutional/Legislature

· Economic policies - stability, peace, nutrition, social status, food security.

(iv) Provisions for 13 year Ugandan child

· Academic content
· Vocational skills
· Political Education
· Health Education
· Politicization/military training
· Programmes on radios, TV, Newspaper, Magazines
· Religious activities
· Parental and family guidance, including delegation of family responsibilities
· Cultural socialisation and initiation
· Health services

WORKSHOP B: WHAT ARE THE PRIORITIES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN?

Introduction

In order to have an effective lifeskills programme, it is crucial that we start by understanding the needs and priorities of children. This is not always easy because our own experience as adults often form the basis of what we would like our children to know.

Objectives

By the end of the session, participants should be able to:

1. Identify the lifeskills needs for children in terms of knowledge, attitudes and skills.

2. Prioritise the needs of children as a basis for a life skills programme.

Time: 30-45 minutes

Materials

Pieces of paper, each with a value, skill or knowledge, large sheets of paper, markers target board such as the one below.


What are the Priorities of Children

Procedure

1. Prepare packs of cards of knowledge, skills and values. Use a different colour for each component (i.e. blue for knowledge cards, yellow for skills and white for attitudes)

2. Explain to the participants the purpose of this activity: identifying the needs of children.

3. Divide the participants into groups of 4/5 and give each group a pack of cards.

4. Ask the group members to draw a target board with 3 circles (see above).

5. Ask participants to read each card and discuss where to place it on the target depending on how important they think it is. If there are other cards that they reject, they should place them outside the target. If there is any disagreement on where a card should be placed, they should discuss until agreement is reached or leave turned over. Some ‘blank’ cards should also be provided to allow participants to write their own.

6. Ask the groups to reconvene. Get some feed back on which colour or cards were placed where. What was the mixture of knowledge, skills and attitudes in the central area?

On the basis of their answers, discuss:

(i) What they feel would be priority areas for a life skills programme for children, and why?

(ii) What are/is the role of knowledge attitude and skills vis-a-vis this exercise?

(iii) What they would consider to be the four most important knowledge, skills and attitudes components?

Hints

· Make sure you have prepared enough sets of cards in advance.

To be put on the cards

Statements on knowledge and understanding:

· Sources of legal information and advice.
· Similarities and differences between themselves and others.
· Decision making in a democracy.
· Rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
· Nature of relationships in families, peer groups, friendships and work.
· How they can cause changes for better or worse.
· Legal and moral aspects of sexual relationships and marriage.
· The nature of rules and law.
· Nature of work/career opportunities.
· Human growth - awareness of emotional, psychological and social development.
· Their own personality, needs, abilities, interests.
· Healthy living.
· How to deal with situations if they are bullied or abused.
· Drink.
· Drugs.
· Driving.

Statements on attitudes/qualities:

· Independence of mind
· Self-knowledge.
· Sense of humour.
· Self-criticism.
· Rationality.
· Determination.
· Patience.
· Perseverance.
· Empathy.
· Commitment.
· Self-reliance/self-discipline/self-respect.
· Self-esteem.
· Sense of fairness/respect for processes of law and legal rights of others.
· Honesty.
· Consideration for others.
· Tolerance.
· Respect for ways of life, opinions and ideas of others.

Statements on skills:

· Cope confidently and effectively with unfamiliar people or situations.
· Being actively involved.
· Present coherent arguments.
· Goal setting and action planning.
· Teamwork.
· Asking for help.
· Creativity.
· Managing information including taking instruction.
· Making and taking decisions.
· Communication.
· Use available evidence to make sensible choices.
· Learn from mistakes.
· Imagination.
· Take initiatives and act responsibly.
· Behaving assertively in appropriate circumstances.
· Leadership.
· Take initiatives.

WORKSHOP C: INTRODUCING LIFE SKILLS CONCEPTS

Introduction

Explaining the concepts of life skills to a group of trainees can become a dull and boring chalk and talk affair. In order to prevent this, it is suggested that the facilitator engage the participants with an activity so that most of the concepts can be elicited from them.

Objectives

By the end of the session, participants should be able to:

1. Identify the life skills present and lacking in the role play.
2. Explain the importance of life skills.
3. Explain the interrelationship between life skills and culture.

Time: 30-45 minutes

Materials

Large sheets of paper, markers or chalk and chalk board.

Procedure

1. Ask for 6 volunteers to act in the role play ‘Mutonyi’s dilemma’, Mutonyi, her father, her uncle, uncle’s friend and two children.

2. Volunteers act the following role play:

Mutonyi finds her father lying on the bed with a very severe attack of malaria. She tries to rouse him but he can hardly speak. She runs to her uncle’s house to get help. Her uncle is talking with a friend. Mutonyi fears to interrupt them so she sits some distance away. Uncle notices Mutonyi is uneasy and looks at her inquiringly but Mutonyi just looks down nervously. At the same time she keeps on moving nearer to the uncle whenever she thinks he isn’t looking at her.

Finally the uncle turns and asks her in a firm voice what the problem is. Mutonyi reveals that her father is seriously sick. The uncle is shocked and asks Mutonyi why she didn’t tell him at once. Mutonyi just looks down at the ground. The uncle runs with his friend to see his brother.

3. Ask participants to form groups and write the following questions on the chalk board.

(i) Why did Mutonyi go to her uncle’s house?
(ii) What problem did she face when she arrived there? What did she do? Why?
(iii) Do girls in your area behave like Mutonyi? Why?
(iv) If you were Mutonyi what would you have done in that situation?
(v) What qualities does Mutonyi have? What qualities does she need to develop?

4. Group leaders present their answers to the rest.

5. Facilitator wraps up by discussing the life skills identified and the way they interact with cultural issues.

Learning points

· Mutonyi’s lack of assertiveness was a definite drawback in this situation.

· Her lack of assertiveness is connected with cultural norms and socialisation. For example, girls/women must not look into the eyes of men when talking, as a sign of submission.

Hints

· Ensure that you have read through Section 1 of the manual, especially the sub-section on ‘what are life skills’.

· Participants may not use the life skills terminologies used in this manual. This does not matter as it is the underlying concepts, not the terminologies that are important. The terminologies can come later.

Extension activity

1. If there is time, the role play can be repeated with slight changes in roles. Mutonyi now tries desperately to tell her uncle what has happened but he glares at her and tells her to keep quiet when he is talking to his friend.

2. Facilitator leads the discussion on the role of culture and its effect on life skills with the aim of finding a marriage between the two.

WORKSHOP D: ATTITUDES TO LIFE SKILLS

Objectives

By the end of the workshop, participants should be able to:

1. Express their opinions on life skills
2. Analyse reservations to life skills
3. Reach a consensus about the role and place of life skills education

Time: 30 minutes

Materials

Copies of the ‘Attitudes to Life’ questionnaire. (Alternatively the facilitator can write the questionnaire on the chalkboard/large sheet of paper.

Procedure

1. Give each participant a copy of the following questionnaire. For each statement ask them to write (A) if they agree, (D) if they disagree and (?) if they are not sure or are neutral.


Figure

Attitudes to Life Skills Questionnaire

(i) Life skills education goes against Ugandan culture

(ii) The most important life skill is passing examinations

(iii) We should base our teaching on the experiences and knowledge children already have.

(iv) The problem with life skills is that they only talk about sex.

(v) Life skills should be learnt in life, not in school.

(vi) Using the cane should be banned in school.

(vii) Life skills should be the basis of the school curriculum.

(viii) Knowledge by itself is like uncooked maize flour, potentially good and nutritious, but only if cooked with other ingredients.

2. Divide the participants into groups of five or six in order to discuss their answers.

3. Groups report back to the plenary and final discussion is carried out.

WORKSHOP E: AIMS OF LIFESKILLS EDUCATION

Objectives

By the end of the session, participants should be able to:

1. Explain the main aims of life skills education
2. Prioritise the different life skills needed
3. Develop a ‘mission statement’ on the direction and focus of life skills education.

Time: 30-45 minutes

Materials

A set of statements for each group, ‘diamond’.

Procedure

1. Divide participants into groups of three to five. Handout sets of statements on the aims of lifeskills to each group.

2. Participants discuss the aims in their groups ranking them as most important, important, least important.

3. Participants arrange the aims (or their corresponding numbers) in a diamond pattern as shown in the diagram.


Figure

4. Participants are asked to write one more aim to make a total of 9 and fit it in their ranking.

5. Participants go round looking at how the other groups have ranked their aims.

6. Facilitator summarizes groups views and makes conclusive comments basing them on what the participants have come up with.

7. Groups try do decide upon a statement that captures the main aim of life skills education. This can then form the ‘mission statement.

DIAMOND ‘9’ AIMS OF LIFE SKILLS

(Photocopy/Write and Cut to Make a Set)

1

(i) To provide knowledge and information about human relationships and lifestyles.

2

(ii) To promote positive attitudes towards cultural, ethnic and religious diversity, gender equality and people with special needs.

3

(iii) To promote an individual’s self confidence, self esteem and self worth.

4

(iv) To explore feelings and emotions in order to create a greater self awareness and to develop the skills to manage them.

5

(v) To create an ethos in which self discipline and respect for others are important values.

6

(vi) To provide equal opportunities for each student to fulfil their personal, social and academic potential.

7

(vii) To teach pupils how to behave.

8

(viii) To make pupils aware of the social, economic and political influences on their behaviour.

9

(ix) Write one of your own.

WORKSHOP F: THE HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOL

Objectives

By the end of the session, participants should be able to:

1. Explain the concept of a health promoting school.
2. Identify those aspects which make a school health promoting or vice versa.
3. Identify those steps that can realistically be taken to make their schools more health promoting.

ACTIVITY ONE

CHARACTERISTICS OF A HEALTH PROMOTING AND DEMOTING SCHOOL

Time: 60 to 80 minutes.

Materials

One copy of the handout ‘Moving from traditional health education towards the health promoting school’ for each participant, large sheets of paper, marker pens.

Procedure

1. Divide participants into pairs and distribute the handout, “Moving from traditional school health education towards the health promoting school”

2. Explain that each pair will study the handout. It has two columns, one entitled “TRADITIONAL HEALTH EDUCATION” and another, “THE HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOL”.

3. Explain that there are 3 dimensions to health, illustrate this on the board or a large sheet of paper, as shown below:


Figure

4. Ask each pair to study the handout and reflect on the kind of health education that is most common. Explain that they are free to suggest any additions to either columns. They should discuss and record observations. (20 minutes)

5. Ask each set of three pairs to merge to form groups of 6.

6. Ask half the groups to discuss the characteristics of a ‘health demoting school’ and the other half to discuss the characteristics of a ‘health promoting school’.

7. Handout a large sheet of paper and markers to each group and ask each group to represent their findings pictorially on the paper provided. (30 minutes)

8. Each group presents their findings through showing and describing their pictorial representations.

Moving from traditional school health education towards the health promoting school


TRADITIONAL HEALTH EDUCATION

THE HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOL

1.

Considers health education only in limited classroom terms.

Encourages school and community collaboration for a common good, e.g. protecting water sources.

2.

Emphasises personal hygiene and physical health to the exclusion of wider aspects of health.

Also promotes the spiritual, mental and social well-being of the children

3.

Concentrates on health instructions, acquisition of facts and their application in passing exams.

Emphasises that children practise what they learn, using a wide range of methods and developing skills.

4.

Lacks a coherent, coordinated approach which takes account of other influences and deals with children collectively.

Recognises the wide range of influences and attempts to take account of children’s pre-existing experiences, beliefs, values and attitudes, recognising children’s needs.

5.

Tends to respond to a series of perceived problems.

The school follows a life skills promoting curriculum.

6.

Takes limited account of psychosocial factors.

Views the development of a positive self-image as central to the promotion of good health; also views individuals as taking increasing control of their lives.

7.

Recognises the importance of the school and its environment only to a limited extent.

Recognises the importance of the physical environment of the school in terms of aesthetics and direct physiological effects on children and staff.

8.

Does not consider actively the health and well being of staff - measures their worth by the number of children who pass exams.

Views health promotion in the school as relevant to staff well being and recognises the importance of staff as a role model.

9.

Does not involve parents actively in the development of a health education programme.

Considers parental support and cooperation as central to the health promoting school.

10.

Views the role of school health services purely in terms of health screening and disease prevention.

Takes a wider view of school health services which includes screening and disease prevention but also attempts actively to integrate services within the health education curriculum and helps children to become more aware as consumers of health services.


Figure

The following are examples of some of the factors that were highlighted in the pretest.

THE HEALTH DEMOTING SCHOOL

· The only school structures available are dilapidated with hardly any seats or desks for the learners who sit on pieces of wood, logs, mats or even bare floor for seats.

· While it is only the teacher who has a proper desk and chair, s/he demands that every learner must observe maximum cleanliness.

· Within the classroom, the teacher is physically distant from the learners. S/he keeps a bundle of sticks for disciplining offenders. S/he does not refer to this pupils by name, but uses her/his stick to point at them as “You”.

· There are only two classroom blocks on the compound which are built very close together and allow no air to circulate to their occupants who are tightly packed inside them.

· The school meals are cooked in the open, a few paces away from the teachers’ toilet facility, while the pigs feast on the rubbish heap by the cooking site.

· The school has no water supply on the compound. Water is collected from a river, a mile away. Animals drink out of this river, while people wash themselves and their clothes in the same water source. Others defecate or urinate near the river bank.

· The teacher for lack of better recreation, carries a bottle of potent local brew and a few sticks of cigarettes, to the staff room for company as he marks the children’s homework.

· There is no proper playground. The children play on bare ground, with sharp protruding stones and other objects. If they get hurt, they only rub a little saliva into the cuts.

· There is a box labelled “First Aid” but it has been empty and locked for the last twenty years.

· There is only one toilet facility for the whole school. Pupils commonly walk around and do their business behind the latrine. The latrine is full and overflows but the children have no alternative, even when they have to hold their noses against the stench and wade through swarms of flies.

· The headmaster only appears to give directives which the teachers must execute with no question. There is nothing like staff meetings where discussions can take place.

THE HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOL

· The school is well set up with adequate space, buildings and sufficient sitting/learning facilities.

· The classes are not crowded, and the teachers are concerned with the individual child. They know them and refer to them by their names.

· The Headmaster enjoys a warm relationship with his staff. Staff meetings are held on a regular basis to discuss possible ways of improving their school.

· The teachers are show exemplary behaviour to their learners.

· There is an open communication between the school and the parents concerning the welfare of their children.

· The school designs instructional materials that encourages to participate in helping their children to practice what they learn from school. The parents send their feedback to the school with suggestions about improvement of the school activities.

· The children have well - maintained pitches and fields for various games. Teachers participate in these games too.

· The school encourages child-to-child health activities.

· The school collaborates with the health committees of the community and other organizations to carry out a number of activities such as protecting water sources, road maintenance and construction of health, and toilet facilities.

· The school participates in inter-sectoral link activities such as courses, seminars, workshops and projects.

· The school works hand in hand with the parents to emphasize immunization of all their children.

· The school has a well maintained rubbish pit and holds cleaning sessions to ensure a healthy environment.

· Trees have been planted around the school and flower gardens.

· There is an agricultural project to promote the good nutrition of the children and staff, and also for practical demonstrations.

· The school uses a lifeskills promoting curriculum.

9. Conclude the activity with the following discussion points.

(i) How do you feel about the health situation in your own school?
(ii) What dangers or advantages do you face in such a health situation?
(iii) What are some of the reasons why your school is what it is?
(iv) What role can you play as a member of your school to improve your environment?
(v) Do you share the health information you learn from school with your family why? or why not?

Learning Points

· Participants (Adolescents) need to know that the school is another bigger family where individual has responsibilities and privileges.

· The school reflects what individuals who attend it are in reality. It is contradictory to look smart in a filthy environment.

· Individuals can resolve to ensure a clean environment and can determine to do it.

· The skills emphasized in the above activity are critical and creative thinking and decision making

Hint

· The facilitator is free to use or add whatever may be missing to the descriptions of both the health promoting and demoting schools.

ACTIVITY TWO

HOW TO IMPROVE OUR SCHOOL(S)

Time: 30 to 45 minutes.

Materials

Large sheets of paper, marker pens.

Procedure

1. Participants brainstorm on ways of making their school more “health promoting”.

2. Write their responses on the board or large pieces of paper. (20 minutes)

3. Explain to the participants that no change or improvement can happen overnight. A number of stages have to be followed which calls for prioritization or putting the most important or urgent items or activities first, followed by those of lesser importance.

4. Participants prioritize the suggestions listed previously.

5. Since it is impossible to deal with all the items at once, ask the participants to pick the first 3 - 5 items on the list and prepare practical aims and strategies for turning them into reality.

6. Write the following on the board/large sheet of paper.

Aim

Strategy

1. ..........

...........

2. ..........

...........

3. ..........

...........

4. ..........

...........

5. ..........

...........

7. Lead the participants to determine their own aims. The following may be some of their responses:

· to plant flowers around the school.
· to maintain a clean and hygienic toilet environment.
· to keep our compound free of litter. (10 minutes)

8. Lead the participants to brainstorm on possible strategies to achieve their aims.

The following may feature as some of their responses:

· each one of us should carry a flower seedling from home every Monday morning.
· each of us should clean and disinfect our toilet facility.
· we should prepare ground rules to ensure that no rubbish is thrown around our compound.

These are just examples. The facilitator is free to adapt them.

9. Conclude the activity by taking the participants through the following discussion points.

(i) What did you learn from the activity?

(ii) What responsibilities do you think you have towards developing a health promoting school?

(iii) What do you hope to do about it?

(iv) Can you come up with your own action plan to take up a specific responsibility? (Explain that each individual will have to make their own action plan which they will carry out throughout the term - pin these action plans at the back of the classroom with their names. The plan may be in just one sentence).

Learning points

· It takes individual determination to effect a change. So each individual must play their part.

· The efforts of improving health needs a lot of voluntarism. No body should be forced, but will need motivation.

· Some of the skills encouraged in this activity are critical thinking, creative thinking, problem solving and decision making.

WORKSHOP G: PROMOTING SELF ESTEEM IN SCHOOL

Introduction

Self-esteem is an important factor in developing and promoting self-confidence in the students. Students high self-esteem usually tend to behave positively and feel secure and confident.

In school self-esteem is usually developed in the students by the teachers and adults there. When students come to school their self-esteem may be supported and made secure by the teaching and non-teaching staff of the school. This is only possible when the behaviour of members of staff towards students is supportive and warm. However when staff behaviours towards the student are destructive, their self-esteem becomes battered and damaged.

Objectives

By the end of the session, the participants should be able to:

1. Identify teacher behaviours which are destructive or constructive to the students’ self-esteem in class and school.

2. Analyse the implications of the school rules, regulations and practices

3. Identify and practice some of the practical activities which will promote self esteem of the students.

ACTIVITY

HOW TO PROMOTE SELF-ESTEEM IN OUR SCHOOL(S)

Time: 30 to 45 minutes.

Materials

Large sheets of paper, marker pens.

Procedure

1. Introduce the objective of this session and explain the concept of self-esteem in students and how important it is to health related behaviour (See introduction to this workshop and the subsection on what are life skills in Section One of this manual)

2. Divide the group into pairs using an appropriate method

3. Ask the participants in each pair to recount to one another some of the experiences which they underwent as a result of their teachers’ behaviour towards them. These experiences may have been destructive or constructive to their esteem.

4. Ask pairs to join together to form groups of four. Each group should list teacher behaviours in two columns as given in the sample below:

Constructive teacher behaviour

Destructive teacher behaviour

· Kindness - being friendly, listening to students, motivating students.

· Supportive - showing concern about student lives, wishing them success, acknowledging their efforts, encouraging discussion

· Fair and impartial - avoidance of discrimination on sex, tribe, religion, socio-economic background, home location, political affiliation.

· Keeping time and promises made to students.

· Respect for child rights.

· Beating, bullying, using bad language towards student.

· Sarcasm, belittling, ridiculing, favoritism, finger pointing, victimization and use of ‘you’ instead of names.

· Sexual abuse, flirting in class, use of degrading, impolite language.

· Drunkenness, shabbiness, lateness, telling lies to students.

· Bad handwriting, being unprepared.

· Making unfair demands on the students.

5. Each group displays and explains their list

6. Process the results with the participants by asking:

(i) Which of the two lists was difficult to compose and why?
(ii) Which items on their lists are part of school rules?
(iii) Which items did not match their expectations?
(iv) Which items went contrary to child rights?
(v) How do these teacher behaviours affect student’s self esteem?
(vi) How will they apply what they have learnt in this session to boost the self esteem of their students?

Extension activity

Ask participants to discuss:

(i) How they could apply what they have learned to their own family and community members.

(ii) How they could encourage parents to promote the self-esteem of their children who are still at home i.e. pre-school kids.