Cover Image
close this bookThe Packaging of Fruit Juice and Non-Carbonated Fruit Drinks (CDI, 1998, 87 p.)
close this folderIII. THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF PACKAGING
close this folderD - LONG SHELF LIFE STERILISED PRODUCTS (ASEPTIC PACKAGING)
View the document(introduction...)
View the document16. ''Brick'' carton box
View the document17. Plastic pouch
View the document18. Thermoformed plastic cup
View the document19. Plastic bottle
View the document20. Bag in box
View the document21. ''Cartocan''

(introduction...)

Definition:

Sterilised packaging treatment was developed by Tetrapak in the mid-1960s for the preservation of milk (140°C in 5 seconds).

For reasons of quality, this process has been adopted by practically the entire milk industry and is now being considered by manufacturers of fruit juices. In effect, the product is heated for a very short time - less than a minute - compared to the long heating treatment for the hot filling system. The shelf-life is also several months at room temperature.

Remark: For acidic products (pH < 4.5), a heat treatment at 90/95°C during a few seconds is enough (HTST), but for products with a higher pH (pH > 4.5) a UHT treatment is necessary.

Principle:

The product (juice) is treated at a high temperature (from 95 to 140°C) for several seconds in order to destroy bacteria, yeasts and mould, and to deactivate the enzymes responsible for undesirable reactions during storage. After rapid cooling at 20/30°C, the treated product is packaged. The packaging machine must therefore include a special section in which all the procedures of filling and closing the packaging are executed in an environment free of bacteria and any other contaminants. The packaging itself must be disinfected to ensure that it is also free of any contamination (oxygen peroxide, ultraviolet, hot air, etc.).

To avoid all risk of contamination (a single bacteria can corrupt the package), sophisticated techniques must be adopted (automation, integrated cleansing, etc...) which requires production rates of at least 4000 units per hour.

Advantages:

· Improved preservation of natural taste due to the short sterilising treatment and subsequent rapid cooling.

· A completely natural product without chemical preservatives.

· The possibility of using packaging materials other than glass or metal, i.e. compound cardboard and multi-layer plastics.

Disadvantages:

· High investment costs (more than £ 625,000 for the combined UHT steriliser/aseptic packaging machine).

· High production rates.

· Sophisticated technology necessitates a highly trained labour force (production and maintenance).

· Steril working conditions at the packaging level.

16. ''Brick'' carton box

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 16

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Parallelepiped box shaped either from a film (Tetra Pak or International Paper) or from a pre-formed carton box (Combibloc)

The most developed shape for juice packaging in Europe.

Composition

PE/ALU/PE/CARTON/PE* multilayer


Cost price

-1 litre:

8.12 to 11.25 p. for one brick (price is variable according to the purchased quantity)

- Price depends on the thickness of the layers and number of colours on the design
- Option: Spout with cap - add approx. 0.87 p. (0.5 p. for the straw)


-1/2 l:

6.25 to 7.12 p.



- ¼ l:

5 to 5.62 p.



- option:

spout with cap


Shelf-life

More than 6 months

Volume

0.2, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 litre

Packaging machine output

From 3000 bricks/hr

Capital investment of packaging machines

From £ 500 k
Possibility of leasing or purchasing of refurbished machine

Break-even point: production of a minimum of 10 millions bricks/year

Recommended or essential outer pack

Palletisation with shrinkable film Carton box or crate

Very easy storage system because of the shape.

Positioning of the product on the market

The conventional brick has been on the market for more than 20 years; it is considered as the wide-scale packaging system for the common consumer products

New shapes ("bottle box" from Combibloc, "Slim" from Tetra Pak) and the easy opening/closures systems are trying to revive its market

Positioning in relation to the environment

Problem of multilayer carton/plastic/alu

Incineration refuse can be used in concrete production

* See glossary


N° 16 "Brick" Carton Box

17. Plastic pouch

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 17

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

The pouch is pre-formed from a film, sterilised, filled, sealed and dated/coded on the same packaging machine


Composition

Option 1)

PEBD film 80 to 100 microns*

Film is presented as a reel 18 to 20 kg, protected by a plastic envelop


Option 2)

PEBD/EVOH/PEBD or PEBD/OVA/PEBD film


Cost price

Option 1)

£ 1.75 to 2/kg of film, i.e. for one 200 ml pouch of 3.5 gr., a price of 0.63 to 0.75 p.

Option 1 is the least expensive of all the packaging materials. Available in some African countries


Option 2)

£ 4.38 to £ 4.88/kg, i.e. 1.5 to 1.63 p. for one pouch


Shelf-life

Option 1)

3 to 4 weeks at room temperature



Option 2)

more than 6 months


Volume

Any size is possible from 100 ml to 1 litre

The most common are the small volumes up to 250 ml.

Packaging machine output

The smallest one produces 2000 pouches per hour

All the packaging machines are automatic ("form-fill & seal)

Capital investment for packaging machine

From approx. £ 250 k

The cheapest investment for the sterile packaging system

Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate 10 to 20 litres or bags 2 to 5 litres in case of export or far-off transport.


Positioning of the product on the market

- In small volumes, the product is distributed by vendors equipped with an insulated box
- The least expensive and the best adapted for the informal distribution circuit
- Can be stored in the deep-freezer and sold as a "lolly", especially appreciated by children
- In large volumes (1l), can be sold in supermarkets

Same as the PE pouch with cold filling but the end-product is of better quality as there is no chemical preservative

Positioning in relation to the environment

The best of all packaging material (100 % incinerable without rejection of chlorine)

It is advised to provide vendors with dustbins in order to collect the empty pouches after consumption

* See glossary


N° 17: Plastic pouch


Coextruded film

18. Thermoformed plastic cup

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 18

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

The cup is pre-formed from a reel of film; on the same machine, the cup is filled, then sealed with a lid pre-cut from a reel (form, fill & seal) in a sterile room


Composition

1) PS/EVOH/PE or PP/EVOH/PP film for long shelf-life
2) Alu film for lid 40 microns

- EVOH is an anti-oxygen barrier

Cost price

1) PS/EVOH/PE film at £ 2.25 to 2.50/kg or 3 to 3.75 p./cup of 250 ml
2) Film alu: 62.5 p./m2 or 0.5 p./lid

-Total 3.5 to 4.25 p./cup of 250 ml

Shelf-life

More than 6 months


Volume

From 100 to 330 ml

In order to strengthen the cup for the hot filling, grooves must be planned on the body of the cup; for this reason the large sizes (½ l & 1 l) are difficult to obtain

Packaging machine output

From 5000 cups/hr up to 50000

"Form, fill & seal" packaging machine with high output only because of the high investment cost

Capital investment for packaging machines

More than £ 375 k


Recommended or essential outer pack

- Grouping under a carton sheet by 6, 12, 24, packs, etc.
- Shrinkable film
- Plastic crate


Positioning of the product on the market

The cup is used as a glass; any sale area can be approached, including the informal circuit


Positioning in relation to the environment

The cup is incinerable
The lid is recyclable

* See glossary


N° 18: Thermoformed plastic cup


Multilayer film roll

19. Plastic bottle

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 19

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Bottle with different shapes and different compositions


Composition

PE/EVOH/PE* or PE/EVOH/PET

Oxygen-proof polymers often carry commercial names (e.g. Barex)

Cost price

6.88 to 8.12 pence./bottle of 1 litre


Shelf-life

More than 6 months


Volume

1 litre 1,5 litres

Packaging machine output

From 8000 bottles/hr

Injection of inert nitrogen into the space between the liquid and the cap

Capital investment for packaging machines

More than £ 1000 k

Recommended or essential outer pack

Carton or shrinkable film + palletisation

Positioning of the product on the market

Quality product without chemical preservative

Relatively new system on the European market

Positioning in relation to the environment

Recyclable or incinerable


N° 19: Plastic Bottle

* See glossary

20. Bag in box

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 20

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Plastic pouch in different sizes placed in a strong container such as a carton box, plastic container, etc.


Composition

Laminated film with 3 layers LDPE/metallic PET/LDPE* (50/12/50 microns) pre-sterilised at 15 Kg ray

Same film or pre-sterilised nylon/PA/PE for possibility of hot filling

Cost price

- 10 L:

> £ 0.63

Price ex-work


- 20 L:

> £ 0.75



- 200 L:

> £ 3.12



- 1000 L:

> £ 16.25


Shelf-life

1 year with sterilised process and heat treatment

In case of hot filling, shelf-life is between 3 and 5 months.

Volume

From 2 to 1000 litres

Packaging machine output

From 3000 to 6000 litres/hr

Capital investment for packaging machines

From £ 62.5 k to £ 175 k

Recommended or essential outer pack

- The carton box for packs between 3 & 30 litres
- The metallic drum for 55/60 Gallons
- The rigid plastic, stainless steel, or wood container for 500/1000 L

Positioning of the product on the market

- Small volumes are designed for hotels, communities, restaurants
- Large volumes are for industries, especially for export

- Products are always 100 % fruit, natural, upmarket
- Storage containers of 1000 litres can be used for storage of juice or pulp during the fruit gathering period and for packaging the end-product during the off-season (e.g. mango fruit)

Positioning in relation to the environment

All the films can be recycled or incinerated for energy recovery


* See glossary


N° 20: "Bag in Box"

21. ''Cartocan''

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 21

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Cylindrical packaging processed from carton

Opening by "Pull Tape" (spline to be pulled out)

Composition

Laminated carton with EVOH/PE* coat

Possibility of addition of one coat of alu for shelf-life higher than 3 months

Cost price

The can is composed of 4 parts (body + bottom + lid + spline): 5 to 5.6 pence


Shelf-life

- 3 months for cans without alu
- More than 6 months with alu


Volume

150 to 500 ml

Packaging machine can be adjusted to obtain several sizes

Packaging machine output

From 7500 cans/hr


Capital investment for packaging machines

From £ 1250 k


Recommended or essential outer pack

The CartonCan is identical to the metallic can

Positioning of the product on the market

Supermarkets, hotels

Convenient and new form and size (new image)

Positioning in relation to the environment

Recyclable and easy for incineration in the case of cartocan without alu

The plastic material can be easily separated from the carton

* See glossary


N° 21: "Cartocan"