Cover Image
close this bookThe Packaging of Fruit Juice and Non-Carbonated Fruit Drinks (CDI, 1998, 87 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentGLOSSARY
View the documentForeword
View the documentI. INTRODUCTION
Open this folder and view contentsII. METHODOLOGY FOR CORRECT CHOICE OF PACKAGING
Open this folder and view contentsIII. THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF PACKAGING
View the documentIV - IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
Open this folder and view contentsANNEXES
View the documentBack Cover

(introduction...)

GUIDE SERIES TECHNOLOGIES No. 10

Centre for the Development of Industry
ACP - EU

This document was originally prepared on the basis of information provided by the institutions profiled. Despite all efforts made for updating and verification, the Centre for the Development of Industry does not accept responsability for the accuracy or completeness of the information. The inclusion of any institution in this document does not imply any commitment on the part of that institution to provide any of the services described.

CDI

Centre for the Development of Industry

52 avenue Hermann Debroux
B-1160 BRUSSELS
BELGIUM
Telephone +32 2 679.18.11
Telecopie +32 2 675.26.03
Tx 61427 cdi b

Since it was founded in 1977, the Centre for the Development of Industry (CDI) has acquired extensive technical and commercial know-how in the creation, development and rehabilitation of small and medium-sized industries in the ACP countries (Africa, Caribbean and Pacific), particularly through the establishment of lasting partnerships with companies in the European Union.

In publishing this collection of "Practical Guides", the CDI is meeting a clearly expressed need by ACP promoters and companies in the EU wishing to lay the foundations for industrial co-operation. The purpose of these guides is to enable them to adapt to the technical, commercial, financial, administrative and legal environment of the different countries. Designed to ease their task by providing detailed information -in simple practical terms - on a specific aspect or field of their activities, these guides are intended above all to be effective tools which managers can use on a day-to-day basis.

To prepare the guides, the CDI calls upon the services of consultants, researchers and businessmen - in both the ACP countries and the European Union - with extensive experience in the field concerned, in the practical problems actually encountered by entrepreneurs and in the solutions to be applied. Whenever circumstances allow, the CDI co-operates with partners (consultancy bureaux, research bodies, specialised institutions, etc.) to ensure that the guides are circulated as widely as possible.

This CDI guide has been compiled by Jean-Luc Voisin, food engineer, in collaboration with CDI experts.

Coordination:

Pedersen T. (CDI) Tpe@cdi.be


Keene P. (CDI) Pke@cdi.be

© 1998 CDI, Brussels, first edition

This volume of CDI Guides is published by the CDI

May not be sold by persons or organisations other than CDI and its official distributors. Price: 20 Ecus

Reproduction authorised with indication of the source, except for commercial purposes.

GLOSSARY

Alu: Aluminium

EVOH: Ethylene vinyl alcohol

HTST: High Temperature Short Time

OPA: Nylon

PA: Polyamide

PE: Polyethylene

LDPE: Low density polyethylene

HDPE: High density polyethylene

£k: kilo Pound Sterling (x 1000 £) (1£ = 100p = approx. US$ 1.60 or FF. 8.00)

PEN: Polyethylene naphtalate

PET: Polyethylene therephtalate (polyester)

PP: Polypropylene

PVC: Polyvinyl chloride

PVDC: Polyvinylidene (trade mark: Saran)

UHT: ultra high temperature

U.V: Ultra Violet

Foreword

This document is intended for all manufacturers, investors, production or maintenance directors, economists, etc., who intend to develop a new method of packaging fruit juices, uncarbonated fruit drinks, or non-alcoholic fruit drinks.

The document explains the different possibilities for packaging, their respective cost and corresponding investment, as well as the addresses or exhibitions useful for the efficient development of the project.

Twenty-one different packaging types are individually introduced (Technical filing-cards 1 to 21 in Chapter III); this list is not exhaustive, the world of packaging being in constant evolution.

A classification has been made according to the cost of investment of each packaging machine and according to the packaging cost (see Chapter II).

When one or more types of packaging have been selected, it is useful to check the list of suppliers (packaging materials and packaging machines) in the appendices; this list is also not exhaustive and it is advisable to investigate further in order to obtain technical and financial offers from each supplier; it is important to contact the packaging material suppliers present in the country of investment and a visit must be paid to each of these suppliers in order to check their production capacity, the quality of end products, costs, etc.

The abbreviations used throughout the document are explained in the glossary (see Table of Contents).

The following are some of the questions this guide seeks to answer:

Which type of packaging to choose?

Which is the best-suited to the market?

Which is the least expensive?

How long must the juice be conserved?

What will be the initial investment and equipment costs?

Who to contant

I. INTRODUCTION

Wastage of foodstuffs is estimated at 50% in the least developed countries, at 30% in most developing countries and at a mere 2% in the developed world. These differences can be attributed to differences in packaging and distribution(1).

Economies are often in difficulty and development, especially in Africa, is slow.

Problems often begin with the failure of the harvest, crops rotting in the fields, vermin in the warehouses or an inability to distribute that which remains.

In a modern society practically all merchandise is packaged and the entire process of distribution would be impossible without the use of packaging materials.

To demonstrate its importance in our daily lives, these are the principle advantages of packaging(2).

1. For consumer health:

Packaging could help to prevent famine, malnutrition and sickness: a report by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (F.A.O.) concludes that improved packaging and handling would immediately reduce crop losses by 5% in several countries. This improvement alone would furnish at least an additional 39 million tonnes of foodstuffs each year (or nearly twice the annual world-wide deficit).

Packaging prevents the product from spoiling: it virtually guarantees a safe product and reduces the risk of fraud.

Packaging greatly reduces sickness: Public health and safety authorities consider packaging to be one of the main factors contributing to the regression of tuberculosis, influenza and numerous gastrointestinal illnesses over the last 100 years.

Packaging provides the consumer with information on a product: by indicating the composition, the quantity, the best-by date, and serving suggestions.

Packaging is convenient: it adapts to all types of needs, i.e. individual portions and easy-to-open packaging.

Packaging permits a wide range of products, which otherwise would not be available, to be offered for sale: we can drink mango juice out of season thousands of kilometres from the original plantation....

2. For business:

We use packaging materials in a more efficient manner: thanks to technological progress, we use less material to package the same amount of product... without sacrificing product quality (23% savings on a box of milk in 18 years, 25% on a PET bottle and on an aluminium tin in 20 years.)

Packaging reduces the cost of most products by reducing damage: Experts estimate that the cost of distribution for most products would be at least doubled if packaging did not exist.

Packaging reduces the cost of foodstuffs: through the reduction of losses due to vermin and spoilage.

3. For society:

Packaging reduces solid waste: a study carried out in Mexico has shown that a household in Mexico produces 40% more waste than one in the USA. One of the reasons is that, in Mexico, less packaging and fewer pre-cooked foodstuffs are used; the overall refuse includes far more organic waste.

Packaging contributes to a more elevated standard of living: thanks to more advanced packaging methods, inhabitants of the developed countries spend less each year on food than in other countries. Money thus saved can contribute to providing a higher standard of living.

Packaging contributes to the creation of jobs and revenue: in the USA, packaging is an industry worth 75 to 80 billion dollars and which employs more than 2 million people. Lecturers in the science and technology of packaging are among the most sought-after and best paid technical experts.

This also signifies that packaging costs are a part of everyone's daily life: studies have shown that packaging alone represents 5 to 50% of the overall cost of products, and that for foodstuffs the figure is 16 %.

Fruits are a natural resource in nearly all the African, the Caribbean and Pacific countries. Their variety is impressive and until recently, it must be said that few of these countries have known how to exploit this "gold mine" given the fragile nature of fresh fruit.

Therefore, one of the very first steps in the exploitation of any fruit is the making of a juice, a nectar or any other fruit-based drink.

One of the difficulties frequently encountered by promoters involves the choice of packaging.

(introduction...)

The correct choice of packaging depends on the type of market, the cost of the packaging and the company's investment capacity.

1. The target market (segment)

· Top of the range:

- The customers: On the local and regional level they are mainly local people with high incomes, hotels, certain organisations, tourists and expatriates. The possibility of exporting to wealthier countries might also be considered.

- The finished products: will be of superior quality, identical to those found in Europe. They include natural juices with a short shelf-life or UHT sterilised products with sterilised packaging (see Chapter III-A and D). A full range of package sizes will be available with one litre being the preferred size for fresh products. Long shelf-life products will go for export.

- Distribution network: locally, products will be bought by supermarkets, retailers in residential areas, hotels, bars and restaurants. For export, the central buying offices of large distribution networks may be used.

· Products for large-scale distribution:

- The customers: the majority of African consumers may be considered as having a low income; children are often the most important market sector.

- The finished products: in most African countries, products are packaged in small volumes which are low-priced and are designed for immediate consumption. The juice will often be in the form of diluted fruit drink, always healthy and hygienic. Low cost types of packaging are also used (see the classification by cost of packaging types). Such products often belong to the long shelf-life products described in Chapter III-B and C.

- Distribution networks: the products are often sold by street vendors and by small shops without refrigeration facilities.

2. Cost of packaging

The costs of the different packaging types described in the technical sections obviously depend on several factors: number of colours in the graphics, purchased quantities, origin (imported or local) and suppliers. However, the prices listed below, allow a classification of the packaging as follows (range given for a volume of approximately one quarter litre; net production cost before tax in pence):

1. bulk packaging in drum (card 2)

< 0.62 p

2. bulk packaging into "bag in box" (card 20)

0.37 to 1.00 p

3. LDPE pouch, shelf-life 4 weeks (card 6 & 17)

0.5 to 0.62 p

4. PE/EVOH/PE pouch, long shelf-life (card 17)

1.5 to 1.62 p

5. HDPE or PP bottle, short shelf-life (card 1)

1.62 to 2.0 p

6. PP bottle, short shelf-life (card 1)

1.75 to 2.0 p

7. pre-formed LDPE pouch, short shelf-life (card 4)

2.0 p

8. pre-formed PS cup hot packaging (card 9)

2.0 to 2.37 p

9. P.V.C. bottle with preservative (card 7)

2.0 to 2.5 p

10. gable-top cartons, short shelf-life (card 5)

2.5 to 3.12 p

11. PP or PS pre-formed plastic cup short shelf-life (card 3)

2.5 to 2.87 p

12. Doypack pouch PE/PET hot packaging (card 10)

2.5 to 3.12 p

13. P.E.T. bottle with preservative (card 8)

2.5 to 3.5 p

14. Doypack pouch PE/ALU/PET (card 10)

3.12 to 3.75 p

15. PS/EVOH/PE pre-formed cup, long shelf-life (card 9 & 18)

3.5 to 4.25 p

16. alu cup, long shelf-life (card 15)

4.75 to 5.0 p

17. aseptic brick (card 16)

5.0 to 5.62 p

18. gable-top, hot packaging (card n° 13)

5.62 to 6.87 p

19. PET bottle with preservative (card n° 8)

6.25 p

20. Reusable glass bottle hot packaging (card n° 12)

6.0 to 7.5 p

21. glass bottle + lid, hot packaging (card n° 12)

6.0 to 7.5 p

22. can, hot packaging (card n° 14)

6.87 to 8.12 p

23. Cheerpack pouch (card n° 11)

8.75 to 10.0 p

3. Investment capacity of the promoter

It is also possible to class the likely level of capital investment necessary according to the type of packaging selected (packaging without prior preparation and heat treatment of the juice):

PACKAGING

INVESTMENT
Packaging machine

MINIMUM
Production (litres/day*)

1. plastic drum (card 2)

none

500

2. pre-formed plastic pouch (card 4)

from £3.75 k to £6.25 k

1 000

3. plastic bottle (card 1)

from £6.25 k

1 000

4. glass bottle (card 12)

from £6.25 k

1 000

5. Doypack pouch (card 10)

from £12.5 k

1 000

6. pre-formed plastic and alu cup (card 3)

from £12.5 k

1 000

7. pre-formed metallic cup (card 15)

from £12.5 k

1 000

8. plastic pouch from film (card 6)

from £12.5 k

1 000

9. gable-top carton (card 5 & 13)

from £25.0 k

1 000

10. Cheerpack pouch (card 11)

from £62.5 k

3 000 l

11. aseptic "bag in box" (card 20)

from £75.0 k

10 000 l

12. PVC bottle (card 7)

from £137.5 k

6 000 l

13. can (card 14)

from £187.5 k

8 000 l

14. thermoformed cup (card 9)

from £250.0 k

8 000 l

15. aseptic plastic pouch (card 17)

from £250.0 k

6 000 l

16. PET bottle (card 8)

from £275.0 k

6 000 l

17. aseptic thermoformed cup (card 18)

from £375.0 k

10 000 l

18. aseptic brick (card 16)

from £500.0 k

6 000 l

19. aseptic bottle (card 19)

from £1000.0 k

50 000 l

20. "Cartocan"

from £1250.0 k

30 000 l

* Litres of fruit juice to be processed by one shift per day in order that profits are higher than the break-even point.

1. Wide distribution product (informal distribution)

A promoter has £12,500.00 available for a packaging line and intends to sell the end product through the informal circuit as he already has his own distribution network. In such a case, the following solutions are feasible:

i) Concerning investment, according to the table in section 3 above, he can choose the plastic drum, the pre-formed pouch, the glass bottle, the Doypack pouch, the plastic cup, the metallic cup, the plastic pouch from a film.

ii) For informal circuit distribution, he has to provide a long shelf-life product. With reference to the different filing-cards selected in point 1 above, this narrows the choice down to the glass bottle, the Doypack pouch, the pre-formed plastic cup, the metallic cup and the plastic pouch from film.

iii) As the target market is low-income consumers it is necessary to select the least expensive packaging material from the table in section 3. When the criteria in paragraph III are considered, this leaves only: the plastic pouch, the pre-formed cup and the Doypack pouch.

2. Top of the range product (cold chain distribution)

A promoter has got £ 25,000 available for his packaging line and intends to sell the finished product to the hotels, restaurants and organisations. The product will be used either in its original packaging in 250 ml volumes (organisations) or redistributed in glasses (bars and restaurants) from a high-volume package (more than 5 litres). In such a case, the following solutions are feasible:

i) In terms of investment, according to the table in section 3 above, it is possible to select the plastic drum, the glass bottle, the Doypack pouch, the plastic cup, the metallic cup, the plastic pouch from film and the gable-top box.

ii) For the «top of the range» distribution, it is advisable to propose a natural short shelf-life fruit juice to hotels and supermarkets to be stored under refrigeration. With reference to the filing-cards selected in point 1 above, this narrows the choice down to the plastic bottle (card 1), the plastic drum (card 2), the pre-formed plastic cup (card 3), the pre-formed plastic pouch (card 4), the gable-top box (card 5).

iii) As consumption is either in individual 250 ml packages or in glass from a container of more than 5 litres, the final choice will be:

- The plastic cup (card 4) or the gable top box (card 5) for the individual 250 ml package; in such case, if the plastic cup is manufactured locally, it will preferred to the imported gable-top box.

- The plastic drum of a capacity of 5 litres and more (card 2) for bulk.

(introduction...)

By combining the different stabilisation and packaging processes, it is possible to classify the different types of packaging as follows:

A. Pasteurisation and cold packaging/filling (short shelf-life)

B. Pasteurisation and cold packaging with chemical preservatives(long shelf-life)

C. Pasteurisation with hot packaging/filling, and eventual post-pasteurising (long shelf-life)

D. UHT or HTST treatment with sterilised packaging (long shelf-life)


This diagram is an abridged form of the following table

PRODUCTION PROCESS AND PACKAGING

Process

Shelf-life

Packaging*

Discussion

A
Pasteurisation & cold packaging

2 to 4 weeks in cold storage (+4°C to +6°C)

(1) HDPE bottle
(2) HDPE drum
(3) PS or PP pre-formed cup
(4) LDPE pre-formed pouch 1 litre
(5) Gable-top carton 1 litre

Immediately after fresh fruit juice extraction, juice is pasteurised at 80/95°C for a few seconds then cooled to +4°C and stored in an insulated tank before packaging

B
Pasteurisation & cold packaging with preservative

1 month to several months according to the level of anti-oxygen barrier

(6) LDPE pouch < 200 ml
(7) PVC bottle 1.5 litre
(8) PET bottle 1 litre

Chemical preservatives are less and less acceptable to consumers

C
Pasteurisation & hot packaging with possibility of post-pasteurisation packing + product in a tunnel

More than 3 months at room temperature

(9) Thermoformed cup 100 ml to 300 ml
(10) Doypack pouch
(11) Cheerpack pouch
(12) Glass bottle
(13) Aluminised gable-top carton
(14) Thermoformed cup
(15) Aluminised cup

- Only for acid products (pH less than 4.5)
- Post-pasteurisation is recommended for output higher than 500 l/hr

D
UHT or HTST treatment with sterilised packaging at room temperature

More than 6 months at room temperature

(16) Brick
(17) Plastic pouch
(18) Thermoformed cup
(19) Plastic bottle
(20) Bag in box
(21) CartoCan

- Undeniable advantage linked to the quality of the end-product: no chemical preservative, natural taste thanks to the very short heat treatment
- Any product can be processed with any acidity
- Disadvantage: expensive and sophisticated technology.

*numbers correspond to the appropriate technical filing-card

For each process, investment budgets vary from 1 to 20 for identical capacities. It is therefore important to understand the operations limits of each process.

(introduction...)

Definition:

Products with a shelf-life of 2 to 4 weeks which must be stored in a cold chain (temperature less than +7°C); this process is used for natural fruit juices.

This type of product has shown a marked development in Europe in recent years because of increased consumer demand for natural products.

Principle:

Most juices on the market are obtained from the extraction of pulp from fresh fruit which is then pasteurised (at temperatures between 80 and 95°C for 2 to 3 seconds) and then cooled at +4°C ("flash" refrigeration) for packaging.

A refrigerated distribution network (less than 7°C) must be used, and the shelf-life is limited to 2 to 4 weeks only. Shorter periods can be indicated in order to stimulate product sales (8 days as in the case of pasteurised milk).

Advantages:

Excellent natural tasting product, closest to fresh fruit juice
Possibility of low capacity processing plant (less than 1 000 litres per day)
Initial investment in machinery adapted to small projects with low output

Disadvantages:

Refrigerated distribution network often non-existent in Africa (to be created)
Initial investment to be made in a cold room and a refrigerated vehicle
Obligation to work with fresh fruit imposes seasonal production schedule

1. Plastic bottle


N° 1: the plastic bottle

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 1

A - Cold packaging/short shelf-life

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

- Bottle bought ready to be filled or to be own-manufactured for the large capacities

The supplier must be close to the packaging plant because of transport costs

Composition

- Body of the bottle made of HDPE* or PP
- Alu lid with possible plastic plug - Label stuck on the body

HDPE and PP are not permeable to air oxygen carbon dioxide; they cannot be used for long shelf-life products

Cost price for 1 litre

HDPE: 2 to 2.20 p. (25g/bottle)
PP: 2.5 to 2.8 p.
lid: 0.6
label: 0.25
TOTAL: 5.35 p to 5.85 pence

HDPE: £0.75 to £0.88/kg of granule
PP: £1 to £1.13/kg
For bottles purchased pre-formed this price doubles: (5 pences/bottle 1 l)
For a ¼ l, 1 bottle is approx. 10 gr. = 0.75 p to 1.13 p./bottle body

Shelf-life

3 to 4 weeks in a cold chain (<7° C)

Upmarket product

Volume

Most frequently 1 litre


Bottle production

Blow moulding from 400 bottles/hr for a capital cost of £75 k for the machine + £12.5 k for the mould

Recommended for a production over 8000 bottles/day

Packaging machine output

Option 1: filling machine only from 100 bottles/hr
Option 2: filling/thermosealing machine from 800 bottles/hr


Capital investment for packaging machines

Option 1: from £62.5 k
Option 2: from £6.25 k

Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate
Carton

Capital cost for the whole line

From £ 37.5 k for semi-automatic line

Output 150 litres/hr of pasteurised juice

Positioning of the product on the market

- High quality products, 100% natural, sold with fresh produce in supermarkets, restaurants, hotels and communities
- Cold chain distribution required

HDPE is not transparent ("milky" appearance), it may be useful to colour it for the sale of fruit juices

Positioning in relation to the environment

Incineration or recycling possible for secondary use


* For list of abbreviations see glossary

2. Plastic drum

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 2

A - Cold packaging/short shelf-life

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Drum with water/air-tight cap

To be purchased on the local market

Composition

HDPE*

Food quality is required

Cost price

From £ 0.25 to £ 0.625 for one drum of 5 l with cap

The drum can be re-used 10 times which means a cost price of < 0.625 pence/litre

Shelf-life

2 to 3 weeks in cold chain distribution (<7°C)

Volume

5, 10, 20 litres and more

Packaging machine output

Option 1: packaging machine is not necessary up to 1 000 l/day
Option 2: semi-automatic filling 150 to 200 drums/hr

Option 1: direct filling of the drums by pipe at the outlet of the pasteuriser

Capital investment for packaging machines

Option 1: none
Option 2: from £6.25 k


Recommended or essential outer pack

None

A self-adhesive label must be foreseen for the essential information (production date, content, etc.)

Positioning of the product on the market

- High quality products, 100% natural, sold with fresh produce in supermarkets, restaurants, hotels and communities
- Cold chain distribution required

The product is sold as a "bulk" product (interesting price for the buyer)

Positioning in relation to the environment

Re-utilisation of the empty drums after recovery and cleaning

No waste

* See glossary


N° 2: the Plastic Drum

3. Pre-formed plastic cup

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 3

A - Cold packaging/short shelf-life

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Transparent or coloured cup bought "ready to fill" with the lids pre-cut to the cup size


Composition

- PS* or PP cup
- Pre-cut alu lid with a coat of special varnish corresponding to the composition of the cup (PS or PP)

It is not possible to obtain preformed cup with anti-oxygen barrier

Cost price

Cup: 1.5 to 1.88 p/unit
Lid: 1 p.
Total: 2.5 to 2.88 pence for one cup of 200 to 250 ml

- Cup manufacturers are present in some African countries - Lids must be imported

Shelf-life

2 to 3 weeks in cold chain distribution (<7°C)


Volume

125 ml/200 ml/250 ml


Packaging machine output

From 700 cups/hr up to 10 000 cups/hr

Possibility of processing less than 5000 cups/day

Capital investment for packaging machines

- 700 cups/hr (semiauto): £12.5 k
- 1 500 cups/hr (auto): £37.5 k
- 2 500 cups/hr (auto): £50 k


Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate or carton with shrinkable film


Positioning of the product on the market

- Stands with refrigerator, itinerant vendors with insulated box, communities, hotels.
- Sells well with a straw
- Cold chain distribution required

The product can be diluted (fruit drink from concentrate for instance)

Positioning in relation to the environment

- Incinerable cup
- Recyclable alu lid


* See glossary


N° 3: the Pre-formed Plastic Cup

4. Pre-formed pouch

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 4

A - Cold packaging/short shelf-life

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

The pouch is delivered flat with an opening for filling and sealing

Composition

LDPE* thickness 80 to 100 microns

Cost price

3.12 p. for one pouch 1 litre 1.88 p. for ½ litre

With 2 colours

Shelf-life

2 to 3 weeks in cold chain distribution (<7°C)

Volume

1 litre and ½ litre

Not available in smaller volumes

Filling/sealing machine output

Only for small capacity from 200 to 500 pouches/hr

For more than 500 pouches/hr, it is advised to use the automatic packaging machine (see filing-card 6)

Capital investment for packaging machines

Between £ 3.75 k and £ 6.25 k

The lowest investment for a packaging machine

Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate 10 to 20 litres

Positioning of the product on the market

- High quality products, 100% natural, sold with fresh produce in supermarkets, restaurants, hotels and communities
- Cold chain distribution required

As the small sizes are nonexistent the product can be proposed only to the large consumers with cooling facilities.

Positioning in relation with the environment

The best packaging material (100% incinerable without rejection of chlorine)

* For list of abbreviations see glossary


N° 4: the Pre-formed Pouch

5. Gable-top carton box

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 5

A - Cold packaging/Short shelf-life

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Presentation

Gable-top carton box with square base


Composition

PE/Carton/PE*


Cost price

1 litre: 6.25 to 6.88 p. according to the supplier
¼ litre: 3.12 to 3.75 p.


Shelf-life

3 to 4 weeks in cold chain distribution (<7° C)


Volume

¼ l, ½ l, 1/1 l, 2 l,

1 & 2 litres are the most profitable and the most used

Packaging machine output

250 boxes/hr for the semi-automatic machine up to 10000 boxes/hr for the automatic one

All packaging machines use preformed carton; there are no "form, fill and seal" machines

Capital investment for packaging machines

From £ 25 k for the smallest (250 boxes/hr) up to £ 625 k for the automatic one


Recommended or essential outer pack

Carton 10 to 20 litres with shrinkable film + pallet


Positioning of the product on the market

- Upmarket product mainly distributed in supermarkets, hotels, etc.
- Cold chain distribution required


Positioning in relation to the environment

100 % incinerable (good calorific power)

* See glossary


N° 5: the Gable-Top Carton Box

(introduction...)

Definition:

These products can be kept at room temperature for several months thanks to the presence of chemical preservatives. Most of these products are mainly fruit drinks with addition of sugar and water.

Principle:

This type of treatment is mainly used for fruit drinks with a greater degree of dilution; the pH being often greater than 5, it is necessary to decrease it to less than 4.2. The preservative is usually added before pasteurisation and processing is carried out at low temperature. The preservatives are selected on the basis of two criteria:

· The prevention of the development of bacteria, mould or yeasts in the product.
· The prevention of the effects of oxidation on the product.

Advantages:

· Simple technology and installation
· Possibility of packaging for low output production (reduced initial investment)
· Possibility to choose cost-effective packaging materials (PE bag)
· Product can be stored at room temperature

Disadvantage:

· Use of chemical additives (see annex 3)

6. Polyethylene film pouch

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 6

B - Cold packaging with preservative

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

The pouch is pre-formed from a film, filled, sealed and dated/coded by the same machine

The film can be transparent rendering product visible

Composition

LDPE* film, thickness 70 to 90 microns

Film is presented as a reel, 18 to 20 kg, protected by a plastic envelop

Cost price

1.75 to 2 $./kg of film or 0.5 to 0.63 p. for 1 pouch 200 ml (3.5 gr.)

The least expensive packaging material; this film is manufactured in some African countries

Shelf-life

3 to 4 weeks (poor barrier to oxygen and UV rays)

Inventory turnover must be fast (max. 1 week from production to consumption)

Volume

Any volume is possible from 60 ml to 1 litre

The most common are the small volumes up to 200 ml

Packaging machine output

500 pouches/hr for the smallest, then 750, 1200, 1500, 2200 etc., up to 12000 pouches/h

All packaging machines are automatic ("form, fill & seal")

Capital investment for packaging machines

From £ 12.5 k for the smallest up to £250 k for the larger packaging machines.


Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate 10 to 20 litres or plastic bags 2 to 5 litres.


Positioning of the product on the market

- The product is distributed through itinerant vendors equipped with an insulated box; this system is the cheapest and the most adapted for the informal distribution
- Can be stored in deep freezers and sold as "lolly", especially appreciated by children.

The product is first of all a refreshing drink to be sold at the best price. It is processed from fruit concentrate or flavour, strongly diluted, sweetened and sometimes coloured, then packed into very small volumes (60 to 200 ml)

Positioning in relation to the environment

The best packaging material (100 % incinerable without release of chlorine)

It is advised to provide vendors with dustbins in order to collect the empty pouches after drinking

* See glossary


N° 6: Plastic pouch from a film


N° 6: Polyethylene Film Pouch

7. PVC bottle

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 7

B - Cold packaging with preservative

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Square, round or rectangular-shaped bottle with grooves to strengthen mechanical resistance

Dull crystalline colour which can be tinted (blue, green)

Composition

- Food "compound" composed of a blending of PVC* resins + additives (stabilisers, lubricant, anti-UV, colouring)
- PE or PP cap with inviolability device

Cost price

Approx. 0.93 £./kg foods compound for one bottle of:

Summary for 1 bottle ¼ l


- 1,5 litre (45 gr.):

4.25 p.

- body:

144


- 1 litre (30 gr.):

2.75 p.

- cap:

0.88


- ¼ litre (15 gr.):

1.44 p.

- label:

0.25


- Cap:

0.88 p.

total:

2.57 pence


- Label:

0.25 p.



Shelf-life

3 to 6 months

Impermeability and inviolability of the bottle determine good preservation and consumer security

Volume

1.5 litres, 1 l, ½ l, ¼ l

Also available in 5 & 10 litres

Bottle production

Blow-moulding from 500 bottles/hr

Packaging machine output

From 500 l/hr

Capital investment for the smallest machines

- Blow-moulding of the bottle: £ 81.25 k
- Blow-moulding of the cap: £ 110 k
- Packaging line (filling, capping, labelling) £56 k

- Price of 1 mould: approx. £5 k
- For the smallest production, it is advisable to buy the ready-made cap

Recommended or essential outer pack

Shrinkable film, carton, pallet


Positioning of the product on the market

Fruit drink mainly designed for family consumption (large volume/low cost); this type of packaging is mostly used for mineral water

More and more replaced by PET

Positioning in relation to the environment

- Manufacturing waste is reinjected into the compound
- Bottles are destroyed by incineration (problem of hydrochloric acid rejection)

PVC is now forbidden in most European countries

* See glossary


N° 7: PVC bottle

8. PET bottle

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 8

B - Cold packaging with preservative

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Squared, round or rectangular-shaped bottle; PET* has excellent mechanical resistance and gas proof qualities; its appearance is close to glass

Bottle production is composed in 2 stages(8):
a) injection at 270°C into a mould to obtain a small-sized pre-form (see picture)
b) hot stretching of the pre-form at less than 100°C followed by the air blowing

Composition

- PET: polyethylene terephtalate
- PE or PP cap with inviolability device


Cost price

Pre-form cost:

Summary bottle ¼ litre

- 1,5 litre:

> 11.25 p.

- body:

5 p.


- 1 litre:

> 8.13 p.

- cap:

0.88


- 1/2 litre:

> 6.25 p.

- label:

0.25


- 1/4 l:

> 5 p.

total approx.

6.13 pence


- Cap:

0.88 p.

Only the larger sizes are worthwhile


- Label:

0.25 p.


Shelf-life

More than 6 months

Volume

1.5 litres, 1 l, ½ l, ¼ l, 200 ml

Packaging machine output

From 600 litres/hr

Capital investment for the smallest machines

- Bottle manufacturing plant from the pre-form 600 l/hr: £ 212.5 k
- Packaging line (filling, capping, labelling): £ 56.25 k

For a small production, it is advisable to buy the ready-made cap

Recommended or essential outer pack

Shrinkable film, carton, pallet


Positioning of the product on the market

Fruit drink designed mainly for family consumption (large volume/low cost); Competition with the drink-can (small volume)

Replaces the PVC, mainly on the mineral water market

Positioning in relation to the environment

- Possibility of recycling for the same or a secondary utilisation
- Bottles are destroyed by incineration (good calorific power)

Test-production of textile from the recycled PET fibre

* See glossary


N° 8: PET Bottle

(introduction...)

Definition:

These products are natural, with the shelf-life obtained only by heat treatment; they can be kept several months at room temperature.

Principle:

Heat-treated packaging, at temperatures between 80 and 95°C, is the oldest technique for preserving fruit juices and drinks with a pH of less than 4.5. The double effect of the heat (destruction of bacteria, mould, yeasts and enzymes) and the acidity results in preservation of the product. The previously pasteurised juice disinfects and sterilises its own packaging simply from its temperature.

For security reasons, post-pasteurisation of the product and its packaging is also recommended (at more than 80°C for several minutes). For capacities of over 2000 units per hour, post-pasteurising tunnels are also equipped with a continuous cooling section.

Advantages:

Possibility of working at a low production rate (from 200 units per hour) with a moderate initial investment (less than £ 37,500) for the combined pasteuriser-packaging machine).

Long shelf-life products

No chemical preservatives

Disadvantage:

Packaging and contents must be rapidly cooled to avoid the development of a cooked taste.

Note: Plastic bottles are not mentioned in this chapter on heat-treatment packaging. Research is currently being carried out on new compounds and new technologies capable of resisting heat without deformation while at the same time remaining impermeable to oxygen. The Sidel company has perfected a system which allows for the production of PET which is adapted to filling during heat treatment (thermofixation). A new polymer, PEN (polyethylene naphtalate)(9), when combined with PET also improves resistance. These new processes or products have not been presented in this manual because their cost is still prohibitive for the target markets. Their development should however be monitored in order to include them in future packaging selections.

9. Thermoformed plastic cup

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 9

C - Hot Packaging/Filling

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

The cup is pre-formed from a film reel; on the same machine, the cup is filled and closed with a lid cut out of an alu reel (form, fill & seal)

Composition

Option 1)

PS* 1,5 mm film for short-shelf life

- PS is not oxygen-proof which affects the shelf-life of the product
- EVOH is an anti-oxygen barrier


Option 2)

PS/EVOH/PE or PP/EVOH/PP film for long shelf-life



Alu film for the lid 40 microns


Cost price

Option 1)

PS film: 1.12 to 1.25 £./kg given 1.5 to 0.1.85 p./cup 250 ml

- Total for PS film: 2 to 2.38 p./cup 250 ml
- Total for PS/EVOH/PE film 3.5 to 4.25 p. for a cup 250 ml


Option 2)

PS/EVOH/PE film 2.25 to 2.5 £./kg given 3 to 3.75 p./cup 250 ml



Alu film:

0.625 £./m2 given 0.5 p/lid

Shelf-life

Option 1) less than 1 month for PS film alone Option 2) more than 6 months for film with O2 barrier

Volume

Choice from 100 to 330 ml

In order to strengthen the cup for the hot filling, grooves must be planned on the body cup; large sizes (½ l & 1 l) are difficult to obtain for that reason

Packaging machine output

From 5000 cups/hr up to 50000

"Form, fill & seal" machine with high output because of the high investment

Capital investment for packaging machines

More than £ 250 k

Recommended or essential outer pack

- Grouping under a carton sheet by 6, 12, 24, packs etc.
- Shrinkable film
- Plastic crate

Positioning of the product on the market

The cup is used as a glass; any market segment can be approached, including the informal circuit


Positioning in relation to the environment

- The cup is incinerable
- The lid is recyclable


* See glossary


N° 9: Thermoformed plastique cup


Refrigerator for distribution

10. Doypack aluminium coated bag

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 10

C - Hot packaging/filling

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

"Stand-up" pouch
Available also with a cap

The "Doypack" pouch was invented by the President of Thimonnier, Mr Louis Doyen, in 1964 and is now commercialised by several companies

Composition

Option 1)

3 coats: PE 100 microns/ALU 12 microns/PET 12 microns*



Option 2)

PET/EVOH/PE 12 microns



Option 3)

PET/PE


Cost price

Option 1) & 2)

3.12 to 3.75 p./pouch 200 ml without cap

The cost price is decreased by approx. 50% in case of own manufacture of pouches


Option 3)

2.5 to 3.12 p./pouch 200 ml


Shelf-life

Option 1) et 2)

1 year with hot filling & post-pasteurisation



type 3)

up to 3 months

Volume

0,1 to 5 litres; the most frequent are 200 & 250 ml for fruit juices

Packaging machine output

- From 300 pouches/hr for the smallest one up to 12 000 pouches/hr
- The pouch processing machine starts at 5000 pouches/hr

- For the lower output, the preformed pouch must be purchased
- For the highest output, the manufacturing of the pouches is advised with a special machine form/seal which can be separated or integrated into the filling machine.

Capital investment for packaging machines

- From £ 12.5 k for filling & sealing machines
- From £ 112.5 k for pouch manufacturing

- Well adapted to any type of industry including the micro-projects

Recommended or essential outer pack

- Grouping of 10 to 20 pouches into a plastic bag or
- Shrinkable film

The plastic pouch is certainly the simpler and the less expensive system (one pouch is not more than 1.25 p.)

Positioning of the product on the market

Can be adapted to a wide range of products (natural juices, tomato sauce, detergents, dairy products, olives, etc.)

Certainly the best known and the most developed system in Africa; also in development in Europe

Positioning in relation to the environment

Problem with aluminium; the full plastic pouches are better

For aluminium, possibility of using the ashes in concrete after incineration

* See glossary


N° 10: Doypack pouch

11. Cheerpack aluminium coated bag

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 11

C - Hot packaging/filling

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Flexible packaging with a special cannula made of PE* and a cap for hermetic closing

Original patent belongs to Hosokawa Yoko (Japan) and is exploited by the Gualapack company in Europe and Africa

Composition

The material is composed of 4 layers of PET 12 microns/ALU 9 microns/PET 15 microns/PE 70-100 microns

Possibility of 3 layers PET/ALU/PE for hot packaging and PET/ALU/OPA/PE for isotonic drinks and tea

Cost price

8.75 to 10 pence/pouch 200/330 ml


Shelf-life

Up to 1 year with post pasteurisation


Volume

Sizes from 100 to 1 000 ml


Packaging machine output

1800 pouches/hr.


Capital investment of packaging machines

More than £ 62.5 k

Adapted to the capital investment of small & medium enterprises

Recommended or essential outer pack

- Lost cartons of 12 to 24 packs
- Returnable plastic crates


Positioning of the product on the market

Individual doses used in Europe for fruit juice, tea, sports drinks

Good replacement for the tin can but new product. No reference in Africa in 1996

Positioning in relation to the environment

Good results in terms of weight, energy consumption, air & water pollution in comparison to bricks and glass or plastic bottle

Problem of aluminium during incineration

* See glossary


N° 11: "Cheerpack" alu pouch - A


N° 11: "Cheerpack" alu pouch - B

12. Glass bottle

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 12

C - Hot packaging/filling

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Classical glass with large neck and closure by "twist off" cap for the largest volumes (1 litre); 250 ml bottles with crown cap.

The supplier must be available in the country in order to avoid the expensive transport of empty bottles

Composition

Thick glass in order to resist to thermal shock during hot filling

The supplier must be informed if it is returnable or a non-returnable glass

Cost price

25 cl: 5 p. to 6.25 p.
1 l: 10.5 to 13.75 p.
cap: 0.63 to 1 p.
crown cork "twist off": 1.25 to 2 p.
label: 0.25 F.

- 20% must be added for the returnable glass (more resistant)
- Cost of ¼ litre with label & cap: 5.88 to 7.5 p.

Shelf-life

More than 6 months
Tinted glass improves shelf-life (protection against U.V.*)

Special attention to the "Twist-off" cap: a device for inviolability of the cap must be designed (shrinkable film or paper strip)

Volume

20, 25, 50 cl & 1 litre are the most frequent


Packaging machine output

Option 1)

filling and capping machine from 100 bottles/hr

For the returnable glass, a cleaning/drying machine must be foreseen from 2000 bottles/hr capacity


Option 2)

filling/capping from 800 bottles/hr


Capital investment of packaging machines

Option 1)

from £ 6.25 k

For the output > 2000 bottles/hr possibility to buy own mould in order to manufacture personalised bottles


Option 2)

from £ 62.5 k


Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate or carton with separations in order to protect the bottles against the shock


Positioning of the product on the market

Luxury product; the highest volumes are sold in supermarkets, the smallest in bars, restaurants, etc.

In case of returnable glass, the average number of rotations (cleaning/marketing/way back) varies from 8 to 10

Positioning in relation to the environment

100% recyclable glass

Frequent secondary utilisation by the consumers as container (mainly the 1 l bottle)

* See glossary


N° 12: Glass bottle

13. Gable-top carton box

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 13

C - Hot packaging/filling

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Gable-top carton box with square base


Composition

PE/ALU/Carton/PE*


Cost price

1 litre:

10 p to 15 pence depending on the supplier

Option: easy opening and closure (additional cost of 2 p. to 3.12 p.)


½ litre:

7.5 to 8.75 p.



¼ litre:

5.6 to 6.8 p.


Shelf-life

More than 6 months

Volume

¼ l, ½ l, 1/1 l, 2 l, 5 l

The most profitable and most used are the 1 & 2 litres

Packaging machine output

250 boxes/hr semi-automatic up to higher output of 10000 boxes/hr in automatic

All packaging machines use preformed carton; "form, fill & seal" machines do not exist

Capital investment of packaging machines

From £ 25 k for the smallest (250 boxes/hr) up to £ 250 k for the highest output

Thanks to the small packaging machines, a small enterprise can propose an end-product similar to those proposed by a big company

Recommended or essential outer pack

Carton from 10 to 20 litres with shrinkable film

Positioning of the product on the market

Upmarket product mainly distributed in supermarkets, hotels, planes, etc.

Positioning in relation to the environment

Problem of the multilayer carton/plastic/alu

Refuse from incineration can be used in concrete production

* See glossary


N° 13: Gable-Top Carton Box

14. Tin can

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 14

C - Hot packaging/filling

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

The drink can is made either of steel or aluminium with an "easy open" system

The weight of the tin can of 330 ml came down from 27 gr. in 1992 to 18 gr. in 1995; the new diameter 2"2/16 (nr 202) is progressively replacing the 2" 6/16(10)

Composition

- Steel can composed of 3 parts: lid + bottom + body
- Alu can composed of 2 parts: body + bottom (embossed) and the lid

Market is shared roughly between 50% for the steel can & 50% for the alu can

Cost price

Between 6.88 et 8.12 p. for one complete can 300 ml (cost price of alu rose up from US$ 1100/T in 1994 to US$ 2000 in 1995)(10)

Minimum order 1 million cans per term or 4 million cans per year

Shelf-life

1 year and more


Volume

20 cl, 33 cl, 50 cl


Packaging machine output

From 5000 cans/hr

Packaging is conducted in 2 steps: filling & seaming

Capital investment of packaging machines

More than £ 187.5 k for a minimum output of 4000 cans/hr


Recommended or essential outer pack

Thermo-shrinkable film for grouping 10 cans or carton + palletisation


Positioning of the product on the market

This type of packaging is well developed for soft drinks (carbonated) and is also starting to get success for juices in Europe


Positioning in relation in the environment

Steel can be collected from the garbage dump by using an electro-magnet and is entirely recyclable



N° 14: Tin Can

15. Metallic cup

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 15

C - Hot packaging/filling

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Neutral metallic cup bought ready to be filled together with printed lids pre-cut to the diameter of the cup

Must be imported; the empty cups can be fitted into each other in order to decrease the volume for transport

Composition

- 100% aluminium for the cup
- The pre-cut alu* lid is covered with a special varnish

Good barrier to light & oxygen

Cost price

- cup 200 ml:

3.5/3.75 p.



- lid:

1.25 p.



- total:

4.75 to 5 pence


Shelf-life

1 year and more

Volume

Any volume available from 10 ml to 270 ml

Packaging machine output

From 700 cups/hr up to 10 000 cups/hr

Packaging machines are similar to those for the preformed cups (filing-card 3)

Capital investment of packaging machines

- 700 cups/hr (semi-auto.):

£ 12.5 k



- 1500 cups/hr (auto):

£ 37.5 k



- 2500 cups/hr (auto):

£ 50 k


Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate or carton with shrinkable film


Positioning of the product on the market

Upmarket product for hotels, planes, supermarkets...

Distribution with a straw is recommended

Positioning in relation to the environment

Cup & lid are recyclable


* See glossary


N° 15: Metallic Cup

(introduction...)

Definition:

Sterilised packaging treatment was developed by Tetrapak in the mid-1960s for the preservation of milk (140°C in 5 seconds).

For reasons of quality, this process has been adopted by practically the entire milk industry and is now being considered by manufacturers of fruit juices. In effect, the product is heated for a very short time - less than a minute - compared to the long heating treatment for the hot filling system. The shelf-life is also several months at room temperature.

Remark: For acidic products (pH < 4.5), a heat treatment at 90/95°C during a few seconds is enough (HTST), but for products with a higher pH (pH > 4.5) a UHT treatment is necessary.

Principle:

The product (juice) is treated at a high temperature (from 95 to 140°C) for several seconds in order to destroy bacteria, yeasts and mould, and to deactivate the enzymes responsible for undesirable reactions during storage. After rapid cooling at 20/30°C, the treated product is packaged. The packaging machine must therefore include a special section in which all the procedures of filling and closing the packaging are executed in an environment free of bacteria and any other contaminants. The packaging itself must be disinfected to ensure that it is also free of any contamination (oxygen peroxide, ultraviolet, hot air, etc.).

To avoid all risk of contamination (a single bacteria can corrupt the package), sophisticated techniques must be adopted (automation, integrated cleansing, etc...) which requires production rates of at least 4000 units per hour.

Advantages:

· Improved preservation of natural taste due to the short sterilising treatment and subsequent rapid cooling.

· A completely natural product without chemical preservatives.

· The possibility of using packaging materials other than glass or metal, i.e. compound cardboard and multi-layer plastics.

Disadvantages:

· High investment costs (more than £ 625,000 for the combined UHT steriliser/aseptic packaging machine).

· High production rates.

· Sophisticated technology necessitates a highly trained labour force (production and maintenance).

· Steril working conditions at the packaging level.

16. ''Brick'' carton box

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 16

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Parallelepiped box shaped either from a film (Tetra Pak or International Paper) or from a pre-formed carton box (Combibloc)

The most developed shape for juice packaging in Europe.

Composition

PE/ALU/PE/CARTON/PE* multilayer


Cost price

-1 litre:

8.12 to 11.25 p. for one brick (price is variable according to the purchased quantity)

- Price depends on the thickness of the layers and number of colours on the design
- Option: Spout with cap - add approx. 0.87 p. (0.5 p. for the straw)


-1/2 l:

6.25 to 7.12 p.



- ¼ l:

5 to 5.62 p.



- option:

spout with cap


Shelf-life

More than 6 months

Volume

0.2, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 litre

Packaging machine output

From 3000 bricks/hr

Capital investment of packaging machines

From £ 500 k
Possibility of leasing or purchasing of refurbished machine

Break-even point: production of a minimum of 10 millions bricks/year

Recommended or essential outer pack

Palletisation with shrinkable film Carton box or crate

Very easy storage system because of the shape.

Positioning of the product on the market

The conventional brick has been on the market for more than 20 years; it is considered as the wide-scale packaging system for the common consumer products

New shapes ("bottle box" from Combibloc, "Slim" from Tetra Pak) and the easy opening/closures systems are trying to revive its market

Positioning in relation to the environment

Problem of multilayer carton/plastic/alu

Incineration refuse can be used in concrete production

* See glossary


N° 16 "Brick" Carton Box

17. Plastic pouch

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 17

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

The pouch is pre-formed from a film, sterilised, filled, sealed and dated/coded on the same packaging machine


Composition

Option 1)

PEBD film 80 to 100 microns*

Film is presented as a reel 18 to 20 kg, protected by a plastic envelop


Option 2)

PEBD/EVOH/PEBD or PEBD/OVA/PEBD film


Cost price

Option 1)

£ 1.75 to 2/kg of film, i.e. for one 200 ml pouch of 3.5 gr., a price of 0.63 to 0.75 p.

Option 1 is the least expensive of all the packaging materials. Available in some African countries


Option 2)

£ 4.38 to £ 4.88/kg, i.e. 1.5 to 1.63 p. for one pouch


Shelf-life

Option 1)

3 to 4 weeks at room temperature



Option 2)

more than 6 months


Volume

Any size is possible from 100 ml to 1 litre

The most common are the small volumes up to 250 ml.

Packaging machine output

The smallest one produces 2000 pouches per hour

All the packaging machines are automatic ("form-fill & seal)

Capital investment for packaging machine

From approx. £ 250 k

The cheapest investment for the sterile packaging system

Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate 10 to 20 litres or bags 2 to 5 litres in case of export or far-off transport.


Positioning of the product on the market

- In small volumes, the product is distributed by vendors equipped with an insulated box
- The least expensive and the best adapted for the informal distribution circuit
- Can be stored in the deep-freezer and sold as a "lolly", especially appreciated by children
- In large volumes (1l), can be sold in supermarkets

Same as the PE pouch with cold filling but the end-product is of better quality as there is no chemical preservative

Positioning in relation to the environment

The best of all packaging material (100 % incinerable without rejection of chlorine)

It is advised to provide vendors with dustbins in order to collect the empty pouches after consumption

* See glossary


N° 17: Plastic pouch


Coextruded film

18. Thermoformed plastic cup

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 18

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

The cup is pre-formed from a reel of film; on the same machine, the cup is filled, then sealed with a lid pre-cut from a reel (form, fill & seal) in a sterile room


Composition

1) PS/EVOH/PE or PP/EVOH/PP film for long shelf-life
2) Alu film for lid 40 microns

- EVOH is an anti-oxygen barrier

Cost price

1) PS/EVOH/PE film at £ 2.25 to 2.50/kg or 3 to 3.75 p./cup of 250 ml
2) Film alu: 62.5 p./m2 or 0.5 p./lid

-Total 3.5 to 4.25 p./cup of 250 ml

Shelf-life

More than 6 months


Volume

From 100 to 330 ml

In order to strengthen the cup for the hot filling, grooves must be planned on the body of the cup; for this reason the large sizes (½ l & 1 l) are difficult to obtain

Packaging machine output

From 5000 cups/hr up to 50000

"Form, fill & seal" packaging machine with high output only because of the high investment cost

Capital investment for packaging machines

More than £ 375 k


Recommended or essential outer pack

- Grouping under a carton sheet by 6, 12, 24, packs, etc.
- Shrinkable film
- Plastic crate


Positioning of the product on the market

The cup is used as a glass; any sale area can be approached, including the informal circuit


Positioning in relation to the environment

The cup is incinerable
The lid is recyclable

* See glossary


N° 18: Thermoformed plastic cup


Multilayer film roll

19. Plastic bottle

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 19

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Bottle with different shapes and different compositions


Composition

PE/EVOH/PE* or PE/EVOH/PET

Oxygen-proof polymers often carry commercial names (e.g. Barex)

Cost price

6.88 to 8.12 pence./bottle of 1 litre


Shelf-life

More than 6 months


Volume

1 litre 1,5 litres

Packaging machine output

From 8000 bottles/hr

Injection of inert nitrogen into the space between the liquid and the cap

Capital investment for packaging machines

More than £ 1000 k

Recommended or essential outer pack

Carton or shrinkable film + palletisation

Positioning of the product on the market

Quality product without chemical preservative

Relatively new system on the European market

Positioning in relation to the environment

Recyclable or incinerable


N° 19: Plastic Bottle

* See glossary

20. Bag in box

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 20

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Plastic pouch in different sizes placed in a strong container such as a carton box, plastic container, etc.


Composition

Laminated film with 3 layers LDPE/metallic PET/LDPE* (50/12/50 microns) pre-sterilised at 15 Kg ray

Same film or pre-sterilised nylon/PA/PE for possibility of hot filling

Cost price

- 10 L:

> £ 0.63

Price ex-work


- 20 L:

> £ 0.75



- 200 L:

> £ 3.12



- 1000 L:

> £ 16.25


Shelf-life

1 year with sterilised process and heat treatment

In case of hot filling, shelf-life is between 3 and 5 months.

Volume

From 2 to 1000 litres

Packaging machine output

From 3000 to 6000 litres/hr

Capital investment for packaging machines

From £ 62.5 k to £ 175 k

Recommended or essential outer pack

- The carton box for packs between 3 & 30 litres
- The metallic drum for 55/60 Gallons
- The rigid plastic, stainless steel, or wood container for 500/1000 L

Positioning of the product on the market

- Small volumes are designed for hotels, communities, restaurants
- Large volumes are for industries, especially for export

- Products are always 100 % fruit, natural, upmarket
- Storage containers of 1000 litres can be used for storage of juice or pulp during the fruit gathering period and for packaging the end-product during the off-season (e.g. mango fruit)

Positioning in relation to the environment

All the films can be recycled or incinerated for energy recovery


* See glossary


N° 20: "Bag in Box"

21. ''Cartocan''

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 21

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Cylindrical packaging processed from carton

Opening by "Pull Tape" (spline to be pulled out)

Composition

Laminated carton with EVOH/PE* coat

Possibility of addition of one coat of alu for shelf-life higher than 3 months

Cost price

The can is composed of 4 parts (body + bottom + lid + spline): 5 to 5.6 pence


Shelf-life

- 3 months for cans without alu
- More than 6 months with alu


Volume

150 to 500 ml

Packaging machine can be adjusted to obtain several sizes

Packaging machine output

From 7500 cans/hr


Capital investment for packaging machines

From £ 1250 k


Recommended or essential outer pack

The CartonCan is identical to the metallic can

Positioning of the product on the market

Supermarkets, hotels

Convenient and new form and size (new image)

Positioning in relation to the environment

Recyclable and easy for incineration in the case of cartocan without alu

The plastic material can be easily separated from the carton

* See glossary


N° 21: "Cartocan"

IV - IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT

For a long time, the easy solution consisted of rejecting the end-life products directly into the natural environment (rivers, oceans, atmosphere...) or, indirectly, into a controlled or uncontrolled garbage dump, with or without preliminary incineration. Development, demography and urbanisation have multiplied the volume of waste, reduced the available space and made «modern» Man conscious that this «easy way out» was not compatible with his own survival.

Valorising waste has become a vital necessity, as it affects not only the developed countries but also all of Africa.

In Europe, laws about «waste elimination» have been set up by each member country as well as a «classification of the institutions for the protection of the environment».

In Africa, this legislation is still embryonic, but every citizen is now conscious of the importance of the protection of his environment.

Among the most visible wastes, food packaging represents an important part; for any new drink packaging project, the environmental aspect must be taken into consideration, particularly as it is becoming more and more a way of saving money for the industrialist.

The Entrepreneur is always preoccupied by the production costs of his products; recently, we have witnessed a significant evolution of packaging with, at the same time, an improvement in environmental protection in terms of:

Decreased use at the source by lightening of the product: the weight of the steel drink can decreased by 7.1 % from 1980 to 1992, then 33% from 1992 to 1995 (the can's body weight went down from 27 gr. to 10 gr. in 3 years!)(3).

Concerning the lightness of the packaging, the first place is taken by the plastic materials; this lightness explains why plastic materials are so efficient in ecological terms:

· During production: a 56% saving in oil can be made by replacing glass bottles with plastic bottles.

· During transport: a further 39% saving in oil can be made by using plastic bottles(4).

Improvement in process operations: in order to decrease the specific consumption of materials, energy and water. During the manufacturing of monomers, water discharge has been divided by 10, even 20 in certain units over the last 10 years. Between 1970 and 1990, improvements in the polymerisation of plastics have reduced energy consumption by a factor of 2 or 3(4).

Re-utilisation of packaging: this solution is the oldest one, very often developed in Africa (beer bottles); the reality is in fact more complicated. When conducting the analysis of the life cycle, for example, between a re-used glass bottle and a lost plastic bottle, it is noticeable that the plastic packaging is less expensive and pollutes less. Comparisons between lost glass and returnable glass have also shown that the returnable system is acceptable only:

· for distances less than 150 km
· for less than 15 rotations

Outside these limits, the eco-balances show that consumption of cleaning and rinsing products, energy use and the associated pollution for returnable bottles is higher than the lighter one-way use bottles.

But, here as anywhere else, for each case a comparative analysis must be carried out if we want to be sure we have made the right choice both in economical and ecological terms.

On the other hand, in terms of over-packaging, the re-utilisation of plastic crates has widely surpassed the utilisation of simple cartons (soft-drinks, beer, dairy products, etc..) in all African countries.

The «end-of-life» value of the packaging materials can nowadays be considered in two ways:

Recycling: the term «partially recycled» written on the packaging means that it contains recycled materials; the term «recyclable» means that «it can be recycled».

It is very easy to recycle waste from manufacturing, (i.e. re-utilisation of waste from plastic bottle or film manufacturing), but it is difficult to recycle packaging material after its utilisation in the distribution circuit; a network composed of four stages must be set up for this recycling procedure:

· collection
· preparation (sorting, crushing, cleaning, drying, packaging)
· regeneration into basic material (plastic granules, metallic bars, etc..)
· processing

Moreover, some packaging materials are already composed of many other materials (i.e. plastic, metal and carton for the brick); these materials can contaminate one another and, consequently, become more difficult to recycle.

Packaging material can also be recycled for secondary use (i.e. manufacturing of textile fibres from plastic bottles). Industry in the developed countries is investing heavily in order to set up new technologies to better enhance the value of this waste. This represents a growing market; the prices for packaging material waste are revised each month according to accurate technical specifications; for example, HDPE can be differentiated as followed (rate May 96 in pence/kg)(5):

a. Industrial production scraps:

· coloured HDPE

17.5 to 21.9 p.

· natural HDP

26.2 to 32.9 p.

b. Post-consumer origin:

· coloured HDPE hollow bodie

0.00 to 8.75 p.

· HDPE crates

26.2 to 30.6 p.

· Natural transparent shrink wrapping film

8.75 to 15.3 p.

· Coloured shrink wrapping film

6.6 to 8.75 p.

· Natural transparent film > 70 microns

8.75 to 15.4 p.

· Natural transparent film < 70 microns

6.6 to 11 p.

· Mixed film

2.1 to 4.4 p.

Even if it is primarily the private sector which is interested in this new market, recycling depends mainly on the amount which is going to be invested by the company... and we know that there are other priorities in Africa(6).

Energy value: except for glass and metal, all packaging materials can be burned. The calorific value of polyethylene (46 kJ/kg) is higher than that of fuel-oil (44 kJ/kg). The energy released by combustion of waste can be used either for steam production or for electricity production; the simpler solution is cogeneration of these fluids which guarantees their full utilisation, at any season.

Incineration with energy recovery saves the equivalent of fuel-oil every year in France of which half is from the plastic packaging materials(4).

Once more, the difficulty in Africa is the capital investment for incinerators by local authorities, especially because such incinerators must be equipped with energy recovery installations and smoke filters in order to limit acid discharge (from PVC).

The simpler formula is consequently, when there is no municipal incinerator, to burn the refuse directly in the garbage dump. The proportion of plastic materials in household refuse, between 7 and 10% of the weight, is useful, even essential, for good combustion. Due care should be taken, however, with plastics which emit hydrochloric (PVC).

In brief and in terms of problems of refuse and the environment, the emphasis is on a four-pronged approach:

Þ Minimise the amount of material initially used.

Þ Recycle component materials

Þ Recover the energy content of paper and plastic by incineration in suitably designed energy-recovery plants.

Þ Finally, dispose of the residue in hygienic and safe conditions.

In order to measure the impact of packaging on the environment, industrialists are increasingly conducting eco-balance controls; these analyses integrate all the parameters, from the supplier at the first level (the raw goods) up to the end of the product's life. Consequently, the following are analysed:

· stocks of non-renewable energetic resources (coal, gas, oil, etc.)
· mineral raw materials
· water consumption
· green-house effect
· stratospheric ozone destruction
· photochemical ozone development
· atmospheric acidification
· water eutrophisation
· limit of human toxicity in terms of air and water
· discharge capacity

Taking into consideration the above mentioned elements, it is possible to classify some fruit juice packaging materials in the following way: (from the best to the worst)

1. the PE pouch
2. the simple gable-top carton box
3. the PE & PET bottle
4. the «cartocan»
5. the PVC bottle
6. the reusable glass bottle
7. the disposable glass bottle
8. the PS or PP plastic cup with alu lid
9. the alu pouch
10. the alu cup
11. the brick and the alu gable-top carton box

ANNEX 1 - BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

1. Feuilles technique n° 11, April 1996, Les bienfaits de l'emballage sur l'environnement, CCI/CNUCED/OMC.

2. Feuilles techniques n° 14, April 1996, Douze avantages importants que l'emballage offre a soci, CCI/CNUCED/OMC.

3. RIA n° 525, Oct. 1994, La boite - boisson: 18g en 1995, p. 95.

4. La plasturgie et l'environnement n° 326 -1995/96, Conception et fabrication des produits, pp. 4 to 8.

5. EUWID Volume 2 n° 11, 29 May 1996, Recycling and waste Management, p. 9

6. Feuille Technique n° 18, April 1996, Que savez vous sur l'emballage et l'environnement? CCI/CNUCED/OMC.

7. Le statut ll des jus de fruits et de lmes, nectars et boissons aux fruits, 1981, Edited by l'Union Nationale des Producteurs et Distributeurs de Jus de Fruits et de Lmes, de Nectars et de Boissons aux Fruits de la Mopole et d'Outre-Mer.

8. Deborah Tampo, 1992, Les eaux conditionn, Sciences & Techniques Agro-Alimentaires Collection, Tec & Doc Lavoisier Paris, p. 54.

9. RIA n° 546, Nov. 1995, Les emballages actifs pr rler, pp. 74 to 76.

10. RIA n° 536, April 1995, 202: le nouveau format des boites-boissons, pp. 51 to 53.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS & MAGAZINES

In French

1. Les eaux conditionn, 1992, Collection Sciences & Techniques Agro-alimentaires, Librairie Lavoisier, 11 rue Lavoisier, 75384 Paris Cedex 08 France.

2. Emballage Magazine, 26 rue Oradour/Glane, 75015 Paris France.

3. RIA - la Revue de l'Industrie Alimentaire, 8 Citu Paradis, 75493 Paris Cedex France.

4. Plasturgie Magazine, 65 rue de Prony 75854 Paris Cedex 17, France.

In English

1. Handbook on procurement of packaging, 1989; Prodec (Programme for development co-operation at the Helsinki school of economics), Tnkatu 11 A, 0100 Helsinki, Finland.

2. Packaging Technology International, Cornhill Publications Ltd., King's Court 2, 16 Goodge Street, London W1P 1FF, U.K.

3. Management & Technology, International Journal for the Packaging, Paper & Board, Printing & Publishing Industries - Pira International Ltd., Randalls Road, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7 RU, U.K.

4. Macplas International, Technical Magazine for the Plastic & Rubber Industry, Promaplast srl 20090, Assago (Milan), Italy.

5. Modern Plastics International, P.O. Box 605 Hightsown, NJ 08520, USA.

ANNEX 2 - DIFFERENT FRUIT DRINKS DEFINITIONS

Fruit juice:

Juice obtained from fruit through mechanical processes, fermentable but not fermented, with the colour, smell and taste characteristic of the original fruit.

Fruit nectar:

The unfermented but fermentable product obtained by the addition of water and sugar to a fruit juice, a crushed fruit concentrate or a mixture of these products. The minimum fruit juice content varies under European law from 25 to 50% depending on the fruit: 25% for guava or passion fruit, 50% for citrus fruit.

Fruit drink, drink with fruit juice, or fruit drink with pulp:

Drinks which combine the major ingredient water with fruit juice, concentrated fruit juice, fruit or a mix of these ingredients in equal or greater proportions, corresponding to at least a minimum of 12% juice.

Flavoured drink:

A clear drink consisting of water, sugar and flavouring.

Concentrated Syrup/Squash

A sugared drink based on concentrate or flavouring which the consumer dilutes with water before drinking.

Remark: In Africa the word "Fruit Juice" often includes the entire family of fruit drinks without any real differentiation.

ANNEX 3 - LIST OF PRESERVATIVES

There are numerous preserving agents. The ones listed below are the most frequently used(7).

Preservative agent

European Union classification

Denomination

E 200

Sorbic acid

E 201

Sodium sorbate

E 202

Potassium sorbate

E 210

Benzoic acid

E 211

Sodium benzoate

E 212

Potassium benzoate

E 213

Calcium benzoate

E 221

Sodium sulphite

E 226

Calcium sulphite

E 236

Formic acid

Substances designed mainly for other purposes with secondary preservative results:

E 249

Potassium nitrite

E 250

Sodium nitrite

E 260

Acetic acid

E 270

Lactic acid

E 280

Propionic acid E 249

Anti-oxygen

E 300

L-ascorbic acid

E 301

L-sodium ascorbate

E 302

L-calcium ascorbate

E 320

Butylhydroxyanisol (BHA)

Substances which could reinforce the anti-oxygen action of other substances:

E 325

Sodium lactate

E 326

Potassium lactate

E 327

Calcium lactate

E 330

Citric acid

E 331

Sodium citrates

E 334

Tartric acid

E 338

Orthophosphoric acid

ANNEX 4 - SOME SUPPLIERS OF PACKAGING MATERIALS IN EUROPE

GABLE-TOP BOX

· VARIOPAK
161 rue St HonorR>75001 Paris
France
Tel.: (33) 1 47 03 34 30
Fax: (33) 1 47 03 34 55

· ELOPAK (PURE-PAK)
27/29 Av. Duguay-Trouin
78960 Voisins-Le-Bretonneux France
Tel.: (33) 1 30 64 90 50
Fax: (33) 1 30 64 90 03


GLASS BOTTLE

· VMC
41 rue Pierre Mae
51100 Reims
France
Tel.: (33) 28 87 96 00
Fax: (33) 26 87 58 90

· VERLIPACK
J. Cardijnstraat 66
9420 Erpe-Mere
Belgium
Tel.: (32) 53 80 50 60
Fax: (32) 53 80 47 26

· ZIGNATO VETRO
Via Ita Marzotto 8
30025 Fossalta di Portogruarde, Italy
Tel.: (39) 421 246 111
Fax: (39) 421 246 401

BRICK

· TETRA LAVAL FOOD (TETRA PAK)
BP 56
78340 Les Clayes sous Bois
France
Tel.: (33) 1 30 81 81 81
Fax: (33) 1 30 81 81 60

· INTERNATIONAL PAPER
25 Chemin des Frs Lumi
69802 St Priest
France
Tel.: (33) 72 23 11 83
Fax: (33) 72 23 11 89

· PKL - COMBIBLOC
Postfach 1212
D - 52438 Linnich
Germany
Tel.: (49) 2462 79 26 48
Fax: (49) 2462 79 26 81

ALU CUP

· ALUPAK
c/o Barriquand
32 rue Cambrai
75019 Paris France
Tel.: (33) 1 40 37 08 45
Fax: (33) 1 40 38 06 99

DOYPACK WITHOUT CAP

· THIMONNIER
11, avenue de la Paix
69650 St Germain au Mont D'Or
France
Tel.: (33) 72 08 19 19
Fax: (33) 72 08 19 00

· GRACE ITALIANA Spa
Via Trento 7
20017 Passirana Di Rho
Italy
Tel.: (39) 2 93 321
Fax: (39) 2 933 25 55

· KOBUSCH Folien
Anton-Bn Strasse 5
Postfach 12 62 D-W 3530
Warburg
Germany
Tel.: (49) 5641 962 87
Fax: (49) 5641 963 11

· SOPLARIL
7/9 rue du mont Valen
92150 Suresnes
France
Tel.: (33) 46 97 86 86
Fax: (33) 1 46 97 86 88

· NORDENIA
Postfach 1240
D-49436 Steinfeld
Germany
Tel.: (49) 5492 880
Fax:

· BURGOPACK S.p.A.
Via Dalmastro, 2
36030 Lugo di Vicenza
Italy
Tel.: (39) 445 329 111
Fax: (39) 445 679 024

· BIOSCHOF + KLEIN
GmbH & Co
Rahestrasse 47
Postfach 1160
D - 4540 Lengerich
Germany
Tel.: (49) 5481 326 24
Fax: (49) 5481 321 72

· TSCHEULIN-ROTHAL
GmbH
Friedrich-Meyer Str., 23
D - 79331 Teningen
Germany
Tel.: (49) 7641 459 0
Fax: (49) 7641 459 237

DOYPACK WITH CAP

· CELLPACK AG
5610 Wolhen
Switzerland
Tel.: (41) 57 21 41 11
Fax: (41) 57 22 68 90

· FR VERPACKUNGS-TECKNIK AG
Guntenbachstrasse 1
8603 Schwerzerbach
Switzerland
Tel.: (41) 1 806 21 11
Fax: (41) 1 806 21 00

· ELAG VERPACKUNGS AG
3422 Kirchberg
Switzerland
Tel.: (41) 34 45 25 98
Fax: (41) 34 46 30 10

CHEERPACK

· GUALAPACK s.r.l.
Viale dell' Artigianoto
27-29, Zona D3
15100 Alessandria
Italy
Tel.: (39) 131 249 784
Fax: (39) 131 342 009

· SAFTA S.p.A.
Via Arde, 11
29100 Piacenza
Italy
Tel.: (39) 523 5981
Fax: (39) 523 597 060


PE FILM FOR POUCHES

· PREPAC
64 rue Pasteur
94814 Villejuif
France
Tel.: (33) 1 46 78 91 11
Fax: (33) 1 46 77 20 30

· SOPLARIL
7/9 Rue du mont Valen
92150 Suresnes
France
Tel.: (33) 46 97 86 86
Fax: (33) 46 97 86 87

· MORANCE SOUDURE
Impasse Edouard Moreau
69400 Villefranche/SaR>France
Tel.: (33) 74 68 34 99
Fax: (33) 74 68 52 76

PLASTIC FILM FOR THERMOFORMED CUPS

· COBELPLAST
Lokeren
Belgium
Tel.: (32) 93 40 99 11
Fax: (32) 91 48 49 65

· COEXPAN
Z.I. BeaucouzR>49070 Beaucouze
France
Tel.: (33) 41 73 28 34
Fax: (33) 41 73 05 12

· POLARCUP
Route de Roinville
28700 Auneau
France
Tel.: (33) 37 91 77 00
Fax: (33) 37 31 80 03

· E.D.V.
Z.I. Sur Porvenir
s/n 08450 Linars Del Valis
Spain
Tel.: (34) 3 841 28 42
Fax: (34) 3 841 24 65



ALUMINIUM FILM & LIDS

· MLB
44 rue Roger Salengro
69740 Lyon
France
Tel.: (33) 72 47 25 25
Fax: (33) 72 47 25 00

· ALSACE D'ALUMINIUM
67600 Selestat
France
Tel.: (33) 88 58 35 00
Fax: (33) 88 58 35 01

· RACKWITZ ALUMINIUM
GmbH
August-Bebel Strasse 1
D-06217 Merseburg
Germany
Tel.: (49) 3461 28 40
Fax: (49) 3461 28 42 00

· ALCAN GmbH
Werk Gngen
D-37075 Gngen
Germany
Tel.: (49) 511 30 40
Fax: (49) 511 304 671

· ALCOA CAPSULAS METALICAS
E-08739 St. Cuga
Sesgarrigues
Spain
Tel.: (34) 38 91 62 00
Fax: (34) 38 91 62 01


PVC, PET GRANULES (food compound)

· AFE S.p.A.
Via G. Pernigotti, 31/A
Tortona
Italy
Tel.: (39) 1 31 81 313
Fax: (39) 1 31 81 56 42

· DORLYL
134 rue du Point du Jour
92100 Boulogne
France
Tel.: (33) 46 94 91 91

· SOLVAY
Rue du Prince Albert 33
1050 Bruxelles
Belgium
Tel.: (32) 2 516 61 11

· GAPLAS Industrias Thermoplastica Lda
Apartado 197
2402 Leiria
Portugal
Tel.: (351) 44 81 22 18
Fax: (351) 44 81 24 30

· ELF ATOCHEM
4 Crs Michelet
92091 Paris La Dnse
France
Tel.: (33)1 49 00 80 00
Fax: (33) 1 49 00 83 96


PREFORMED PS & PP CUPS

· HELLION
Z.I. Richard Bloch
69700 Chassagny
France
Tel.: (33) 78 48 71 22
Fax: (33) 78 48 30 01

· MONOPLAST
1 rue Lulli
75002 Paris
France
Tel.: (33) 1 42 96 83 62
Fax: (33) 1 47 03 36 02


PRE-FORMED PE POUCHES

· BERNAHRD
Rue Haign
62201 Boulogne/Mer
France
Tel.: (33) 21 31 50 91
Fax: (33) 21 87 61 77

· UPM Walki Can
P.O. Box 17
37601 Valkeakoski
Finland
Tel.: (358) 204 16 111
Fax: (358) 204 16 3530


STERIL BAGS FOR "BAG IN BOX"

· SCHOLLE EUROPE B.V.
Rudonk 8
4824 AJ Breda
The Netherlands
Tel.: (31) 76 544 45 00
Fax: (31) 76 542 03 21

· GOGLIO LUIGI MILANO
Via Solari, 10
20144 Milan
Italy
Tel.: (39) 2 480 431
Fax: (39) 2 480 123 06


TIN CANS

· FEREMBAL
6 Bd du Gral Leclerc
92115 Clichy
France
Tel.: (33) 1 45 19 18 20
Fax: (33) 1 45 19 18 51

· CARNAUD METAL BOX
153 rue de Courcelles
75817 Paris
France
Tel.: (33) 1 44 15 68 00
Fax: (33) 1 40 53 03 53

ANNEX 5 - SOME SUPPLIERS OF PACKAGING MACHINES

PACK. MACHINE FOR PE POUCHES - SHORT SHELF-LIFE

· PREPAC
64 rue Pasteur
94814 Villejuif
France
Tel.: (33) 1 46 78 91 11
Fax: (33) 1 46 77 20 30

· PIETRIBIASI S.n.c.
Via Progresso 12
36035 Marano Vicentino
Italy
Tel.: (39) 445 621 631
Fax: (39) 445 621 631

· THIMONNIER
11 avenue de la Paix
69650 St Germain au Mont D'Or
France
Tel.: (33) 72 08 19 19
Fax: (33) 72 08 19 00

· INDUSTRIE SERVICE
17 rue Thomas Ruphy
74000 Annecy
France
Tel.: (33) 50 27 88 91
Fax: (33) 50 27 88 92



STERIL PACK. MACHINES FOR POUCHES

· PREPAC
64 rue Pasteur
94814 Villejuif
France
Tel.: (33) 1 46 78 91 11
Fax: (33) 1 46 77 20 30

· THIMONNIER
11 avenue de la Paix
69650 St Germain au Mont D'Or
Tel.: (33) 72 08 19 19
Fax: (33) 72 08 19 00

· ELECSTER
37800 Toijala
Finland
Tel.: (358) 37 541 211
Fax: (358) 37 541 2400

· BOSCH
Postfach 11 27
D - 71301 Waiblingen
Germany
Tel.: (49) 71 51 14 01
Fax: (49) 71 51 14 28 18



STERILE PACK. MACHINE FOR BRICK & GABLE-TOP CARTONS

· TETRA LAVAL FOOD (TETRA PAK)
BP 56
78340 Les Clayes sous Bois France
Tel.: (33) 1 30 81 81 81
Fax: (33) 1 30 81 81

· PKL - COMBIBLOC
Postfach 12 12
D-52438 Linnich
Germany
Tel.: (49) 2462 79 26 48
Fax: (49) 2462 79 26 81

· ELOPAK (PURE-PAK)
succursale
27/29 Avenue Duguay-Trouin
78960 Voisins-Le-Bretonneux
France
Tel.: (33) 1 30 64 90 50
Fax: (33) 1 30 64 90 03

· INTERNATIONAL PAPER
Machine FUJI
25 Chemin des Frs Lumi
69 802
St Priest
France
Tel.: (33) 72 23 11 83
Fax: (33) 72 23 11 89



STERILE PACK. MACHINES FOR PLASTIC BOTTLES

· STORK
Ketelstraat 2
1000 AT Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Tel.: (31) 20 634 89 11
Fax: (31) 20 636 97 54

· SERAC
Route de Mamers
72400 La Ferternard
France
Tel.: (33) 43 60 28 28
Fax: (33) 43 60 28 39

· REMY
50 avenue des Fenots
B.P. 215
28104 Dreux
France
Tel.: (33) 37 46 21 40
Fax: (33) 37 46 21 33

PACK. MACHINE FOR GABLE-TOP CARTONS

· NIMCO
c/o VARIOPAK
161 rue St HonorR>75001 Paris
France
Tel.: (33) 1 47 03 34 30
Fax: (33) 1 47 03 34 55

· NOVA SOCIMEC
4 rue jules Ferry
28190 Courville Sur Eure
France
Tel.: (33) 37 23 21 15
Fax: (33) 37 23 76 91

· ELOPAK (PURE PACK)
Succursale
27/29 Avenue Duguay-Trouin
78960 Voisins-Le-Bretonneux
France
Tel.: (33) 1 30 64 90 50
Fax: (33) 1 30 64 90 03

BLOW-MOLDING MACHINE FOR BOTTLES

· AFE S.p.A.
Via G. Pernigotti, 31/A
Tortona
Italy
Tel.: (39) 1 31 81 3131
Fax: (39) 1 31 81 56 42

· ADS
BP 619
95004 Cergy-Pontoise
France
Tel.: (33) 1 34 64 93 80
Fax: (33) 34 64 35 55

· SIDEL
55 rue du Pont VI - BP 204
76053 Le Havre Cedex
France
Tel.: (33) 35 53 58 00
Fax: (33) 35 53 59 50

· PLASTIMAC S.p.A.
P. Le Giulio Cesare 9
20145 Milano
Italy
Tel.: (39) 2 480 121 02
Fax: (39) 2 481 55 30

· INDUSTRIE SERVICE
17 rue Thomas Ruphy
74000 Annecy
France
Tel.: (33) 50 27 88 91
Fax: (33) 50 27 88 92


DOYPACK PACK. MACHINE

· THIMONNIER
11 avenue de la Paix
69650 St Germain au Mont D'Or
France
Tel.: (33) 72 08 19 19
Fax: (33) 72 08 19 00

· BOSSAR
Pol. Industrial Roca
c/San Marti
s/n. 08107 Martorelles
Spain
Tel.: (34) 3 570 60 90
Fax: (34) 3 570 60 81

· VOLPAK SA
08130 Sta Perpetua de Mogoda
Barcelona
Spain
Tel.: (34) 3 574 10 22
Fax: (34) 3 574 11 36

CHEERPACK PACK. MACHINE

· TECK PACK - GUALAPACK s.r.l.
Viale dell' Artigianoto 27-29
Zona D3
15100 Alessandria
Italy
Tel.: (39) 131 249 784
Fax: (39) 131 342 009

· THIMONNIER
11 avenue de la Paix
69650 St Germain au Mont D'Or
France
Tel.: (33) 72 08 19 19
Fax: (33) 72 08 19 00


THERMOFORMED CUPS PACK. MACHINE (Form-Fill-Seal")

· ARCIL
4 avenue de l'Europe
78402 Chatou
France
Tel.: (33) 1 30 15 29 30
Fax: (33) 1 30 71 30 40

· BENCO PACK S.p.A.
Via Toscana 1
29100 Piacenza
Italy
Tel.: (39) 523 578 047
Fax: (39) 523 613 892

· MECAPLASTIC
10 rue Diderot
93177 Bagnolet
France
Tel.: (33) 1 49 72 88 88
Fax: (33) 1 43 60 72 25

· ERCA
Z.I de Courtaboeuf 3
avenue du Pacifique
91942 Les Ullis
France
Tel.: (33) 1 69 07 44 08
Fax: (33) 1 69 07 82 38

· HASSIA
Postfach 11 20
D - 63689 Ranstadt
Germany
Tel.: (49) 6041 810
Fax: (49) 6041 812 13

· GEA FINNAH
B.P. 1330
D-4422 Ahaus
Germany
Tel.: (49) 2561 68 50
Fax: (49) 2561 685 71

· ELTON
Avda de Cameros n° 30,
Poligono "El Sequero"
26509 Agoncillo
Spain
Tel.: (34) 41 43 71 17
Fax: (34) 41 43 70 50

· BOSCH
Postfach 11 27
D - 71301 Waiblingen
Germany
Tel.: (49) 71 51 14 01
Fax: (49) 71 51 14 28 18


PRE-FORMED CUPS PACK. MACHINE

· NOVA SOCIMEC
4 rue jules Ferry
28190 Courville Sur Eure
France
Tel.: (33) 37 23 21 15
Fax: (33) 37 23 76 91

· PIETRIBIASI S.n.c.
Via Progresso 12
36035 Marano Vicentino
Italy
Tel.: (39) 445 621 631
Fax: (39) 445 621 631

· GALDI MACCHINE
Via S. Caterina 84
31044 Montebelluna
Italy
Tel.: (39) 423 24592
Fax: (39) 423 24592

· MLB
Manufacture Lyonnaise de Bouchage
44 rue Roger Salengro
69740 Lyon
France
Tel.: (33) 72 47 25 25
Fax: (33) 72 47 25 00



FILLING MACHINE FOR HDPE & GLASS BOTTLES

· NOVA SOCIMEC
4 rue jules Ferry
28190 Courville Sur Eure
France
Tel.: (33) 37 23 21 15
Fax: (33) 37 23 76 91

· ETS BIAUGEAUD HENRI
15 rue Guy Moquet
ZI du Val d'Argent 95100
Argenteuil
France
Tel.: (33) 1 42 53 77 40
Fax: (33) 1 42 53 11 26

· ENERCON AHLBRAND
64 Edison Road/Rabans Lane
Aylesbury, Bucks HP 19 3TE
UK
Tel.: (44) 1296 330 542
Fax: (44) 1296 432 098

· ANDREAS WICK GmbH
Laar-Berg Strasse 100
1100 Wien Austria
Tel.: (43) 222 68 23 17
Fax: (43) 222 68 23 16



FILLING MACHINE FOR PVC & PET BOTTLES

· HEMA
5 rue Hervarchand
29556 Quimper
France
Tel.: (33) 98 52 40 00
Fax: (33) 98 52 40 50

· SEAMCO
Vaartstaat 126 B
2520 Oelegem
Belgium
Tel.: (32) 3 475 06 06
Fax: (32) 3 475 05 74

· GANGLOFF-SCOMA
21 Avenue de l'Industrie
69960 Corbas
France
Tel.: (33) 72 23 50 38
Fax: (33) 78 20 03 41

· INDUSTRIE SERVICE
17 rue Thomas Ruphy
74000 Annecy
France
Tel.: (33) 50 27 88 91
Fax: (33) 50 27 88 92

· METALNOVA S.p.A.
Via Mercalli 4/A Quartiere
SPIP
43100 Parma
Italy
Tel.: (39) 521 607 568
Fax: (39) 521 607 576


FILLING MACHINE FOR PREFORMED PE POUCHES

· BERNAHRD
Rue Haign
62201 Boulogne/Mer
Tel.: (33) 21 31 50 91
Fax: (33) 21 87 61 77

· PREPAC
64 rue Pasteur
94814 Villejuif
France
Tel.: (33) 1 46 78 91 11
Fax: (33) 1 46 77 20 30


STERILE PACKAGING MACHINES "BAG IN BOX"

· ASTEPO
Via Pilastrelio
43044 COLLECCHIO PARME
Italy
Tel.: (39) 521 80 00 54
Fax: (39) 521 80 20 64

· DAVID S SMITH COLOREED FRANCE
28 av de Fontcouverte
84033 Avignon
France
Tel.: (33) 90 89 85 71
Fax: (33) 90 89 92 45


FILLING & SEAMING MACHINE FOR CANS

· SOMMETRADE s.l.
Avda Zugazarte 8 - 2°
Edificio Abra 4
48930 Las Arenas Vizcaya
Spain
Tel.: (34) 4 480 24 60
Fax: (34) 4 480 19 14

· ANGELUS MACHINE
Belcrownlaan
2100 Deurne-Antwerpen
Belgium
Tel.: (32) 3 325 69 20
Fax: (32) 3 325 56 33

· IMETA
Via Bacchini 4/A
43100 Parme
Italy
Tel.: (39) 521 24 30 90
Fax: (39) 521 24 28 83

· LUBECA
Hellweg 119
23566 Lubeck
Germany



STERILE PACKAGING MACHINE "CARTOCAN"

· WALKI CAN TECHNIK
MeTel.: er Stiege 46
48565 Steinfurt/Westf.
Germany
Tel.: (49) 2551 9381 0
Fax: (49) 2551 9381 11



REMARK:

The above list of suppliers is not exhaustive; it however demonstrates that, for any type of selected packaging, choice and competition do exist. During the feasibility study it is advisable to identify all of the suppliers who could be present in the country and in the neighbouring countries, and if possible, to visit them in order to obtain an accurate idea of their production capacity, quality of the proposed products, price, delivery time, etc...

ANNEX 6 - SCHEDULE OF SPECIALISED EUROPEAN AND AFRICAN EXHIBITIONS

Before investing funds, the most complete and up-to-date information available should be gathered from different suppliers. Specialised exhibitions represent an excellent opportunity to do just this. A list of the most important exhibitions in Europe and Africa is given below. Visitors should contact the organisers in advance in order to confirm the information on this document (particularly the frequency with which they are held).

DATE & Frequency

DESCRIPTION

PLACE

ORGANISER

February
2 or 3 years

EUROBA: European trade fair for industry & handicraft of bakery, pastry, confectionery & ice-cream making

Brussels, Belgium

Inter-Expo A.S.B.L.

February
2 or 3 years

HISPACK: International packaging & bottling exhibition

Barcelona, Spain

Fira de Barcelona

February
2 or 3 years

International recycling trade fair with congress recovery, recycling, reintegration

Geneva, Switzerland

Orgexpo

February
2 or 3 years

UTECH BERLIN: forum for environmental technologies + exhibition

Berlin, Germany

Fortbildungszentrum Gesundheits - Und Umweltschuts

March
2 years

TECHNOALIMENTARIA: International food processing machinery exhibition

Barcelona, Spain

Fira de Barcelona

March
3 years

IPACK-IMA: International exhibition of mechanical, handling, packing, packaging & food processing machinery

Milan, Italy

Ipack-Ima

March
2 or 3 years

FOODPACK: Northern Ireland's food packaging & processing exhibition

Belfast, UK

Industrial & Trade Exhibition Ltd.

March
2 or 3 years

EXPOREC: International recycling exhibition

Paris, France

Mack-Brooks Groups

March
2 or 3 years

LEIPZIG PACKAGING FAIR

Leipzig, Germany

Leipziger Messe GmbH

March
2 or 3 years

FOODTEX: Food & beverage manufacturing & packaging exhibition

Johannesburg, South Africa

TML Reed Exhibition (PTY) Ltd.

March
2 or 3 years

TERRATEC: Trade fair & congress for environmental innovation

Leipzig, Germany

Leipziger Messe GmbH

March
2 or 3 years

SYSKEVASIA: Exhibition of packaging machinery, printing & storage

Athens, Greece

Kladikes Emporikes Ektheseis

March
2 or 3 years

PROMA: International environmental protection exhibition

Bilbao, Spain

Feria internacional de Muestras de Bibao

March
2 years

ALIMENTARIA: International food exhibition

Barcelona, Spain

Fira de Barcelona

April
3 years

PAKEX: International packaging exhibition

Birmingham, UK

Reed Exhibition Company

April
2 or 3 years

PACKLABEL EUROPE: International labelling exhibition

Frankfurt, Germany

Labelex Exhibitions Ltd.

April
2 years

BPC, DAIRY PACK: Bottling packaging & canning exhibition

Birmingham, UK

Binsted Exhibitions Ltd.

April
2 or 3 years

MACROPAK: International packaging trade fair

Utrecht, Netherlands

Koninklidjke nedelandse jaarbeurs

April
2 or 3 years

SCANPLAST: International trade fair for the plastics & rubber industries

Gothenburg, Sweden

Svenska Man

May
2 or 3 years

PLAST: International plastics & rubber exhibition

Milan, Italy

Centro Commercial Milanofiori

May
2 or 3 years

LOGITRANS: Logistics, transport, storage & packagingtrade fair

Madrid, Spain

IFEMA

May
3 years

INTERPACK: International fair for packing machinery & confectionery machinery

Dusseld Germany

Nowea dorfer Messegelsellschaft MBH

June
2 or 3 years

TRANSPACK: Trade fair for innovative packaging, transport systems & recycling

Hamburg, Germany

Hamburg Messe und Congress GmbH

September
2 or 3 years

DRINKTEC-INTERBRAW: World fair for beverage technology

Munich, Germany

Messe M GmbH

September
2 or 3 years

FACHPACK: Trade fair for packaging & labelling technology

Nuremberg, Germany

Ngmesse GmbH

September
2 or 3 years

PACKAGING FOCUS

Southampton UK

Richmond Events

September
2 or 3 years

PACKEXPO: International Packaging Exhibition

Cairo, Egypt

Arab Communication Group

October
2 or 3 years

RECYCLING: International exhibition for the recycling/reclamation Industry

Stoneleigh Park, U.K.

EMAP Business Communications

October
2 or 3 years

ENTEC: Environmental Technology Fair

Tampere, Finland

Tampereen Messut Oy

October
2 or 3 years

PAKEX IRELAND: International Packaging Exhibition

Dublin, Ireland

McCann Mc Guirk Presentations

October
2 or 3 years

CAIRO International Packaging Exhibition

Cairo, Egypt

General Organization for International Exhibitions

October
2 or 3 years

CAIRO International Exhibition for Agriculture, Agro-Industry, Foodstuff & Accessories

Cairo, Egypt

General Organization for International Exhibitions

October
2 years

SIAL: International Food Products Exhibition

Paris, France

SIAL

October
2 or 3 years

EQUIPLAST: International Plastic & Rubber exhibition

Barcelona, Spain

Fira de Barcelona

October
2 or 3 years

IPA/GIA: International exhibition of machinery & process technology for the food industry

Paris, France

CEP Exposium

October
2 or 3 years

DANSK EMBALLAGE MESSE: Packaging trade fair

Odense, Denmark

Odense Congress Center

October
yearly

UTEC: International Conference & trade fair on Environmental Technology

Vienna, Austria

UTEC GmbH

October
2 or 3 years

LABELEXPO EUROPE: International exhibition for labels, labels printing & production technology

Brussels, Belgium

Labelex Exhibitions

October
yearly

POLLUTEC: International environmental trade fair

Lyon, France

SEPFI-Technoexpo Blenheim

October
2 or 3 years

SCANPACK: International packaging trade fair

Gothenburg, Sweden

Svenska Man

October
2 years

ANUGA COLOGNE: World food market

Cologne, Germany

Kesse

October
2 years

EUROPACK/EURAMUT: European exhibition for material handling & packaging technologies

Lyon, France

CEP-Exposium

October
2 years

RECYCLA EUROP: European exhibition for recycling

Stuttgart, Germany

Gapp Frankfurt Gesellschaft fatzplanung U. Projekte

October
2 years

PAPEX: International pulp & paper industry exhibition

Manchester, UK

Reed Exhibition Company

October
3 years

IPEX: International printing machinery exhibition

Birmingham, UK

Reed Exhibition Company

October
3 years

CONVERTEX: International paper, board, film & foil converting industry trade exhibition

Birmingham, UK

Reed Exhibition Company

October
3 years

PACTEC: International packaging & material handling exhibition

Helsinki, Finland

Finexpo-Suomen Messut

October
2 or 3 years

CANNEX: International can making technology exhibition

Maastricht, Netherlands

SPG Exhibitions

November
2 or 3 years

PPMA show: Processing & packaging machinery

Birmingham, UK

PPMA

November
2 years

ANUGA FOODTEC: International food technology fair

Cologne, Germany

KNMESSE

November
2 or 3 years

Processing & Packaging Machinery Show

London, UK

PPMA Ltd.

November
2 or 3 years

SERIPRINT: Screen printing industry exhibition

Milan, Italy

Miller Freeman Srl

November
2 or 3 years

INTERPLAST: International Plastics & Rubber Exhibition

Birmingham, UK

Reed Exhibition Companies (UK)

November
2 or 3 years

CONVERTEX: International paper, board film & foil converting industry trade exhibition + conference

Birmingham, UK

Reed Exhibition Companies (UK)

November
2 or 3 years

PACKAGING PLUS

London, UK

AES Event

November
2 years

EMBALLAGE: International packaging exhibition

Paris, France

CEP-Exposium

November
2 or 3 years

PAPER RECYCLING: Global conference & exhibition on paper & board recycling

London, UK

Miller freeman, Inc. PPI Exhibitions

November
2 or 3 years

AMBIENTE: International exhibition of services & equipment for environmental protection

Porto, Portugal

Exponor - Feira Internacional do Porto

November
2 or 3 years

IRC: International recycling congress and trade exhibition

Berlin, Germany

EF-Verlag fergie und Umwelttechnik

December
2 or 3 years

ECOTECH: International trade fair for waste processing, recycling & environmental technology

Utrecht, Netherlands

Koninklijke nederlandse Jaarbeurs

Remarks:

The four most important european exhibitions on packaging are:

1. EMBALLAGE: Paris (every 2 years in November; next one in 1998)
2. INTERPACK: Dorf (every 3 years in May; next one in 1999)
3. IPACK-IMA: Milan (every 3 years in March; next one in 1997)
4. PAKEX: Birmingham (every 3 years in April; next one in 1998)

... and the two most important food exhibitions (every 2 years)

5. SIAL: Paris (in October)
6. ANUGA: Cologne (in November)

To obtain the addresses of the exhibitions' organisers, it is advised to contact the commercial attachf the Embassy of the country concerned or the organisations mentioned in Annex 6.

ANNEX 7 - LIST OF SOME INTERNATIONAL OR PROFESSIONAL ORGANISATIONS LINKED TO PACKAGING

The organisations mentioned below can be contacted for information on exhibitions (dates, venues...) addresses of suppliers, standards of composition and packaging, customs duties, laws, etc..

A.I.J.N. Association of the Industry of Juices & Nectars from Fruit & Vegetables of the European Union

Avenue de Cortenbergh 172 b 6
B-1040 Brussels, Belgium
Tel.: (322) 735 81 70
Fax: (322) 736 81 75

International Trade Center
UNCTAD/WTO

54-56 rue de Monbrillant
CH-1202 Geneva, Switzerland
Tel.: (4122) 730 01 11
Fax: (4122) 740 15 32

International Packaging Programme

13, Champs d'Anier
CH-1209 Geneva, Switzerland
Fax: (4122) 788 54 18

PPMA Processing & Packaging Machinery Association

Progress House
404 Brighton Road
South Croydon
Surrey CR2 6AN, United Kingdom
Tel.: (44) 181 681 8226
Fax: (44) 181 681 1641

UCIMA Unione Costtrutori Italiani Macchine Automatiche per il Confezionamento

Corso Sempione
4-20154 Milano, Italy
Tel.: (39) 2 336 11 557
Fax: (39) 2 345 06 47

ADEPTA Comitrance Emballage

41 Rue de Bourgogne
75007 Paris, France
Tel.: (331) 44 18 08 88
Fax: (331) 44 18 08 89

GMV Group of Netherlands Manufacturers of Machinery for Food Processing Industries

Boerhaavelaan 40
Posbus 190
2700 AD Zoertermeer, The Netherlands
Tel.: (3179) 353 11 00
Fax: (3179) 353 13 65

ANAIP Confederacion espanola de empresarios de plasticos

Raimundo Fernandez Villaverde, 57
28003 Madrid, Spain
Tel.: (343) 533 98 05
Fax: (343) 533 90 27

ENVASGRAF Asociacion Espanola de Constructores de maquinaria Para Envase, Embalaje, Embotello y Artes Graficas

Riera San Miguel 3
08006 Barcelona, Spain
Tel.: (343) 415 0422
Fax: (343) 416 0980

SCIPAG-EMBALCO

39/41 Rue Louis Blanc
Cedex 72, 92038 Paris la Dnse, France
Tel.: (33) 1 47 17 63 50/51
Fax: (33) 1 47 17 63 49

VDMA Food & Packaging Machinery Division

Postbus 710864
Frankfurt-Main, Germany
Tel.: (49) 69 66 0310
Fax: (49) 69 66 031211


CDI

CENTRE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY

A TOOL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN ACP COUNTRIES

The Centre for the Development of Industry (CDI) is an ACP-EU institution financed by the European Development Fund (EDF) under the Lomonvention bringing together the European Union and the 70 ACP countries (Africa, Caribbean and the Pacific). Its objective is to encourage and support the creation, expansion and restructuring of industrial companies (mainly in manufacturing and agro-industry) in the ACP countries. To this effect, it promotes partnerships between ACP and European companies which may take various forms: financial, technical or commercial partnership, management contracts, licensing or franchise agreements, subcontracts, etc.

The CDI's services are easily accessible and are subdivided into 4 facilities (see table) to support the different stages in the creation, expansion and rehabilitation of industrial companies. In this framework, the CDI intervenes free of charge by providing its own expertise or making a non-reimbursable financial contribution. The CDI does not finance the investment of the project but helps to seek out and put together a financing package.

The requests for assistance submitted to the CDI are evaluated on the basis of the financial and technical viability of the projects and their contribution as regards the development of the country concerned. All dossiers submitted to the CDI are treated confidentially. The total amount invested in these projects, or the value of the assets in the case of existing companies, must normally be between ECU 200,000 and ECU 10 million. Smaller companies may be accepted in certain cases: pilot projects, grouping together of several companies with a view to joint assistance, priority industrial sectors, etc.

By "project", the CDI means an industrial unit or group of units in the process of being created or undergoing expansion, diversification, rehabilitation or privatisation.

CENTRE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY (ACP-EU LOME CONVENTION)
Avenue Hermann Debroux 52, B-1160 Brussels, Belgium
Tel.: +32 2 679 18 11 - Fax: +32 2 675 26 03

ACP Group

European Union

ANNEX 8 - CDI, A TOOL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN ACP COUNTRIES

FACILITIES WITH A VIEW TO THE CREATION, EXPANSION, DIVERSIFICATION, REHABILITATION AND PRIVATISATION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES


FACILITY 1

FACILITY 2

FACILITY 3

FACILITY 4

TYPE OF OPERATION

Identification of company projects and potential partners
(Preliminary studies by country or by sector, interfirm meeting)

Operation prior to implementation of the project
(Search for partners, assistance in 1st contact, feasibility studies, market surveys, diagnoses, expertise)

Mounting the project
(Assistance in assembling the financial and legal package, search for financing and support in contacts with finance institutions)

Project start-up and development
(Help in setting up the project, technical and start-up assistance, assistance in training, management and marketing)

BENEFICIARIES

Development, promotion and finance institutions

Promoters and/or companies in an ACP country or an European Union member country wishing to become involved individually or jointly in an industrial project in an ACP country

TYPE OF CONTRIBUTION

Advice, technical assistance or subsidy

AMOUNT

Case by case

Max. ECU 150,000 per project per year
(The aggregate amount of all contributions to the same project/company must not exceed ECU 300,000 and must be less than 20% of the total investment, except in the case of pilot projects.)

LIMITS TO THE CDI CONTRIBUTION

Maximum 50% of the total cost

Maximum 2/3 of the total cost
(Beneficiary promoters/companies must contribute at least one third of the cost.)

WHERE TO SUBMIT YOUR REQUEST

Applicants may approach the CDI directly or contact one of the correspondents in the CDI's ACP network or one of the member institutions of the CDI's European Union network, a list of which is available on request

PRESENTATION OF THE REQUEST

Companies and promoters must clearly define the assistance that they require from the CDI.
A brochure entitled "How to benefit from the CDI facilities" is also available on request. This describes in detail the way in which to present dossiers requesting assistance, a summary of which is given below.

SUBSTANCE OF THE REQUEST

In general, the information to be provided is as follows:

FACILITY 1:

Identification of industrial projects and potential partnerships

· description of the organisation putting forward the proposal and, if applicable, the companies on whose behalf this identification process is being conducted,

· description of the proposed activity,

· detailed timetable for execution of the specific operations,

· detailed budget proposal.

FACILITY 2:

Operations prior to implementation of the project

· description of the company or promoter presenting a proposal, including information on their financial situation,

· description of the project under consideration,

· preliminary financing plan for the investment or development project,

· working plan covering the operations to be carried out,

· breakdown of the budget for the proposed operation.

FACILITY 3:

Mounting the project

· description of the existing company and/or investment envisaged (sector, size, financial projections, etc.),

· project feasibility study from the technical, economic and financial points of view,

· description of the proposed financial and legal structure,

· working programme and detailed budget proposal.

FACILITY 4:

Project start-up and development

· description of the company, including its financial position,
· description of the technical assistance and training,
· working programme; main assistance objectives,

· detailed budget proposal.

THE CDI'S ACP ANTENNAE NETWORK

WEST AFRICA REGION

BENIN

· Centre de promotion pour remploi et la petite et moyenne entreprise (CEPEPE)
T: +229 31 44 47 Fax: +229 31 59 50

BURKINA FASO

· Minist de l'industrie, du commerce et des mines
T: +226 307305 Fax: +226 307 305

CAPE VERDE

· I.A.D.E.
T: +238 61 44 44 Fax: +238 61 24 34

CE D'IVOIRE

· Chambre de commerce et de l'industrie de Cd'Ivoire
T: +225 324700 Fax: +225 272117

GAMBIA

· Mass
T: +220 229 848 Fax: +220 229 024

GHANA

· Ghana Investments Promotion Centre (G.I.P.C.)
T: +233 21 665 125 Fax: +213 21 663 801

GUINEA

· Office de promotion des investissements priv(O.P.L.P.)
T: +224 444985 Fax: +224 413161

GUINEA BISSAU

· Ministerio dos Recursos Naturais e da Industria
T: +245 215659 Fax: +245 221050

LIBERIA

· Subah-Belleh Associates
T: +231 221 519 Fax: +231 226262

· Venture Development Incorporated
T: +231 225229 Fax: +231 225217

MALI

· Centre d'assistance aux projets, entreprises et socis (CAPES)
T: +223 222259 Fax: +223 228085

MAURITANIA

· Fration des industrie, et des mines (FIM)
T: +222 2 595 83 Fax: +222 2 595 83

· Association professionnelle promotion de la pe artisanale et du crt maritime mutuel en Mauritanie
T: +222 2 451 44 Fax: +222 2 450 46

NIGER

· Minist de l'industrie et de l'artisanat
T: +227 733783 Fax: +227 733783

· Afelen
T: +227 741821 Fax: +227 741812

NIGERIA

· N.I.D.B. Ltd.
T: +234 1 663470

· New Nigeria Development Ca. Ltd. (N.N.D.C.)
T: +234 62 200250 Fax: +234 62 35482

· G. Odia and Associates
T: +234 1 822712 Fax: +234 1 2662315

· Mitecs Ltd.
T: +234 1 834 108 Fax: +234 1 261 44 96

· Grid Consulting
T: +234 1 266 5657 Fax: +234 1 266 7905

SENEGAL

· Sonepi
T: +221 25 51 80 Fax: +221 246565

SIERRA LEONE

· Ajua Consultants Ltd.
T: +232 22 229028 Fax: +232 22 229680

TOGO

· Chambre de commerce, d'agriculture & d'industrie du Togo (CCAI)
T: +228 212065 Fax: +228 214710

CENTRAL AFRICA REGION

BURUNDI

· B.N.D.E.
T: +257 222888 Fax: +257 223775

CAMEROON

· BETA Conseil
T: +237 432585 Fax: +237 431691

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
· C.C.I.M.A
T: +236 611668 Fax: +236 613561

· Kode Conseil, sarl
T: +236 610035 Fax: +236 610035

CHAD

· O.P.L.T.
T: +235 515364 Fax: +235 515884

CONGO

· B.D.E.A.C.
T: +242 8302 12 Fax: +242 830266

· CODIS Consult
T: +242 837135 Fax: +242 836199

GABON

· ASIAFCO Gabon, Sarl
T: +241 724061 Fax: +241 724061

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

· Ministerio de Industria, Comercio y Promocion Empresarial
T: +240 9 2586 Fax: +240 9 3339

RWANDA

· Minist de l'industrie et de l'artisanat
T: +250 76715

SAO TOME E PRINCIPE

· Ministerio de Econome Finan
T: +239 12 22747 Fax: +239 12 22182

ZAIRE

· SOFIDE
Tel.: +243 12 25619

EAST AFRICA REGION

COMOROS

· Banque de dloppement des Comores
T: +269 73 08 18

· Centre d'appui au secteur privCASP)
T: +269 73 03 38 Fax: +269 73 03 13

ERITREA

· Asmara Chamber of Commerce
T: +291 1 121 388 Fax: +291 1 120 138

ETHIOPIA

· M. Ashenafi Shifferaw
T: +251 1 553330 Fax: +251 1 553330

KENYA

· 4M Entreprises
T: +254 2 744955 Fax: +254 2 750 396

MADAGASCAR

· Soci d'des et de risations pour le dloppement (SERDI)
T: +261 2 21315 Fax: +261 2 29669

· Association thoni commission de l'oc indien
T: +261 2 32183 Fax: +261 2 32184

MAURITIUS

· Chambre de commerce et d'industrie de Maurice (CCIM)
T: +230 208 3301 Fax: + 230 208 0076

SEYCHELLES

· Development Bank of Seychelles
T: +248 224471 Fax: +248 224274

SUDAN

· Sudan Development Corporation
T: +249 11 452151 Fax: +249 11 452148

TANZANIA

· International Services & Supplies Ltd. (ISS)
T: +255 51 21401 Fax: +255 51 32 895

· Small Industries Development Organization (SIDO)
T: +255 51 27691 Fax: +255 51 21011

· Tanzania Development Finance Company Ltd.
T: +255 51 46 144

UGANDA

· Centre for Trade Promotion Ltd.
T: +256 41 24 29 62 Fax; +256 41 24 55 97

SOUTHERN AFRICAN REGION

ANGOLA

· Ministerio da Industria
T: +244 2 33 70 55 Fax: +244 2 39 2400

BOTSWANA

· Economic Consultancy (PTY) Ltd.
T: +267 31 31 31 Fax: +267 31 20 90

LESOTHO

· Lesotho National Development Corporation (LNDC)
T: +266 32 20 12 Fax: +266 31 0038

MALAWI

· Investment and Development Bank of Malawi Ltd. (INDEBANK)
T: +265 62 00 55 Fax: +265 63 5703

MOZAMBIQUE

· Instituto Nacional de Desenvolvimento da Industria Local (IDIL)
T: +258 1 42 21 79 Fax; +258 1 43 0226

NAMIBIA

· Investment Centre
T: +264 61 22 99 33 Fax: +264 61 22 02 78

· Chamber of Commerce & industry
T: +264 22 20 00 Fax: +264 33 690

SWAZILAND

· Swaziland Industrial Development Company
T: +268 433 91 Fax: +268 45 619

ZAMBIA

· Small Industries Development Organisation (SIDO)
T: +260 1 22 42 84 Fax: +260 1 22 2568

ZIMBABWE

· Zimbabwe Investment Centre
T: +263 4 75 79 31 Fax; +263 4 75 7937

CARIBBEAN REGION

ANTIGUA and BARBUDA BAHAMAS

· Bahamas Chamber of Commerce
T: +1 809 3222145 Fax: +1 809 3224649

BARBADOS

· Barbados Investment and Development Corporation (BIDC)
T: +1 809 4275350 Fax: +1 809 4267802 BELIZE

· Belize Chamber of commerce & Industry
T: +501 2 75108 Fax; +501 2 274984

DOMINICA (COM)

· Insurance Marketing & Promotion Services Ltd.
T: +1 8094485392 Fax: +1 809 4485592

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

· DOMINEX
T: +1 809 5355540 Fax: +1 809 53132 15

GRENADA

· Grenade Industrial Development Corporation (IDC)
T: +1 809 4441035 Fax: +1809 4444828

GUYANA

· The (private) Sector Commission of Guyana Ltd.
T: +592 2 57170 Fax: +592 2 70725

JAMAICA

· JAMPRO Ltd.
T: +1 809 9297190 Fax: +1 809 9249650

ST CHRISTOPHER and NEVIS

· Chamber of Commerce and Industry
T: +1 809 4652980 Fax: +1809 4654490

ST LUCIA

· St. Lucia National Development Corporation
T: +1 809 4523074 Fax: +1 809 452 1841

ST VINCENT and GRENADINES

· St. Vincent Development Corporation
T: +1 809 4571358 Fax: +1 809 4572838

SURINAME

· Chamber of Commerce and industry
T: +597 473527 Fax: +597 474779

TRINIDAD and TOBAGO

· Caribbean Business Services Ltd.
T: +1 809 633 2103 Fax: +1 809 633 2103

PACIFIC REGION

FIJI

· Fiji Trade and Investment Board
T: +679 31 59 88 Fax: +679 30 1783

KIRIBATI

· Ministry of Natural Resources Development
T: +686 21099 Fax: +686 21120

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

· Department of Trade and Industry Central
T: +675 27 11 15 Fax: +675 25 2403

SOLOMON ISLANDS

· Ministry of Commerce & Primary Industry
T: +677 262 30 Fax: +677 250 84

TONGA

· Tonga Development Bank
T: +676 213 33 Fax: +676 22 755

TUVALU

· Development Bank of Tuvalu
T: +688 20 850 Fax: +688 20 850

WESTERN SAMOA

· Development Bank of Western Samoa
T: +685 228 61 Fax: +685 23 888

VANUATU

· Ministry of Economic Affairs
T: +678 22770 Fax: +678 25640

THE CDI'S EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONAL NETWORK

AUSTRIA

· Wirtschafstakammer terreich Aussenwirtschaftsorganisation
Tel.: +43 1 50105 4403 Fax: +43 1 50206 255

BELGIUM

· Administration grale de la cooption au dloppement - AGCD
Tel: +32 2 519 02 11 Fax: +32 2 500 65 85

· Minist de la Ron Wallonne - DARE
Tel.: +32 2 211 55 11 Fax: +32 2 211 55 37

· Minist de la Ron Bruxelles-Capitale
Tel.: +32 2 513 97 00 Fax: +32 2 511 52 55

DENMARK

· The Industrialization Fund for Developing Countries - IFU
Tel.: +45 33 14 25 75 Fax: +45 33 32 25 24

FINLAND

· Finnfund
Tel.: +358 0 348 434 Fax: +358 0 348 433 46

· Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Department for Development Cooperation
Tel.: +358 0 134 151 Fax: +358 0 134 162 09

FRANCE

· Assembldes chambres franses de commerce et d'industrie - ACFCI
Tel.: +13 1 40 69 37 00 Fax: +33 1 47 20 61 28

· Association ronale pour le dloppement et la cooption industrielle internationale - ADECI
Tel.: +33 91 14 42 28 Fax: +33 91 91 85 37

· INTERCO Aquitaine - Agence de cooption internationale
Tel.: +33 56 51 20 92 Fax: +33 56 48 28 19

· Institut ronal de dloppement - IRCOD
Tel. +33 26 70 31 31 Fax: +33 26 64 10 95

· Caisse franse de dloppement - CFD
Tel.: +33 1 40 06 31 31 Fax: +33 1 47 42 75 14

· ERAI - Entreprise RhAlpes international
Tel.: +33 78 34 83 48 Fax: +33 78 34 59 85

GERMANY

· Deutsche Investitions und Entwicklungsgesellschaft - D.E.G.
Tel.: +49 221 498 63 81 Fax: +49 221 498 61 11

GREECE

· Organization for the Development of Small and Medium Sized Industries and Handicrafts - EOMMEX
Tel.: +30 1 77 00 654 Fax; +30 1 77 78 694

IRELAND

· Irish Trade Board - ITB
Tel.: +353 1 269 50 11 Fax: +353 1 269 58 20

ITALY

· Ente Regionale per la Valorizzazione Economica del Territorio - ERVET
Tel.: +39 51 23 05 67 Fax: +39 51 22 23 52

· Istituto Nationale per il Commercio Estero - ICE
Tel.: +39 6 59 921 Fax: +39 6 59 926 899

GRAND-DUCHY OF LUXEMBOURG

· Minist des Affaires angs Direction des Relations nomiques Internationales et de h Cooption
Tel.:: +352 478 23 62 Fax: +352 22 20 48

· Lux-Development s.a.r.l.
Tel.: +352 43 39 68 Fax: +352 43 38 08

PORTUGAL

· Banco de Fomento e Exterior BFE
Tel.: +351 1 356 10 71 Fax: +351 1 352 27 58

· Banco Portugudo Atlico - BPA
Tel.: +351 1 346 33 52 Fax: +351 1 342 32 94

· Fundo Para a Coopera Economica - FCE
Tel.: +351 1 352 06 07 Fax: +351 1 315 85 43

· Investimentos, Comercio e Turismo de Portugal - ICEP
Tel.: +151 1 793 01 03 Fax: +351 1 794 08 26

SPAIN

· COPCA
Tel.: +34 3 48 49 605 Fax: +34 3 48 49 666

· Instituto Espade Comercio Exterior - ICEX
Tel.: +34 1 349 61 00 Fax: +34 1 431 61 28

· Sociedad para la Promoci Reconversindustrial - SPRI
Tel.: +34 4 47 97 000 Fax: +34 4 47 97 023

· Instituto de Fomento de Andaluc- IFA
Tel.: +34 5 490 00 16 Fax: +34 5 490 63 00

· Promociones Exteriores de Canarias - PROEXCA
Tel.: +34 28 41 14 34 Fax: +34 28 41 43 04

SWEDEN

· Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Business and Enterprise Development Division - Sida.
Tel.: +46 8 698509 Fax: +46 8 249290

· Swedfund International - AB
Tel.: +46 8 7259400 Fax: +46 8 203093

UNITED KINGDOM

· Commonwealth Development Corporation - CDC
Tel.: +44 171 828 44 88 Fax: +44 171 828 65 05

· Department of Trade and Industry - DTI
Tel.: +44 171 215 57 50 Fax: +44 171 215 57 12

These lists of the CDI's ACP and European Union networks, published In November 1995, are regularly updated. If you would like to receive the most recent lists, together with the names and references of the people to contact, please send your request to:

CDI
Avenue Herrmann Debroux 52, B-1160 Brussels, Belgium
Tel.: +32 2 679 18 11 - Fax: +32 2 675 26 03
November 1995

Back Cover

This guide is a tool for industrialists, investors, production and maintenance executives, economists, etc., wishing to develop new projects in the packaging of fruit juice and non-carbonated, non-alcoholic fruit beverages.

The guide addresses the following questions:

What kind of packaging to choose?
Which type is best adapted to the target market?
Which is the cheapest?
How long can the beverage be preserved?
What would be the equipment investment cost?
Which supplier to contact and where?

The guide gives details of the various packaging possibilities, their respective cost, the investment necessary, addresses and fairs/exhibitions useful in the development of a fruit processing enterprise.

Twenty-one different packaging solutions are presented, from the pre-formed plastic pouch to the tin can and the glass bottle.

Classification is made by investment cost for packaging machinery and by packaging cost per unit produced so that each promoter can select the system best adapted to the financial means available and to the target market.

OTHER TITLES

"Technologies series"

· 1 - Briquetting of vegetal residues
· 2 - Valorisation of phosphate In Africa
· 3 - Soap production
· 4 - Paint production
· 5 - Compressed earth blocks production equipment
· 6 - Flexible polyurethane foam: discontinuous process
· 7 - The intensive poultry industry in the Sahelian zone
· 8 - Sand and aggregates production equipment
· 9 - Small bakeries and the valorisation of local cereals in ACP countries
· 10 - Packaging of fruit juices and non carbonated fruit drinks
· 11 - Compressed earth blocks: Standards
· 12 - Technical guide for Tilapia Farming

"Contracts and partnerships series"

· 1 - Purchasing industrial equipment
· 2 - Setting up in ACP countries
· 3 - ACP-EU; A guide to partnerships in industry

"Project evaluation and financing series"

· 1 - Financial resources for industrial projects In ACP countries
· 2 - FINAN Manual
· 3 - Facilities and Instruments for industrial cooperation

"Export development series"

· 1 - Exporting sea products

"Forum series"

· 1 - The agri-food sector in Western Africa. 1995
· 2 - Construction and building materials in Central Africa, 1995

"CDI Dossiers series"

· 1 - Lake fishing in Uganda: the Nile perch
· 2 - Commercial perspectives for rose farms in East and Southern Africa
· 3 - Developing the fishing sector in Mozambique
· 4 - Export opportunities for processed fruit from the Caribbean