Cover Image
close this bookResidential and Non-Residential - Drinking water installations and drainage requirements in Nepal (MTC - SKAT, 1988, 188 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINTRODUCTION
View the documentFOREWORD
close this folderPART 1 - DRINKING WATER INSTALLATIONS
View the document1. OBJECTIVES
View the document2. FIELD OF APPLICATION
View the document3. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
View the document4. PRINCIPLES OF INSTALLATIONS
View the document5. PARTS OF PIPELINES
View the document6. WATER METER
View the document7. STORAGE TANKS
View the document8. PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION
View the document9. MATERIALS AND CONNECTIONS OF PIPELINES
View the document10. POSITIONING OF PIPELINES
View the document11. INSTALLATIONS IN BUILDINGS
View the document12. APPARATUS AND VALVES
View the document13. FIRE HYDRANT LINES
View the document14. FREEZING PROTECTION
View the document15. DIMENSIONING
View the document16. TESTING OF A NEW INSTALLATION
close this folderPART 2 - DRAINAGE REQUIREMENTS
View the document1. SCOPE
View the document2. FIELD OF APPLICATION
View the document3. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
View the document4. PRINCIPLES OF INSTALLATION
View the document5. PRINCIPAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PARTS OF PIPELINE
View the document6. PRINCIPAL REQUIREMENTS FOR DRAINAGE APPLIANCES
View the document7. PRINCIPLES FOR THE PLANNING AND FITTING OF DRAINAGE PIPES
View the document8. SANITARY APPARATUS (Fixture, Appliance)
View the document9. VENTILATION
View the document10. RAIN WATER
View the document11. MATERIALS
View the document12. PRINCIPLES OF CALCULATION
View the document13. DIMENSIONING
View the document14. INSPECTION AND TESTING
View the documentPART 3 - DRAWINGS/DESIGN
View the documentFURTHER READINGS
View the documentFURTHER PUBLICATIONS ON THIS SUBJECT IN SKAT'S BOOKSHOP
View the documentBACK COVER

PART 3 - DRAWINGS/DESIGN

TABLE 3/1 - APPARATUS REQUIREMENTS

GUIDELINES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF REQUIRED APPARATUS IN BUILDINGS

Object

unit

take graph for



WC (commode)

urinals

showers



ladies

gents

gents

ladies

gents

1. schools
2 offices

students
employees

3-4
2-3

4- 5
3-4

3-4
2-3

2-3
-

2- 3
-

3 industries
4 hotel/rest.

Employees
seats

2-3
3-4

3 -
4- 5

2-3
3- 4

6-7
-

6-7
-

5 restaurants
6 swimmingpool

seats
locked boxes

4- 5
5- 6

5- 6
6-

4- 5
6-

-
5-6

-
5- 6

7 theatres
8 barracks

visitors
persons

6
5

6-7
3-4

5- 6
3- 4

-
5-6

-
5- 6


Figure

The above indications are in accordance with international directions.

TABLE 3/2 - WATER CLOSET (COMMODE)


Figure

Example of Apparatus. Note: There are many different types and designs available on the market. The indications above are proposals. Actual dimensions of the apparatus and appliances (height, diameters, connecting accessories, etc.) have to be measured from the very apparatus to be fixed at the site, prior to fixing of pipes into the walls or floors.

Table 3/3 - WC FLOOR PAN


Figure

Note: This type of WC usually requires one additional coldwater tap (1/2”) fitted nearby at a height of approx. 400 mm.

Example of Apparatus. Note: There are many different types and designs available on the market. The indications above are proposals. Actual dimensions of the apparatus and appliances (height, diameters, connecting accessories, etc.) have to be measured from the very apparatus to be fixed at the site, prior to fixing of pipes into the walls or floors.

TABLE 3/4 - WASHBASIN (LAVATORY)


Figure

Example of Apparatus. Note: There are many different types and designs available on the market. The indications above are proposals. Actual dimensions of the apparatus and appliances (height, diameters, connecting accessories, etc.) have to be measured from the very apparatus to be fixed at the site, prior to fixing of pipes into the walls or floors.

TABLE 3/5 - BATHTUB


Figure

Example of Apparatus. Note: There are many different types and designs available on the market. The indications above are proposals. Actual dimensions of the apparatus and appliances (height, diameters, connecting accessories, etc.) have to be measured from the very apparatus to be fixed at the site, prior to fixing of pipes into the walls or floors.

TABLE 3/6 - URINAL


Figure

Example of Apparatus. Note: There are many different types and designs available on the market. The indications above are proposals. Actual dimensions of the apparatus and appliances (height, diameters, connecting accessories, etc.) have to be measured from the very apparatus to be fixed at the site, prior to fixing of pipes into the walls or floors.

TABLE 3/7 - URINAL (SMALL TYPE)

Note: The waste connection A must be out of the apparatus axis. As the distance of the wall to centre waste coupling is 50 mm only a normal bottle siphon as for washbasins can not be connected to this urinal.


Figure

Example of Apparatus. Note: There are many different types and designs available on the market. The indications above are proposals. Actual dimensions of the apparatus and appliances (height, diameters, connecting accessories, etc.) have to be measured from the very apparatus to be fixed at the site, prior to fixing of pipes into the walls or floors.

TABLE 3/8 - KITCHEN SINK


Figure

Example of Apparatus. Note: There are many different types and designs available on the market. The indications above are proposals. Actual dimensions of the apparatus and appliances (height, diameters, connecting accessories, etc.) have to be measured from the very apparatus to be fixed at the site, prior to fixing of pipes into the walls or floors.

TABLE 3/9 - BIDET


Figure

Example of Apparatus. Note: There are many different types and designs available on the market. The indications above are proposals. Actual dimensions of the apparatus and appliances (height, diameters, connecting accessories, etc.) have to be measured from the very apparatus to be fixed at the site, prior to fixing of pipes into the walls or floors.

TABLE 3/10 - SHOWER


Figure

Example of Apparatus. Note: There are many different types and designs available on the market. The indications above are proposals. Actual dimensions of the apparatus and appliances (height, diameters, connecting accessories, etc.) have to be measured from the very apparatus to be fixed at the site, prior to fixing of pipes into the walls or floors.

TABLE 3/11 - ROOM MEASUREMENTS

MINIMAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR APPARATUS AND PERSON

1 Washbasin

2 Hand - Washbasin

3 Urinal

4 Bathtub

5 Showertray

6 Bidet

7 Water - Closer

8 Water - Closet with Tank

9 Floor - Pan

TABLE 3/12 - ROOM MEASUREMENTS

MINIMAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR APPARATUS AND PERSON

1 WC + Handwashbasin

2 WC + Washbasin

3 Floor - Pan + Handwashbasin

4 Floor - Pan + Washbasin

5 Shower + Washbasin

6 Shower, Washbasin + WC

TABLE 3/13 - ROOM MEASUREMENTS

MINIMAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR APPARATUS AND PERSON

1 Bathroom with 2 apparatus

2 Bathroom with 3 apparatus

3 Bathroom with 3 apparatus

4 Bathroom with 3 apparatus

5 Bathroom with 4 apparatus

6 Bathroom with 4 apparatus

TABLE 3/14 - INSTALLATION SHAFTS


Figure


Figure

Principle Requirements to Shafts

1. To remain always easy accessible

2. Sufficient in width, min. 600 mm

3. Light provision (at least one socket)

4. Strong walls, so that water heaters can also be fixed.

5. Keeping all openings, until the pipes are fixed.

6. Apparatus to be fixed with its back towards the walls of the shaft (easy and economical pipe fixing).

7. If possible, keep floor level approx. one step lower; this facilitates the installations and accessability of siphons of shower trays and bath tubs.

8. Each room must have sufficient hot water, either by having it's own electric water tank, or through a central hot water system.

Caution

All openings in the floors have also to be sealed after completion of the installation works, for reasons of fire safety!

TABLE 3/15 - LAYOUT, EXAMPLE

LAYOUT AS REALIZED IN A HOTEL. INSTALLATION IN SHAFTS FACILITATES WORKS AND MAINTAINS EASY ACCESS FOR REPAIRS.


Figure

TABLE 3/16 - LAYOUT, EXAMPLE

TYPICAL BATHROOM REQUIREMENTS IN A HOTEL PIPELINES ARE FITTED IN A SHAFT AND REMAIN EASILY ACCESSABLE FOR REPAIRS AND MAINTENANCE.


Figure

TABLE 3/17 - SYMBOLS

FOR MECHANICAL INSTALLATIONS IN BUILDINGS

Scope:

These symbols are valid for the following installations in buildings:


- Plumbing


- Heating


- Ventilating


- Air conditioning


- Refrigeration

SYMBOLS ARE DETERMINED ON THE BASE OF I S O STANDARDS. FOR UNIFORM PRESENTATION OF DRAWINGS OF INSTALLATIONS IN BUILDINGS.

1 BASIC + GENERAL SYMBOLS

1 1

Basic Symbols





1 11

Pipes

1 12

Direction of flow of pipe content (arrow)

1 13

Control valves
Stop valves
(i.e. gate valves, butterfly valves)

1 14

Apparatus
(without rotating parts)

1 15

Apparatus
(without rotating parts)

1 16

Indicating and recording instruments

1 2

General Symbols





1 201

Pipes





1

Pipe

2

Contents of pipe:
Method A:
Designation by printing the nature of contents above or in the line

3

Contents of pipe:
Method B:
Designation by different lines
(example on the left)

4

Contents of pipe:
Method C:
Designation by coloured * lines according to the colour code used in the industries

5

Direction of flow of pipe content (arrow)

6

Duct

7

Crossing of two pipes without connection

8

Crossing of two pipes with connection

9

Branching pipe (Tee)

10

Pipe with slope

11

Flexible pipe

12

Insulated pipe

13

Heated pipe

14

Pipe with heating or cooling jacket

1 202

Pipe shown in plan





1

Change of level in the same level

2

Pipe going through

3

Pipe going down

4

Pipe going up

5

Indication of levels
/= highest level



1 203

Pipe connections





1

Pipe socket

2

Flanged connection

3

Screwed connection union

4

Pipe coupling

5

Centric reduction

6

Excentric reduction (above)

7

Excentric reduction (below)




1 204

Expansion joints





1

Expansion joint (general)

2

U - bend

3

Slip joint

4

Bellow expansion joint (axial)

5

Bellow expansion joint (lateral)



1 205

Supports





1

Anchor point

2

Sliding support

3

Pipe support

4

Pipe hanger

5

Pipe hanger with spring

6

Sliding pipe hanger

7

Sliding pipe, hanger with guides

8

Rolling pipe support

1 206

Stop valves





1

Valve (general)

2

Angle valve

3

3 Way valve

4

4 Way valve

5

Valve

6

Gate valve

7

Stop cock

8

Pressure reducing valve

9

Non return valve (check valve)

10

Spring operated safety valve

11

Weight operated safety valve

12

Butterfly safety valve

13

Butterfly stop valve

14

Butterfly check valve

15

Butterfly throttling valve

16

Pipe vent

17

Funnel

18

Sight glass

19

Steam trap

20

Strainer

21

Water meter




1 207

Apparatus





1

Apparatus
without rotating parts
(with exact description)

2

Apparatus
with rotating parts
(with exact description)

3

Pump

4

Fan

5

Compressor

6

Motor

1 208

Measuring and sensing element





1

Measuring point

2

Temperature sensing element

3

Pressure sensing element

4

Flow sensing element

5

Humidity sensing element

6

Level sensing element

7

Built - in measuring device

8

Measuring orifice (measuring nozzle)

9

Flow limiting device

10

Indicating device

11

Recorder




1 209

Transmitters and controllers





1

Transmitter

2

Controller

1 210

Drives





1

Manual drive

2

Automatic drive (with auxiliary energy)

3

Direct drive

4

Weight operated drive

5

Float operated drive

6

Spring drive - operated

7

Piston drive operated

8

Diaphragm drive operated

9

Solenoid drive operated

10

Motor drive

1 211

Sources of energy





1

Solid fuel

2

Liquid fuel

3

Gaseous fuel

4

Electric power

1 212

Heat meter





1

Mechanical heat meter


Heat meter with electronic integration

2 PLUMBING SYMBOLS

2.1 Sanitary Fixtures

Connecting Values


Soil + waste water

Drinking water


Siphon

S- value

Valve

Units

1 Bath tub


Figure

5/4 x 50
(or 57)

1

1/2”

2.0

2 Shower


Figure

1 1/2 “ x 50
(or 57)

1

1/2

2.0

3 Lavatory (wash basin)


Figure

5/4 x 40
(or 32)

0.5

1/2

0.5

4 Bidet


Figure

5/4 x 40
(or 32)

0.5

1/2

0.5

5 Water closet, low tank


Figure

100 mm

2.5

1/2

0.5

6 Water closet, high tank


Figure

100 mm

2.5

1/2

0.5

6a Water closet floor pan


Figure

100 mm

2.5

1/2
Cleaning
1/2

0.5
tap:
0.5

7 Water closet with tank built into wall


Figure

100 mm

2.5

1/2

0.5

8 Automatic water closet


Figure

100 mm

2.5

1/2

0.5

9 Urinal, wall type


Figure

5/4 x 50
(or 57)

1.0

1/2

1.0

10 Service sink


Figure

1 1/2 x 50
(or 57)

1.0

1/2

1.0

11 Laundry trough


Figure

1 1/2 x 50
(or 57)

1.0

1/2

1.0

12 Wash sink


Figure

1 1/2 x 50
(or 57)

1.0

1/2

1.0

13 Wash fountain


Figure

1 1/2 x 50
(or 57)

1.0

1/2

1.0

14 Single kitchen sink with drain board


Figure

1 1/2 x 50
(or 57)

1.0

1/2

1.0

15 Double kitchen sink with drain board


Figure

1 1/2 x 50
(or 57)

1.0

1/2

1.0

16 Washing machine


Figure

1 1/2 x 50
(or 57)

1.0
up to 6 kg

1/2

2.0

17 Clothes dryer (tumbler)


Figure

1 1/2 x 50
(or 57)

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

18 Centrifugal dryer (electric)


Figure

5/4 x 40
(or 32)

0.5



19 Water heater


Figure

Probably
safety
valve
drainage

nil

As per total
connected units
of hot water taps

20 Gas water heater


Figure



Gas




Valve

m3/h


N.A.

N.A.

As of indications
on apparatus

21 Gas cooker


Figure

N.A

N.A

1/2

as of indication on
apparat.




Drinking water




Valve

Units

22 Automatic dish washer


Figure

by hose
pipe into
kitchen
sink
siphon

not to be
counted
for, if
fitted into
sink siphon




otherwise

1/2

1.0


1 1/2 x 50
(or 57)

1.0



2 2

Valves

1

Bib cock

2

Mixing valve

3

Compact mixing valve

4

Mixing valve with regulator

5

Hose bib

6

Bib cock with bypass and
hose connection

7

Twin regulator valve

8

Mixing valve with bypass

9

Pillar tap

10

Mechanical mixer

11

Thermostatic mixer

12

Mechanical mixer
with manual valves

13

Thermostatic mixer
with manual valves

14

Mechanical mixer with
regulator and manual valves

15

Thermostatic mixer with
regulator and manual valves

16

Mechanical mixer
with bypass

17

Thermostatic mixer
with bypass

18

Shower

2 3

Drainage elements

2 31

Pipes


Pan

Elevation


1

Clear waste water





2

Storm sewer





3

Sanitary sewer





4

Industrial sewer





5

Vent pipe

2 32

Pipe fittings

1

Pipe socket
Pipe coupling

2

Pipe and with clean out

3

Clean out

4

Reduction; centric

5

reduction; excentric

6


7

S - Trap

8

Bottle trap

9

Horizontal trap

10

Floor sink without bottle trap

11

Floor sink with bottle trap

2 33

Collector, separators, wells, pumps

1

Collector
(sludge separator)

2

Grease trap

3

Mineral oil separator

4

Fuel oil lock

5

Double non - return lock

6

Control well (open system)

7

Control well
(closed system)

8

Sump pump (not for raw sewage)

9

Pump for sanitary waste vented

SYMBOLS FOR HEATING INSTALLATIONS

3 1


Boilers




1

Boiler for solid fuel

2

Boiler for liquied fuel

3

Boiler with fan assisted
gas burner

4

Gas fuelled flow - heater
with atmospheric burner

5

Dual fuel boiler vertical hot
water storage tank mounted
on top (capacity e. G. 120 litres)

6

Oil fired boiler with hot
water storage tank (horizontal)
mounted on top
(capacity e.g. 100 litres)

7

Dual fuel boiler vertical hot
water storage tank (vertical) mounted
on side (capacity e.g. 200 litres)

8

Dual fuel boiler with hot
water flow - heater

3 2


Storage heaters and heat exchangers

1

Electric storage heater
with ceramic core power: e.g 50 kw

2

Electric storage heater
for water
capacity: e.g. 500 litres
power: e.g. 10 kw

3

Electrically heated flow type water heater
power: e.g. 5 kw

4

Horizontal water to water
heat exchanger

5

Heat exchanger
cooling the secondary circuit

6

Heat exchanger with
co - axial tubes

7

Vertical hot water tank with
fixed heating coil at bottom

8

Vertical hot water with
removable heating call

9

Vertical hot water tank with
double jacket!

10

Horizontal water heated
steam generator with
removable heating coil

11

Water heater in several
segments




BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING AND DESIGN

The following rules are general guidelines which may be altered when necessary to suit particular circumstances.

Additional basic principles will arise out of practical experience.

1. For representation in the drawings use only official and common symbols.

2. Consider always that lines in a drawing represent pipe lines and that the space required for pipes must be allowed for.

3. The sanitary installations of a building are a complete functional unit made up of supply and waste disposal pipe lines (water, waste water etc.). For correct installation, pipelines and apparatus must be shown in their proper relationship to each other in all drawings (top view, schemata and detail drawing).

4. Drawings should be complete, containing sufficient information for making the material list and for execution on the site. There should be no need for further inquiry at the design office.

TOP VIEW DRAWING

1. The scale for top view drawings, is normally 1:50.

2. The dividing line of storys (floors) for drawing in pipelines is top of floor level up to top of ceiling level.


DIVIDING LINE OF STORYS

3. Before starting to draw in pipelines, study carefully all top view plans and all building cross section drawings. A better knowledge of the building and of all its constructional details results in a faster execution and conformation of the pipe layout.

4. Preferably start the design from top to bottom (top floor to basement) and prepare a separate layout for each different apparatus group.

5. After the draft is completed the final design of the pipelines should be made in coordination with other installations (e.g. electrical, air condition etc.).


Figure


Figure

SCHEMATIC DRAWING

1. A representation of all installation parts in a three dimensional room is not possible on a 2-dimensional drawing therefore the best possible solution should be chosen.

2. A schematical drawing is made primarily to show the pipelines. Items of apparatus are of secondary importance and show for what purpose at which height, and how the pipes are connected to them,

3. The representation of the total pipe system should whenever possible be drawn acc. to the top view drawings of the architects. For example, where installation parts in the top view drawing are on the left side they should also be shown on the left side of the schematic drawing.

When items of apparatus in the plan view drawing are on top of each other (e.g. first floor, second floor) they should be drawn in same way in the scheme.


Figure


Figure

4. In all drawings pipelines should be represented in the same way as they later will be installed on the site. This applies for individual rooms as well as for the branches and tees.

5. In cases where apparatus is fitted on both sides of a wall, the development of the schematic drawing starts from the point where the pipes will be fitted. The view should, therefore, be from the wall on which the pipes are fitted (regardless of which wall has most apparatus).

6. The items of apparatus must be shown in order of their pipe connections (as they will be fitted at the building site). Apparatus fitted on the back of the wall will be drawn as it would be seen from the front. The same applies to the water connection pipelines. For mixing taps the cold water connection shall always be drawn on the right side, and the warm water connection on the left side.


Figure


Figure

7. The order of branches (waste water) and of tees (cold-, hot water), in the schematic drawing has to correspond with the order shown in the top view.

8. The height for fixing of apparatus, valves (armatures) and connecting places shall be to scale 1:50. The drawing of increased heights of storys should be avoided if possible (especially in cases where a greater concentration of pipes in basements may occur).


Figure

9. The sizes of all parts of valves and parts of water and gas pipelines must be given. When the connector pipe for the tap has the same dimension as the tap itself, it is not necessary to mention separately the dimension of this pipe.

Indications of dimensions shall be made in letters of sufficient height. Lines of reference to pipes should be of short distance.


Figure

For soil and waste water pipelines sizes must be given for:-

- all pieces of pipe between each branch,

- apparatus connectors, siphons, cleaning openings, reducers and connections to the ground pipeline.

The minimal inside diameter in mm (e.g. 100, 57, 44) or both inside/outside dia. (e.g. 100/110, 57/63, 44/50) should be indicated in letters of sufficient height.

Shifting of the axis (offsets) of leaders must be shown in the schematic drawing.


SCHEMATIC DRAWING

DETAIL DRAWING

There are many different stages of planning, from the very first thoughts up to the execution of an installation. One part of the planning is the detailed drawing which itself can have also different levels of detail.

A bathroom drawing can refer to:

Level 1:

Roomsize, items of apparatus and their center to center distance.

Level 2:

As above plus front view with the heights of the apparatus and the connections to the water and waste water system. The minimal space requirements of each individual item of apparatus may also be shown.

Level 3:

Top and front view of a bathroom in scale 1:10, using symbolic design for the apparatus and pipelines. The pipelines should be drawn in a single pencil or ink line with all necessary information about material and dimensions of the pipes. Further it should include the center to center dimensions and (in the elevation) all measurements of the different levels (heights of the apparatus, pipes, etc.). (N.B. one measurement line only for one apparatus)

Only absolutely necessary measurements should be shown in the drawing. With all this information, it should be possible to prepare a pre-assembly drawing and a detailed material list.

1. All dimensions (measurements) of the pipelines and apparatus in the top view drawing should be given from one side only and never from both sides of the walls.

2. All measurements, including the center to center distance of the apparatus and the stack (vertical waste water pipe) take their reference measurement from the same wall (as do all others risers and connections to the apparatus).


DETAIL DRAWING

3. Consider when working out the disposition of the pipelines, that the execution at site must be possible with standard available fittings.

4. For the center to center distance of apparatus and for pipe connections use only standard measurements with consideration for minimal space requirements (see Table 3/11 - 3/13).


DETAIL DRAWING

FIXATION OF PIPES EXAMPLES

All pipelines have to be fixed with adequate clamps, to hold the weights very well, (also when waste - lines are filled with water)

Materials: mild steel 2 - 3 mm thick, galv or painted

Clamp, cement fixation

Clamp, fixation with dowel

Clamp, with M.S. plate

Carrier

Bracket not recommended, there is
no distance to the wall

Hanger

Front


Combined system
might be usefull in installation shafts,
but only where not exposed to outside
conditions.

Top



ABBREVIATIONS

i.d.

inner diameter

diameter

N.D.

Nominal diameter

mm

millimeter

cm

centimeter

m

meter

l

length

h

height

x x 2

square

x x 3

cubic

A

surface

inch

'

foot

I.S.

Indian Standard

I.S.O.

Intl. Standard Org.

C.O.

Clean out

C.P.

chrome plated

WC

Water closet

Vent

Ventilation

U

Unit/used for dimensioning of drinking water

SV

S-Value (Sewer value) used for dimensioning of soil and waste water

l/s

liters per seconds

N.A.

Not applicable

>

larger than

<

smaller than

£

larger or same

³

smaller or same

S

sum, total

Conversion table sheet metal

Thickness in
I.S.W.G.

Thickness in
mm

30

0.314

29

0.345

28

0.376

27

0.416

26

0.457

25

0.507

24

0.558

23

0.609

22

0.711

21

0.812

20

0.914

19

1.015

18

1.218

17

1.422

16

1.625

15

1.828

14

2.040

13

2.337

12

2.641

11

2.946

10

3.250

I.S.W.G =

Imperial Standard


Wire Gauge

DRINKING WATER DIMENSIONING

Table for dimensioning with units
A) For systems with roof tanks
(Head less than 40 meters)

LOADING VALUES AND DIAMETERS (G.I. PIPES)

PIPE DIAMETER IN INCHES

MAX. LOADING IN UNITS

1/2

0.5 - 2.0

3/4

2.5 - 4.0

1

4.5 - 10.0

1 1/4

10.5 - 20.0

1 1/2

20.5 - 40.0

2

40.5 -100.0

0.5 UNIT

1.0 UNIT

2.0 UNITS

B) For systems with pressure
(Head above 40 meters)

LOADING VALUES AND DIAMETERS (G.I. PIPES)

PIPE DIAMETER IN INCHES

MAX. LOADING IN UNITS

1/2

0.5- 2.5

3/4

3.0- 5.0

1

5.5- 12.0

1 1/4

12.5- 25.0

1 1/2

25.5- 50.0

2

50.5-125.0

SOIL AND WASTE WATER DIMENSIONING

Leaders (stacks), Main vent system

stack

max. permitted numbers

permitted loading


SV

WC


i.d.
in mm

Total

largest
single SV

Total

per storey

Vs (l/s)

57

3-1)

1.0

-

-

1.3

69

7

1.0

-

-

2.0

80

20

1.5


-

3.0

100

70

2.5

14

6

4.2

118

100

2.5

20

7

5.0

125

150

-

30

10

6.1

150

400

-

80

22

10.0

1) max. 2 apparatus at 1 SV

0.5 S - VALUE

1.0 S - VALUE

2.5 S - VALUE

1) HORIZONTAL CONNECTOR PIPE, I.D 44 UP TO MAX 2.0 M

Branch- and connector pipes, without secondary vent.

i.d.
in mm

max. permitted numbers
SV

largest single
SV

50

1

0.5

57

2

1.0

69

3-1)

1.5

80

6

1.5

100

15

2.5

1) max. 1 apparatus at 1.5 SV