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close this bookSpecial Public Works Programmes - SPWP - Planting Trees - An Illustrated Technical Guide and Training Manual (ILO - UNDP, 1993, 190 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
View the documentIntroduction
close this folder1. Planning a plantation
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View the document1.1 What regeneration method to use?
View the document1.2 What species to establish?
View the document1.3 Whether to plant a single tree species or a mixture of several?
View the document1.4 What type of planting stock to use?
View the document1.5 What planting pattern to use and how many seedlings to plant?
View the document1.6 When to plant?
View the document1.7 How to protect the seedlings?
View the document1.8 The plantation plan
close this folder2. Preparing the planting site
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View the document2.1 Clearing vegetation
View the document2.2 Ground preparation
View the document2.3 Marking where to dig the holes
View the document2.4 Digging holes
View the document2.5 Soil and water conservation measures
close this folder3. Handling seedlings
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View the document3.1 Packing and transport of seedlings
View the document3.2 Storing seedlings
View the document3.3 Quality of seedlings and grading
View the document3.4 Stripping and trimming
View the document3.5 Transporting seedlings from the road to the planting site
close this folder4. Planting techniques
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View the document4.1 Digging the holes
View the document4.2 On-site distribution of the seedlings
View the document4.3 Planting
View the document4.4 Use of fertilizers
close this folder5. Adapting planting techniques to different site conditions
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View the document5.1 Favourable sites
View the document5.2 Sites with high grass
View the document5.3 Waterlogged sites
View the document5.4 Dry sites
View the document5.5 Eroding slopes and rocky sites
View the document5.6 Steep slopes
View the document5.7 Sand dunes
View the document5.8 High altitudes with snow
close this folder6. Maintaining plantations
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View the document6.1 Weed control
View the document6.2 Protection from grazing
View the document6.3 Fire prevention
View the document6.4 Protection from insects, diseases and rodents
View the document6.5 Fertilizers
View the document6.6 Replacement planting
close this folder7. Planting trees outside woodlots and forests
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View the document7.1 Trees in crop and grazing land
View the document7.2 Alley cropping
View the document7.3 Intercropping in rotation
View the document7.4 Intercropping for tree planting
View the document7.5 Shelterbelts
View the document7.6 Road-sides and river-sides
View the document7.7 Homesteads and public places
close this folder8. Organizing the work
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View the document8.1 Planning
View the document8.2 Workforce
View the document8.3 Labour requirements over the year
View the document8.4 Worknorms
View the document8.5 Coordinating the work
View the document8.6 Tools and equipment
View the document8.7 Supervision and control
View the document8.8 Records to keep
close this folder9. Working conditions
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View the document9.1 Hours of work and rest
View the document9.2 Nutrition and amenities
View the document9.3 Wage systems
View the document9.4 Training, job content and labour-management relations
View the document9.5 Safety
close this folderAppendices - Technical sheets
View the documentAppendix 1 - Surveying and mapping of large planting sites
View the documentAppendix 2 - Laying out and preparing soil and water conservation structures
View the documentAppendix 3 - Survival count
View the documentSome useful guides/handbooks
View the documentTitles in the series of training elements and technical guides for SPWP workers

8.6 Tools and equipment

The importance of suitable tools and equipment can not be over-emphasized. "Suitable" means "adapted to the work and the workers". Inappropriate, broken and poorly maintained tools and equipment slow down the work and may cause injuries.

It is preferable to provide the workers with the appropriate tools rather than asking them to bring their own several-purpose, agricultural tools to the workplace. People from different areas, males and females differ in body size. The tools should be adapted in size and weight to the different body sizes of the workers. Providing good tools is a relatively inexpensive way to raise productivity. Tools can be issued every morning and returned in the evening, or they can be issued for longer periods. A record should be kept of which tools are issued and to whom. An inventory of all tools and equipment should be made regularly. It is important not to reissue damaged or badly worn tools to the workers. Material and tools for maintenance should be available at the site.

With time and heavy use, blades will become blunt, will chip and even break. Blunt or broken blades affect productivity, apart from being uncomfortable to work with. Regular maintenance is important.

Loose handles are dangerous and should be fixed immediately. Raised safety grips on the handles reduce the force needed to guide the tool and prevent tools from slipping out of the hands. Repair or maintenance can be done by sharpening the blade with a file or, when the blade is extremely damaged, by cutting back the blade and then sharpening it again.

Check regularly that tools are in good working order. Supervisors play a major role in observing if the tools are suitable for the different tasks, if they are properly maintained and sufficiently durable.

Tools and equipment


Tools should be adapted to the body size of the workers

Tools should be maintained fix handles


1. Use a conical handle


2. Saw a small slot in the end of the handle


3. Push the blade in place


4. Hammer a wooden wedge into the slot


Handles should have raised safety grip


Sharp blade