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close this bookSpecial Public Works Programmes - SPWP - Planting Trees - An Illustrated Technical Guide and Training Manual (ILO - UNDP, 1993, 190 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
View the documentIntroduction
close this folder1. Planning a plantation
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View the document1.1 What regeneration method to use?
View the document1.2 What species to establish?
View the document1.3 Whether to plant a single tree species or a mixture of several?
View the document1.4 What type of planting stock to use?
View the document1.5 What planting pattern to use and how many seedlings to plant?
View the document1.6 When to plant?
View the document1.7 How to protect the seedlings?
View the document1.8 The plantation plan
close this folder2. Preparing the planting site
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View the document2.1 Clearing vegetation
View the document2.2 Ground preparation
View the document2.3 Marking where to dig the holes
View the document2.4 Digging holes
View the document2.5 Soil and water conservation measures
close this folder3. Handling seedlings
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View the document3.1 Packing and transport of seedlings
View the document3.2 Storing seedlings
View the document3.3 Quality of seedlings and grading
View the document3.4 Stripping and trimming
View the document3.5 Transporting seedlings from the road to the planting site
close this folder4. Planting techniques
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View the document4.1 Digging the holes
View the document4.2 On-site distribution of the seedlings
View the document4.3 Planting
View the document4.4 Use of fertilizers
close this folder5. Adapting planting techniques to different site conditions
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View the document5.1 Favourable sites
View the document5.2 Sites with high grass
View the document5.3 Waterlogged sites
View the document5.4 Dry sites
View the document5.5 Eroding slopes and rocky sites
View the document5.6 Steep slopes
View the document5.7 Sand dunes
View the document5.8 High altitudes with snow
close this folder6. Maintaining plantations
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View the document6.1 Weed control
View the document6.2 Protection from grazing
View the document6.3 Fire prevention
View the document6.4 Protection from insects, diseases and rodents
View the document6.5 Fertilizers
View the document6.6 Replacement planting
close this folder7. Planting trees outside woodlots and forests
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View the document7.1 Trees in crop and grazing land
View the document7.2 Alley cropping
View the document7.3 Intercropping in rotation
View the document7.4 Intercropping for tree planting
View the document7.5 Shelterbelts
View the document7.6 Road-sides and river-sides
View the document7.7 Homesteads and public places
close this folder8. Organizing the work
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View the document8.1 Planning
View the document8.2 Workforce
View the document8.3 Labour requirements over the year
View the document8.4 Worknorms
View the document8.5 Coordinating the work
View the document8.6 Tools and equipment
View the document8.7 Supervision and control
View the document8.8 Records to keep
close this folder9. Working conditions
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View the document9.1 Hours of work and rest
View the document9.2 Nutrition and amenities
View the document9.3 Wage systems
View the document9.4 Training, job content and labour-management relations
View the document9.5 Safety
close this folderAppendices - Technical sheets
View the documentAppendix 1 - Surveying and mapping of large planting sites
View the documentAppendix 2 - Laying out and preparing soil and water conservation structures
View the documentAppendix 3 - Survival count
View the documentSome useful guides/handbooks
View the documentTitles in the series of training elements and technical guides for SPWP workers

9.5 Safety

First aid

Planting is often carried out in remote areas with limited access to medical help. All foremen should undergo instruction in first aid. At each worksite a first aid box should be available, containing adhesive plaster, bandages, sterile compresses, triangular bandages, safety pins, a pair of scissors, forceps, a disinfectant and a short first-aid guide written in the local language.

Minor open wounds should be dressed with adhesive plaster to prevent infection. Triangular bandages are used to support injured limbs or to dress other parts of the body.

In the case of a larger open wound which bleeds heavily, the wound should be covered by sterile compresses. A pressure cushion should be placed on top (a roll of bandage, a small piece of bark or wood, or a small, smooth stone). This should be tightly fixed with a roll of bandage or a triangular bandage, and the injured part of the body should be raised high.

Broken limbs should be fixed by means of splints.

Transporting severely injured persons to the roadside must be done with the greatest of care. Stretchers for transport can be made from wooden poles (or long tool handles) and plastic sacks or jackets.

First aid

First aid box

Adhesive plaster

Triangular bandages

Dressing open wounds

Raise injured part high

Fix broken limbs by means of splints

Stretchers for transport made from sacks or jackets

Using chemicals

If chemicals (insecticides, pesticides or herbicides) or chemically treated plants are being used, they must be handled with care and used correctly to avoid injury to people or the environment. The workers must be made aware of the risk of poisoning. Protective clothing (mask, apron, rubber gloves and boots) should be supplied to all people handling and applying chemicals and the following basic rules must be observed.

- Bare skin should never come into contact with the chemicals.

- Do not eat, drink or smoke when applying pesticides.

- Always spray in the direction in which the wind is blowing.

- Change gloves often and wash gloves every day.

- Clean sprayer and containers after work; wash hands and face with soap.

- Do not spray chemicals close to lakes or rivers.

- The packaging in which the pesticides came should be destroyed and under no circumstances should it be used for other purposes.

- Store chemicals out of the reach of children and animals.

- Symptoms of poisoning are: dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, watering of the eyes and tiredness. If one of the symptoms occurs, immediately stop working and rush to the doctor.

- If medical attention is needed, show the doctor the label of the pesticide package.

Using chemicals

Protective clothing

No eating, drinking or smoking

Spray in wind direction


Destroy packages

Store safely

In case of accident, show the doctor the label

Common mistakes with regard to working conditions

Insufficient training on safety and the ergonomic aspects of the work. Poor working conditions and malnutrition leading to low productivity.