Better Farming Series 14 - Farming with Animal Power (FAO - INADES, 1977, 57 p.)
 (introduction...)
 Preface
 Introduction
 Choosing and preparing fields
 (introduction...)
 Size and shape of fields
 Marking the boundaries of a field
 Grub out all the trees in the field
 Get permission to farm for a long time
 Working animals
 Oxen
 Choosing oxen for farm work
 Training oxen
 (introduction...)
 Harnessing oxen with a yoke
 How to train oxen
 How many hours a day can oxen work?
 How to feed working oxen
 Looking after working' oxen
 Donkeys
 Horses
 Mules
 Camels
 Tools for use with animal power
 Choice of tools
 (introduction...)
 The plough
 The harrow
 The Manga cultivator
 The seed drill
 The cart
 Other tools
 Income from animal power
 (introduction...)
 What animal power costs
 (introduction...)
 Amortization
 Interest
 The animals' food
 Upkeep and repair of tools
 What animal power farming costs him:
 Mechanized farming
 Some examples of animal power farming
 Suggested question paper

What animal power farming costs him:

 amortization 3 600 francs interest 2 000 francs Animals' food 4 800 francs upkeep of tools 500 francs Total 10 900 francs

· Gambara reckons what animal power farming brings in:

Before he used animal power Gambara earned:

 for cotton 26 francs X 300 kg 7 800 francs for food crops 20 francs X 100 kg 2 000 francs for groundnuts 15 francs X 200 kg 3 000 francs Total 12 800 francs

With animal power, Gambara earns more money because he gets bigger yields:

 for cotton 26 francs X 800 kg 20 800 francs for food crops 20 francs X 400 kg 8 000 francs for groundnuts 20 francs X 600 kg 12 000 francs Total 40 800 francs

by using animal power Gambara has earned more, namely, 40 800 francs less 12 800 francs = 28 000 francs.

But Gambara has spent 10 800 francs for the costs of animal power farming.

So the animal power has brought in, has raised his income by 28 000 francs less 10 900 francs = 17 100 francs.

Before using animal power, you must work out how much more income you can earn by it.

For animal power to bring in more money, you must be able to farm 3 or 4 hectares of land and have, in addition, 2 hectares of fallow land to feed the oxen.

If the oxen work less than 100 days, they cost too much.

The amortization and the interest to be paid per working day are too costly.

Look at the example once more:

For amortization and interest on his oxen and tools, Gambara must pay 5 600 francs.

If the oxen work 100 days, amortization and interest cost him: 5 600 francs /100= 56 francs a day

If the oxen work 50 days, amortization and interest cost him: 5 600 francs /50= 112 francs a day

If a farmer has not got enough land to keep his oxen working, he can combine with other farmers, so as to give the oxen more work.