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close this bookBetter Farming Series 07 - Crop Farming (FAO - INADES, 1976, 29 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderPlan of work
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderHow to till
View the documentBy hand
View the documentWith animal power
View the documentDepth of tillage
View the documentWhen to plough
View the documentHarrowing
close this folderSowing
View the documentChoosing seed
View the documentWhen to sow
close this folderHow to sow
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSowing in rows
View the documentSowing in rows by hand
View the documentSowing with animal power
View the documentTransplanting
close this folderLooking after the crops
View the documentWeeding
View the documentEarthing up
View the documentHoeing
View the documentThinning
close this folderHarvesting
View the documentHow to harvest
close this folderHow to get a better price for the harvest
View the documentGrade your crops.
View the documentStore your harvest well.
View the documentFarmers get together to sell.
View the documentSuggested question paper

Depth of tillage

Tillage can be shallow, normal or deep.

· Shallow tillage.

Look at this drawing:

Shallow tillage

The ploughshare cuts a strip of soil 10 to 15 centimetres thick.

The tillage is said to be shallow when its depth is from 10 to 15 centimetres.

· Normal tillage.

Look at this drawing:

Normal tillage

Tillage is said to be normal when the depth of tillage is 20 centimetres.

With normal tillage the soil can be well turned over and the remains of plants can be well buried.

Make a first furrow with the plough across the whole length of the field.


At the end of the field, turn.
Make a second furrow alongside the first.
The second strip of ploughed field joins the first.
After that, keep turning round the strip of ploughed field.

Conventional ploughing

If the field is very big, make several "lands."

If the field is on a slope, plough along the contour lines (see Booklet No. 5, page 8).

If the cultivated soil (see Booklet No. 4, page 9) is not deep, and if the soil is very light, ploughing is not necessary (see Booklet No. 4, page 17). It may even be a bad thing (see page 7).

Instead use a machine with tines, drawn by animals.

The tines stir the soil without turning it over.

Animal- draw cultivator

With oxen use five to eight tines.
With one donkey, use fewer tines, say three to five.
For other work, such as hoeing, weeding, earthing up (see page 21) change the tines of the cultivator.