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close this bookSourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Africa (UNEP-IETC, 1998, 182 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
close this folderPart A - Introduction
View the document1. Background
View the document2. Purpose of the source book
View the document3. Organisation of the source book
View the document4. How to use the source book
View the document5. Survey methodology
View the document6. Summary of the survey results
View the document7. Recommendations
View the document8. References
close this folderPart B - Technology profiles
View the document(introduction...)
close this folder1. Agricultural technologies
View the document(introduction...)
close this folder1.1 Fresh water augmentation
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1.1.1 Planting pits (zai)
View the document1.1.2 Demi-lunes or semi-circular hoops.
View the document1.1.3 Katumani pitting technical description
View the document1.1.4 Permeable rock dams
View the document1.1.5 Contour stone bunding
View the document1.1.6 Tied contour ridges
View the document1.1.7 Fanya-juu terracing
View the document1.1.8 Flood harvesting using bunds
View the document1.1.9 Earthen bunds
View the document1.1.10 External catchments using contour ridging
View the document1.1.11 Sand abstraction technical description
View the document1.1.12 Lagoon-front hand-dug wells
View the document1.1.13 Sub-surface dams, small dams, and sand dams
View the document1.1.14 Cloud seeding
View the document1.1.15 Tidal irrigation
close this folder1.2 Water quality improvement technologies
View the document1.2.1 Artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment
close this folder1.3 Wastewater treatment technologies and reuse
View the document1.3.1 Wastewater reuse
close this folder1.4 Water conservation
View the document1.4.1 Conservation tillage
View the document1.4.2 Deficit irrigation
View the document1.4.3 Savanna wetland cultivation
View the document1.4.4 Plants for water conservation gardening
View the document1.4.5 Porous clay pots and pipes for small-scale irrigation
close this folder2. Domestic water supply
View the document(introduction...)
close this folder2.1 Fresh water augmentation technologies
View the document2.1.1 Protected springs
View the document2.1.2 Rock and roof catchments
View the document2.1.3 Fog harvesting
View the document2.1.4 Groundwater abstraction in urban residential areas
View the document2.1.5 Groundwater abstraction using handpump-equipped wells
View the document2.1.6 Rope-washer pump
View the document2.1.7 Artificial groundwater recharge
View the document2.1.8 Well-tank borehole well
View the document2.1.9 Cisterns
View the document2.1.10 Palm petioles
close this folder2.2 Water quality improvement technologies
View the document2.2.1 Denitrification of groundwater
View the document2.2.2 Iron removal
View the document2.2.3 Use of natural plants
View the document2.2.4 In-stream water quality upgrading
close this folder2.3 Wastewater treatment technology and reuse
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View the document2.3.1 Direct reuse of treated municipal wastewater
View the document2.3.2 Indirect reuse
View the document2.3.3 Regeneration water
close this folder2.4 Water conservation
View the document2.4.1 Urban water conservation
close this folder3. Mining and industry
View the document(introduction...)
close this folder3.1 Freshwater augmentation technologies
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1.1 Groundwater harvesting
View the document3.1.2 Surface water harvesting
close this folder3.2 Water quality improvement technologies
View the document3.2.1 Electrodialysis
close this folder3.3 Wastewater treatment technologies and reuse
View the document3.3.1 Industrial water reuse
close this folder3.4 Water conservation
View the document3.4.1 Dry cooling at power stations
View the document3.4.2 Utilisation of seawater for power station cooling
close this folderPart C - Case studies
View the document4.1 Tied ridging - Domboshawa, Zimbabwe
View the document4.2 Freshwater augmentation - cloud seeding, Zimbabwe
View the document4.3 Tidal irrigation, the Gambia
View the document4.4 Spring protection - Mukono district, Uganda
View the document4.5 Water augmentation - Laikipia district, Kenya
View the document4.6 Recycled water - Achimota Brewery, Ghana
View the document4.7 Water recycling - Tarkwa gold fields, Ghana
close this folderPart D - Annexes
View the document1. List of abbreviations
View the document2. Table of conversion factors for metric and U.S. Customary Units
View the documentPart E - Institutional profiles

Part E - Institutional profiles

The UNEP Water Branch

The UNEP Water Branch was established on 1 January 1996, with the consolidation of the former Freshwater Unit and the Oceans and Coastal Areas Programme Activity Center (OCA/PAC).

A main function of the Water Branch is to promote and facilitate integrated water management, focusing on rivers, lakes and other freshwater systems, groundwater, and the coastal and marine waters into which they ultimately drain, including their living resources. The Water Branch integrates UNEP's water activities across (i) physical boundaries, (ii) disciplines, and (iii) types of water (fresh and marine waters). Particular attention is directed to internationally-shared water systems, including promotion of mechanisms for enhancing international cooperation for their sustainable management and use, as well as assisting riparian countries to undertake trans-boundary diagnostic analyses and to develop comprehensive management action plans. The focus is on both the scientific and technical issues (water supply and demand, pollution sources, flora, fauna, etc.) And the social, economic, institutional, legal and political issues that fundamentally shape the way in which humans use their water resources.

The Water Branch is UNEP's focal point for its role as secretariat of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, including its Technical Coordination Office in The Hague, The Netherlands. The Water Branch also administers and supports UNEP's 13 Regional Seas Programme involving more than 140 coastal States throughout the world, as well as UNEP's activities in support of such initiatives as the Barbados Programme of Action for Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, the International Coral Reef Initiative and the Global Plan of Action for the conservation, Management and Utilization of Marine Mammals.

The activities of the Water Branch reflect the objectives and goals of Chapters 17 and 18 of Agenda 21, as well as other chapters of Agenda 21 relevant to the sustainable management and use of water resources, and to the direction provided by UNEP's Governing Council. The Water Branch supports activities of the International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC) and the Office of Industry and the Environment (IE) of UNEP on matters related to the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies (EST's) aimed at water resource management. It also participates in inter-agency initiatives involving common UN agency water issues.

To address its tasks and responsibilities, The Water Branch brings together expertise in river and lake limnology, groundwater hydrology, hydrologic engineering, coastal zone management, marine biodiversity, resource economics, monitoring and assessment, environmental technology, environmental law, capacity-building and public awareness. It also works with partner UN agencies, inter-governmental bodies, and international and nongovernmental organizations on integrated freshwater and coastal water resource issues.

Institute of Water and Sanitation Development (IWSD)

The Institute of Water and Sanitation Development is a non profit organization building capacity in the water and sanitation sector of the Southern Africa region. Formed as a UNDP-World Bank Project in 1989, the Institute has established a sound basis for its sustainable operation on a self financing basis.

Support from the UNDP-World Bank Water and Sanitation Programme (RWSG-EA) ended in 1996 having been instrumental in the formation and growth of the Institute since 1989. It is expected that the Programme will continue to be closely associated with the Institute and use its services from time to time.

IWSD considers training as one of the important elements of human resource development, awareness creation and institutional strengthening. Training activities of the Institute are continuously growing. While the Institute's Community Management of Water Supplies and Sanitation course continued to be popular, the introduction of a course dealing with leak detection is welcomed in particular by the Local Authorities. The Institute took over responsibility for the training of water and waste water plant operators in 1996 at the request of the City of Harare. Since 1997 this programme is fully managed by the Institute.

Several research projects are being developed by IWSD with a focus on water management and water and the environment. A NORAD funded project on waste water treatment being carried out with the City of Harare has progressed well and provides valuable lessons.

A wide range of clients are using the Institute's technical support services. The client base will be expanded and opportunities are sought where IWSD would contribute meaningfully to policy change in the management and delivery of water and sanitation services. The information and advisory support services of IWSD are also becoming an effective resource for the water and sanitation sector in the African region.

Institute of Water and Development

7 Maasdorp Ave., Alexander Park,
P.O. Box MP 422, MT Pleasant,
Harare, Zimbabwe
Tel: +(263-4) 738120/303288/303289
Fax: +(263-4) 303280

in collaboration with

Centre Regional pour L'Eau Potable et l'Assainissement a Faible Cout
Network for Water and Sanitation International
Training, Research and Network for Development


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