Cover Image
close this bookIrrigation Reference Manual (Peace Corps, 1994, 485 p.)
close this folderChapter 1 - Introduction
View the document1.1 The role and purpose of irrigation
View the document1.2 Introduction to the irrigation reference manual
Open this folder and view contents2.1 Watersheds
Open this folder and view contents2.2 Water flow measurement
Open this folder and view contents2.3 Surveying
Open this folder and view contents2.4 Soil-Plant-Water relationships
Open this folder and view contents2.5 Conducting initial environmental evaluations of irrigation projects
Open this folder and view contents3.1 Diversions
Open this folder and view contents3.5 Pumps and water lifting devices
Open this folder and view contents3.6 Wells

1.2 Introduction to the irrigation reference manual

The Irrigation Reference Manual is designed to complement and support the materials covered in the Irrigation Training Manual. These reference materials should provide sufficient background information to allow trainers, trainees or Volunteers complete basic tasks in organizing and mobilizing communities, assessing and developing water sources, and designing and managing irrigation projects. The material is not intended to be all-inclusive but rather to provide enough technical coverage to allow basic concepts to be understood and basic construction or application procedures to be applied. The Irrigation Reference Manual also includes an annotated bibliography to point trainers or other users towards other references if more detailed descriptions of any topics are needed.

The Manual has been designed to correlate information directly with the format of the Irrigation Training Manual. All of the training section headings are represented in this reference manual. Trainers or other users should be able to immediately access technical descriptive or illustrative materials that will support a specific training topic. In addition, the Reference Manual concludes with an index to assist in locating materials pertaining to any particular topic area.

The Reference Manual is organized to discuss the following:

Chapter 2 - Physical and Biological Resource Base

Trainers or other users are provided with sufficient background to interpret basic hydrologic processes, measure the supply of water available to support projects, survey an area of land, describe the relationship between soils, water, and plant development, and prepare a simple assessment of potential project environmental impacts. This information represents the foundation on which any irrigation project will be designed, constructed, or managed. A variety of techniques are included for each topic area and all of the methodologies are appropriate to the typical working conditions experienced by Peace Corps Volunteers.

Chapter 3 - Developing Water Sources

This material allows users of the manual to begin working with simple construction practices necessary to capture, convey, store, and lift water supplies. Basic principles in the use of concrete are described. Illustrations and descriptions of pumping devices typically available to Volunteers are also included.

Chapter 4 - Estimating Irrigation Requirements

This material provides representative formulas, charts, and case examples that enable users to estimate the amount of water necessary to sustain a crop. Information allowing the users to calculate water use for more than 25 different crops is included.

Chapter 5 - Farm Water Delivery Systems

Detailed discussions of the concepts and applications of hydraulic principals are included in this chapter. Students typically benefit from access to careful and thorough explanation of these concepts, and the text has been developed to make these principals as practical as possible. The chapter also includes sufficient conceptual and illustrative information to allow trainers to communicate the factors involved in designing and implementing irrigation systems using surface, sprinkler, or drip application methods.

Chapter 6 - Farm Water Management

The Manual provides a thorough description of the principals and procedures followed in preparing a schedule of water use on farms and methodologies that can be used to evaluate how effectively water and land is being used by the farmer. The chapter concludes with a comprehensive set of illustrations that communicate the techniques of irrigation scheduling in a non-verbal manner.

Chapter 7 - Waterlogging and Salinity

Technical information is presented to enable trainers to describe and demonstrate techniques for assessing the degree of waterlogging and salinity problems that may be occurring and to apply chemical amendments or cultural practices that can minimize or avoid such problems. The chapter also includes a concise description of water quality as it affects irrigation projects.

Appendix A - Math Skills and Tool Use

Common formulas, conversion charts, and algebraic and trigonometric values are included to enable trainers or other users to easily apply mathematical formulas. A list of tools commonly available to Peace Corps Irrigation Volunteers is also included.

Appendix B - Community Organization and Development

A concise review of basic concepts important in working with people-centered agricultural projects is presented. The discussion emphasizes basic techniques that can assist a Volunteer's efforts to enter, interact, and participate in community project efforts. The level of detail in this appendix is limited because it is anticipated that Volunteers will be supplied with more comprehensive community organization literature. In particular, it is anticipated that trainers will attempt to provide each Volunteer with a copy of Two Ears of Corn, an excellent reference book to guide any community-based agricultural involvement.

Appendix C - Summary of International Irrigation Center (IIC) Training Modules

The IIC has prepared a collection of 40 video modules that present basic irrigation principals and practices. These modules were specifically developed for conditions in Ecuador, but many have universal applications. A description of the length, content, and applicability of each module to Peace Corps training sessions is included for those trainers who may have access to video equipment and the actual video cassettes.

Appendix D - Case Studies

Trainers can review these examples of different problems and strategies used to develop small-scale irrigation systems worldwide to support the material content in the technical training sessions. The case studies are intended to be representative of typical conditions that may be experienced by a Peace Corps Volunteer working with irrigation issues.

Appendix E - Annotated Bibliography

The Irrigation Reference Manual is intended to serve as a primary source for basic information needed to design, implement, and manage small or medium-scale irrigation projects. It is not, however, the only reference that a practitioner would want to use. The extensive bibliography includes a concise description of the specific values of each text that can be consulted for further information by trainers or Volunteers.

Appendix F - Glossary of Terms

Concepts and principals can be most easily grasped when they are presented in simple, concise descriptions. The glossary should assist trainers in preparing descriptions that will enable trainees to comprehend terms quickly and accurately. It is anticipated that the Irrigation Reference Manual will be made available to Trainees, Volunteers, and other irrigation practitioners on an as-needed basis. The material included in the Manual would be appropriate to support a Peace Corps Volunteer's efforts in the field throughout his or her term of service, and trainers may wish to request additional copies to distribute to Trainees during the training. Alternatively, sections of the Manual can be photocopied and distributed to support specific training sessions.


<<TOC2>> Chapter 2 - Physical and biological resource base

Reference:

Primary:

(2), (9), (14), (18), (20-21), (27-28), (39), (44), (56-59)


Other:

(16), (24)