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close this bookIrrigation-Induced Salinity - A Growing Problem for Development and the Environment (WB, 1993, 94 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAbstract
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentForeword
View the documentTable of contents
View the documentSummary
View the documentIntroduction 1
Open this folder and view contentsThe nature and impact of irrigation-induced salinity
Open this folder and view contentsGlobal magnitude of irrigation-induced salinity
Open this folder and view contentsFactors contributing to a irrigation induced salinity
Open this folder and view contentsFuture directions in salinity abatement
View the documentReferences
View the documentAppendix
View the documentDistributors of World Bank Publications
View the documentRecent World Bank technical papers

Appendix

Appendix Table 1: Number of projects with irrigation and drainage components by fiscal year, region, and country, 1974-92

NUMBER OF PROJECTS

COST ($ million)

COUNTRY

YEAR

Irrig.

Drainage

Irrig./Drain

Irrig.

Drainage

Total

AFRICA

Burkina Faso

76

1

0

0

3.0

0.0

3.0


77

1

0

0

1.0

0.0

1.0


80

1

0

0

0.1

0.0

0.1

Total


3

0

0

4.1

0.0

4.1

Burundi

82

1

0

0

0.2

0.0

0.2


88

0

1

0

0.0

0.7

0.7

Total


1

1

0

0.2

0.7

0.9

Cameroon

77

1

0

0

0.7

0.0

0.7


78

2

0

0

22.4

0.0

22.4


80

1

0

0

25.9

0.0

25.9


84

0

1

0

0.0

0.5

0.5

Total


4

1

0

49.0

0.5

49.5

Chad

74

2

0

0

3.7

0.0

3.7


76

1

0

0

5.5

0.0

5.5


77

2

0

0

10.4

0.0

10.4


78

1

0

0

0.4

0.0

0.4


87

1

0

0

1.0

0.0

1.0


88

1

0

0

2.0

0.0

2.0

Total


8

0

0

23.0

0.0

23.0

Ethiopia

74

1

0

0

0.6

0.0

0.6


76

1

0

0

3.1

0.0

3.1


77

1

0

0

13.6

0.0

13.6


87

1

0

0

9.0

0.0

9.0

Total


4

0

0

26.3

0.0

26.3

Ghana

80

1

0

0

1.6

0.0

1.6


87

1

0

0

1.2

0.0

1.2

Total


2

0

0

2.8

0.0

2.8

Guinea

75

1

0

0

1.4

0.0

1.4

Guinea-Bissau

87

1

0

0

0.3

0.0

0.3

Kenya

77

1

0

0

16.0

0.0

16.0


70

1

0

0

12.9

0.0

12.9


80

2

0

0

1.9

0.0

1.9

Total


4

0

0

30.8

0.0

30.8

Lesotho

88

0

1

0

0.0

0.6

0.6

Liberia

77

1

0

1

0.0

0.6

0.6

Madagascar

79

1

0

0

9.5

0.0

9.5


83

0

0

1

10.4

0.4

10.8


85

0

0

1

12.9

0.7

13.6

Total

1

0

2

32.8

1.1

33.9


Malawi

76

1

0

0

0.2

0.0

0.2

Mali

74

1

0

0

0.8

0.0

0.8


75

1

0

0

0.6

0.0

0.6


78

1

0

0

12.8

0.0

12.8


79

1

0

0

2.5

0.0

2.5


85

0

1

0

0.0

2.9

2.9


88

0

0

1

50.9

1.5

52.4

Total

4

1

1

67.6

4.4

72.0


Mauritania

74

1

0

1

1.2

0.0

1.2


81

1

0

1

45.2

0.0

45.2


85

1

0

1

3.6

0.0

3.6

Total

3

0

3

50.0

0.0

50.0


Muaritius

91

1

0

1

8.3

0.0

8.3

Niger

76

1

o

0

1.4

0.0

1.4


79

1

0

0

8.5

0.0

8.5


80

2

0

0

7.6

0.0

7.6


85

1

0

0

9.5

0.0

9.5


88

1

0

0

0.9

0.0

0.9

Total


6

0

0

27.9

0.0

27.9

Nigeria

75

1

0

0

3.8

0.0

3.8


79

1

0

0

8.2

0.0

8.2


80

1

0

0

4.4

0.0

4.4


81

2

0

0

8.8

0.0

8.8


84

1

0

0

6.0

0.0

6.0


86

1

0

0

0.4

0.0

0.4


89

1

0

0

3.1

0.0

3.1

Total


8

0

0

34.7

0.0

34.7

Benin

83

0

1

0

0.0

0.4

0.4

Senegal

76

1

0

0

1.7

0.0

1.7


78

1

0

0

14.0

0.0

14.0


86

1

0

0

2.9

0.0

2.9


88

1

0

0

26.2

0.0

26.2


89

1

0

0

11.6

0.0

11.6

Total


5

0

0

56.4

0.0

56.4

Sierra Leone

84

0

1

0

0.0

1.4

1.4

Somalia

74

1

0

0

0.8

0.0

0.8


76

1

0

0

2.6

0.0

2.6


85

2

0

0

1.7

0.0

1.7


90

0

0

1

13.1

5.4

18.5

Total


4

0

1

18.2

5.4

23.6

Sudan

74

1

0

0

0.3

0.0

0.3


75

1

0

0

32.8

0.0

32.8


80

1

0

0

4.2

0.0

4.2


81

2

0

0

35.1

0.0

35.1


82

1

0

0

5.4

0.0

5.4


83

1

0

1

72.7

20.3

93.0


84

1

0

0

18.5

0.0

18.5


88

1

0

0

2.7

0.0

2.7

Total


9

0

1

171.7

20.3

192.0

Swaziland

77

1

0

0

0.2

0.0

0.2

Tanzania

75

1

0

0

1.9

0.0

1.9


78

1

0

0

0.3

0.0

0.3

Total


2

0

0

2.2

0.0

2.2

Togo

76

1

0

0

1.0

0.0

1.0

Uganda

88

1

0

0

1.3

0.0

1.3

Zaire

81

1

0

0

1.0

0.0

1.0

Zambia

79

1

0

0

0.5

0.0

0.5


87

1

0

0

4.1

0.0

4.1

Total


2

0

0

4.6

0.0

4.6

ASIA








China

82

1

0

0

61.1

0.0

61.1


83

0

1

0

0.0

43.0

43.0


85

0

0

1

92.6

16.0

108.6


87

3

0

0

188.0

0.0

188.0


88

1

0

1

99.6

56.8

156.4


89

1

0

1

153.8

2.6

156.4


90

1

0

0

83.4

0.0

83.4


91

1

0

2

287.3

137.9

425.2

Total


8

1

5

965.8

256.3

1,222.1

Fiji

76

1

0

0

4.5

0.0

4.5

Indonesia

74

1

0

0

24.7

0.0

24.7


75

1

0

0

65.7

0.0

65.7


76

1

0

0

18.5

0.0

18.5


77

2

0

0

83.6

0.0

83.6


78

2

0

0

116.3

0.0

116.3


79

2

0

0

98.7

0.0

48.7


80

2

0

0

124.7

0.0

124.7


81

1

0

0

6.4

0.0

6.4


82

2

0

0

94.5

0.0

94.5


83

1

0

0

0.6

0.0

0.6


84

1

1

0

94.4

16.4

110.8


85

1

0

1

131.0

42.7

173.7


86

1

0

0

178.0

0.0

178.0


88

1

0

1

291.3

7.8

299.1


91

0

0

1

100.3

17.7

118.0


92

1

0

0

384.3

0.0

384.3

Total


20

1

3

1,813.0

84.6

1,897.6

Korea, Rep. of

76

1

0

0

40.5

0.0

40.5


77

3

0

0

99.1

0.0

99.1


78

2

0

0

149.4

0.0

149.4


81

1

0

0

28.4

0.0

28.4

Total


7

0

0

317.4

0.0

317.4

Laos, P.D.R.

78

1

0

0

6.0

0.0

6.0


83

1

0

0

6.7

0.0

6.7


90

1

0

0

3.3

0.0

3.3

Total


3

0

0

16.0

0.0

16.0

Malaysia

74

1

0

0

44.8

0.0

44.8


76

1

0

0

10.3

0.0

10.3


77

1

0

0

57.0

0.0

57.0


78

1

0

0

31.2

0.0

31.2


79

2

0

0

71.5

0.0

71.5


81

2

0

0

48.3

0.0

48.3


82

1

0

0

3.4

0.0

3.4


83

1

0

0

20.8

0.0

20.8


87

0

0

1

49.1

39.4

88.5

Total


10

0

1

336.4

39.4

375.8

Myanmar

74

1

0

0

14.3

0.0

14.3


76

1

0

0

28.7

0.0

28.7


79

1

0

0

30.3

0.0

30.3


80

1

0

0

86.8

0.0

86.8


83

0

0

2

22.9

1.9

24.8


87

0

0

1

8.7

1.8

10.5

Total


4

0

3

191.7

3.7

195.4

Philippines

74

2

0

2

21.1

0.0

21.1


75

2

0

2

15.9

0.0

15.9


76

2

0

2

78.2

0.0

78.2


77

4

0

4

50.3

0.0

50.3


78

2

0

2

68.3

0.0

68.3


79

2

0

2

48.4

0.0

48.4


80

3

0

3

72.2

0.0

72.2


82

1

0

0

75.1

0.0

75.1


88

0

0

1

37.9

7.4

45.3


91

0

0

1

39.9

0.9

40.8

Total


18

0

19

507.3

8.3

515.6

Thailand

74

1

0

0

3.1

0.0

3.1


76

1

0

0

92.4

0.0

92.4


77

1

0

0

21.9

0.0

21.9


79

1

0

0

50.8

0.0

50.8


80

2

0

0

65.7

0.0

65.7


81

1

0

0

51.0

0.0

51.0


83

2

0

0

173.4

0.0

173.4

Total


9

0

0

458.3

0.0

458.3

Vietnam

79

1

0

0

84.6

0.0

84.6

SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan

75

1

0

0

0.5

0.0

0.5


76

1

0

0

1.6

0.0

1.6


77

1

0

0

2.3

0.0

2.3


78

1

0

0

13.6

0.0

13.6


79

1

0

0

5.2

0.0

5.2

Total


5

0

0

23.2

0.0

23.2

Bangladesh

75

1

0

0

21.9

0.0

21.9


76

2

0

0

19.1

0.0

19.1


77

2

0

0

48.5

0.0

48.5


79

1

0

0

12.4

0.0

12.4


80

2

0

0

57.6

0.0

57.6


81

2

0

0

63.8

0.0

63.8


82

1

0

0

17.4

0.0

17.4


83

2

0

0

161.2

0.0

161.2


84

1

0

1

11.5

3.0

14.5


85

1

0

0

34.0

0.0

34.0


87

0

0

0

7.4

10.6

18.0


88

0

1

0

0.0

74.1

74.1


90

0

0

1

14.7

60.4

75.1


91

2

0

0

197.9

0.0

197.9

Total


17

1

2

667.4

148.1

815.5

India

74

2

0

0

71.0

0.0

71.0


75

6

0

0

275.9

0.0

275.9


76

1

0

0

150.7

0.0

150.7


77

3

0

0

410.4

0.0

410.4


78

4

0

0

412.5

0.0

412.5


79

2

0

0

276.0

0.0

276.0


80

4

0

0

966.8

0.0

966.8


81

4

0

0

330.1

0.0

330.1


82

3

0

0

1,239.8

0.0

1,239.8


83

3

0

3

444.4

3.8

448.2


84

3

1

1

497.9

38.1

536.0


85

1

0

1

1,024.8

32.5

1,057.3


86

1

0

2

465.2

48.0

513.2


87

2

0

0

93.8

0.0

93.8


89

0

0

1

238.7

4.3

243.0


90

0

0

1

157.0

36.3

193.3


91

1

1

0

56.0

157.7

213.7

Total


40

2

9

7,111.0

320.7

7,431.7

Nepal

76

1

0

0

1.2

0.0

1.2


77

1

0

0

5.9

0.0

5.9


78

1

0

0

23.3

0.0

23.3


79

2

0

0

10.0

0.0

10.0


80

1

0

0

3.3

0.0

3.3


81

1

0

0

2.7

0.0

2.7


83

1

0

0

8.9

0.0

8.9


86

0

0

1

11.6

2.9

14.5


87

1

0

1

34.9

6.9

41.8


88

0

0

1

27.9

2.7

30.6


90

1

0

0

40.9

0.0

40.9

Total


10

0

3

170.6

12.5

183.1

Pakistan

76

2

0

0

15.8

0.0

15.8


77

1

0

0

50.9

0.0

50.9


78

1

0

0

73.1

0.0

73.1


79

1

0

0

70.2

0.0

70.2


80

1

0

0

15.7

0.0

15.7


81

1

0

0

74.5

0.0

74.5


82

2

0

0

102.7

0.0

102.7


83

2

1

0

71.2

56.3

129.5


64

0

0

1

41.8

8.3

50.1


85

2

0

0

330.5

0.0

330.5


86

2

0

0

33.2

0.0

33.2


88

0

0

1

131.8

14.5

146.3


89

1

1

0

4.5

35.7

40.2


90

1

0

0

126.4

0.0

126.4


91

2

0

0

148.0

0.0

148.0

Total


19

2

2

1,290.3

116.8

1,407.1

Sri Lanka

76

1

0

0

18.7

0.0

18.7


77

2

0

0

0.0

0.0



79

1

0

0

5.5

0.0

5.5


81

3

0

0

95.1

0.0

95.1


83

1

0

0

7.0

0.0

7.0


84

0

0

1

62.6

14.2

76.8


85

1

0

1

29.4

1.4

30.8


91

1

0

0

18.8

0.0

18.8

Total


10

0

2

237.1

15.6

252.7

EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA

Cyprus

74

1

0

0

20.3

0.0

20.3


78

1

0

0

8.0

0.0

8.0


79

1

0

0

3.5

0.0

3.5


83

1

0

0

27.2

0.0

27.2


84

1

0

0

143.1

0.0

143.1


88

1

0

0

84.0

0.0

84.0

Total


6

0

0

286.1

0.0

286.1

Hungary

87

0

1

0

0.0

23.4

23.4

Portugal

76

1

0

0

26.1

0.0

26.1


82

1

0

0

4.7

0.0

4.7


89

1

0

0

60.0

0.0

60.0

Total


3

0

0

90.8

0.0

90.8

Romania

75

2

0

0

96.8

0.0

96.8


76

2

0

0

118.3

0.0

118.3


77

1

0

0

137.9

0.0

137.9


78

1

0

0

101.1

0.0

101.1


79

1

0

0

267.9

0.0

267.9


80

2

0

0

262.2

0.0

262.2


81

2

0

0

531.3

0.0

531.3

Total


11

0

0

1,515.5

0.0

1,515.5

Turkey

75

1

0

0

20.7

0.0

20.7


82

1

0

0

16.9

0.0

16.9


84

0

0

1

98.8

48.4

147.2


85

1

0

0

1,514.7

0.0

1,514.7


86

0

1

0

0.0

125.6

125.6

Total


3

1

1

1,651.1

174.0

1,825.1

Yugoslavia

75

1

0

0

12.9

0.0

12.9


77

2

0

0

39.9

0.0

39.9


78

1

0

0

20.0

0.0

20.0


79

2

0

0

137.0

0.0

137.0


80

2

0

0

75.6

0.0

75.6


81

1

0

0

9.9

0.0

9.9


82

3

0

0

66.6

0.0

66.6


83

1

0

1

49.2

3.6

52.8

Total


13

0

1

411.1

3.6

414.7

MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

Algeria

80

1

0

0

7.1

0.0

7.1


87

0

0

1

89.1

18.6

107.7


89

2

0

0

249.5

0.0

249.5


92

0

0

1

47.1

13.9

61.0

Total


3

0

2

392.8

32.5

425.3

Egypt

76

2

0

0

183.7

0.0

183.7


77

1

0

0

114.0

0.0

114.0


78

1

0

0

4.5

0.0

4.5


81

1

0

0

45.1

0.0

45.1


83

0

0

1

23.8

11.5

35.3


85

0

1

0

0.0

133.4

133.4


86

1

0

0

84.9

0.0

84.9


90

0

0

1

30.7

4.4

35.1


92

0

1

0

0.0

198.9

198.9

Total


6

2

2

486.7

348.2

834.9

Jordan

75

1

0

0

6.2

0.0

6.2

Morocco

74

1

0

0

10.4

0.0

10.4


75

2

0

0

12.0

0.0

12.0


76

1

0

0

42.1

0.0

42.1


77

2

0

0

70.6

0.0

70.6


79

1

0

0

61.6

0.0

61.6


80

2

0

0

9.0

0.0

9.0


82

1

0

0

3.4

0.0

3.4


83

0

0

2

43.7

5.9

49.6


84

1

0

0

47.4

0.0

47.4


86

2

0

0

133.1

0.0

133.1


88

1

0

0

36.3

0.0

36.3


89

1

0

0

99.3

0.0

99.3


92

1

0

0

395.1

0.0

395.1

Total


16

0

2

964.0

5.9

969.9

Rep. of Yemen

75

1

0

0

0.5

0.0

0.5


76

2

0

0

17.9

0.0

17.9


77

1

0

0

0.3

0.0

0.3


78

1

0

0

4.4

0.0

4.4


79

1

0

0

27.9

0.0

27.9


80

1

0

0

10.7

0.0

10.7


81

1

0

0

4.8

0.0

4.8


83

1

0

1

18.0

2.1

20.1


85

1

0

0

5.9

0.0

5.9


86

1

0

0

15.3

0.0

15.3


87

1

0

0

2.9

0.0

2.9


88

1

0

0

3.5

0.0

3.5


89

1

0

1

22.0

1.2

23.2

Total


14

0

2

134.1

3.3

137.4

Syria

74

1

0

0

81.4

0.0

81.4


79

1

0

0

21.2

0.0

21.2

Total


2

0

0

102.6

0.0

102.6

Tunisia

75

1

0

0

4.5

0.0

4.5


77

2

0

0

129.1

0.0

129.1


80

2

0

0

42.5

0.0

42.5


82

1

0

0

17 6

0.0

17.6


83

0

0

1

10 6

0.3

10.9


85

1

0

0

27.3

0.0

27.3


86

0

0

1

24.4

2.7

27.1


87

1

0

0

2.0

0.0

2.0


88

1

0

0

16.4

0.0

16.4

Total


9

0

2

274.4

3.0

277.4

LATIN AMERICA

Bolivia

76

1

0

0

2.9

0.0

2.9

Brazil

75

1

0

0

21.6

0.0

21.6


77

1

0

0

5.0

0.0

5.0


78

1

0

0

2.6

0.0

2.6


79

1

0

0

20.5

0.0

20.5


81

2

0

0

9.0

0.0

9.0


83

1

0

0

2.3

0.0

2.3


85

2

0

0

21.6

0.0

21.6


86

3

0

0

107.3

0.0

107.3


87

6

0

0

59.6

0.0

59.6


88

2

0

0

191.2

0.0

191.2


89

1

0

0

65.4

0.0

65.4


90

2

0

0

539.0

0.0

539.0

Total


23

0

0

1,045.1

0.0

1,045.1

Chile

81

1

0

0

18.8

0.0

18.8

Colombia

75

1

0

0

7.7

0.0

7.7


77

1

0

0

4.0

0.0

4.0


79

1

0

0

0.5

0.0

0.5


81

1

0

0

36.7

0.0

36.7


86

1

0

0

177.5

0.0

177.5


90

1

0

0

91.3

0.0

91.3

Total


6

0

0

317.7

0.0

317.7

Dominican Rap.

79

1

0

0

28.0

0.0

28.0

Ecuador

74

1

0

0

3 4

0.0

3.4


77

1

0

0

0.5

0.0

0.5


79

1

0

0

2.4

0.0

2.4


91

0

1

0

0.0

39.1

39.1


92

0

0

1

15.7

11.2

26.9

Total


3

1

1

22.0

50.3

72.3

Guyan

74

1

0

0

5.6

0.0

5.6


78

1

0

0

18.8

0.0

18.8

Total

2

0

0

24.4

0.0

24.4


Haiti

77

1

0

0

3.3

0.0

3.3


84

1

0

0

2.3

0.0

2.3

Total


2

0

0

5.6

0.0

5.6

Honduras

76

1

0

0

1.9

0.0

1.9


78

1

0

0

1.4

0.0

1.4

Total


2

0

0

3.3

0.0

3.3

Jamaica

87

1

0

0

6.0

0.0

6.0

Mexico

74

2

0

0

207.3

0.0

207.3


75

3

0

0

188.6

0.0

188.6


76

1

0

0

35.7

0.0

35.7


77

1

0

0

33.9

0.0

33.9


78

2

0

0

72.7

0.0

72.7


79

3

0

0

323.4

0.0

323.4


80

1

0

0

181.8

0.0

181.8


81

2

0

0

57.3

0.0

57.3


82

2

0

0

205.3

0.0

205.3


83

0

1

0

0.0

28.4

28.4


85

0

1

0

0.0

23.8

23.8


91

1

0

0

133.4

0.0

133.4

Total


18

2

0

1,439.4

52.2

1,491.6

Nicaragua

74

1

0

0

4.0

0.0

4.0

Panana

79

1

0

0

1.3

0.0

1.3

Peru

74

1

0

0

0.8

0.0

0.8


77

1

0

0

16.8

0.0

16.8


80

2

0

0

114.5

0.0

114.5


83

1

0

1

26.8

14.0

40.8

Total


5

0

1

158.9

14.0

172.9

Source: World Bank data.