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close this bookSoil and Water Conservation (SWC) Technologies and Agroforestry Systems (IIRR, 1992, 171 p.)
View the documentMessage
View the documentWorkshop to revise
View the documentList of participants
View the documentCurrent program thrusts in Upland development
View the documentDegradation of the uplands
View the documentNutrient cycles in upland farms
View the documentEstablishing an swcsystem
View the documentFarm management practices that reinforce SWC
View the documentTraditional soil and water conservation (SWC) technologies
Open this folder and view contentsOptions for contour farming:
View the documentLand management practices for improved water conservation
View the documentIn-row tillage
View the documentMaking an A-frame
View the documentControlling Cogon and Talahib
View the documentUse of derris as botanical pesticide
View the documentFire control in the uplands
View the documentCultural management of pest infestation
Open this folder and view contentsOrganic fertilizer sources:
View the documentBiofertilizers
View the documentSelection of cover crops
View the documentBatao in the upland. Cropping system
View the documentIncreasing the woody contents in leaf litter
Open this folder and view contentsExamples of indigenous agroforestry systems:

Farm management practices that reinforce SWC

1. Crop rotation

2. Relay planting

3. Contour cultivating and planting

4. Use of organic matter

5. Laying crop residues along the contour

6. Diversification of farm enterprises, including tree crops

7. Maintenance or establishment of forest at the upper end of the slope

8. Protection of the land with cover crops during fallow periods

9. Animal confinement


1. Use good crop rotation practices. Alternate grain crops with legumes whenever possible.

2. Practice relay planting of the second season crop. Sowing the second crop while the first is still growing helps reduce demand for soil cultivation. Relay planting also serves as an effective soil cover following the first harvest.

3. Always cultivate and plant crops along the contour. This impedes water flow between more solid structures, like rockwells or living hedgerow barriers.

4. Incorporate all available organic matters (crop residues, animal manure, etc.) into the soil. This helps improve soil structure, fertility and moisture holding capacity. Do not bum crop residues.

5. Lay additional crop residues, twigs and other materials in contour lines or spread or mulch across the slope, to further impede water flow. These lines can be placed at the base of contour hedgerows or rockwalls.

6. Diversify farm enterprises to include more tree crops. Fruit or estate crops can be planted in small orchards or interspersed with food crops. Tree crops are particularly suitable on severely sloping land.

7. Maintain forested areas at the upper end of sloping farmlands. These forested plots or woodlots should serve both a protective or conservation function as well as provide a steady source of fuelwood, food, income and other useful products.

8. Protect the land during fallow periods. Use effective mulches on cover crops to protect the soil surface from intense sunlight, wind erosion and the occasional unseasonal rains.

9. Stall-feed or tether all animals. Free-grazing animals which roam farmland during off seasons can be one of the major causes of erosion in hilly areas. Stall-feeding also enables collection of manure for soil fertility management.