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Hydraulic Ram Pumps

T. D.Jeffery, T. H. Thomas, A. V. Smith, P. B. Glover, P. D. Fountain: Hydraulic Ram Pumps. A Guide to Ram Pump Water Supply Systems. ITP, London, 1992. 135 pp, ISBN: I-85339-172-7.

(Intermediate Technology Publications, 103 / 105 Southampton Row, London WC1B 4 HH, UK).

This book, particularly useful to technicians and engineers involved in rural water supply, aims to introduce the reader to all aspects of the use of ram pumps. It gives practical guidelines for the installation and operation of water supply systems based on such pumps, as well as describing the operation of the pump and the factors affecting its performance. A large number of illustrations are used alongside simple text in order to make the information also useful to a wide range of nonspecialist readers.

Candlemaking

Deborah Millington: Traditional Candlemaking. Simple Methods of Manufacture ITP. London, 1992. 39 pp, ISBN: 1-85339-124-7.

(Intermediate Technology Publications, 103/105 Southampton Row, London WC IB 4 HH, UK).

This book is an illustrated practical manual which details methods of manufacture suited to small-scale producers at a "cottage industry" level, and also to the individual at home. The different materials and techniques are described, and specific manufacturing conditions are considered, such as where manufacture may be taking place, the range of materials available, the number of candles required, and the rate of productions desired.

Village Electrification

Rolf Widmer, Alex Arter: Village Electrification. MHPG Series: Harnessing Water Power on a Small Scale. Volume 5. SKAT, St. Gallen, 1992. 120 pp, ISBN: 3-908001-15-3

(SKAT, TigcrbergstraBe 2, CH-9000 St. Gallen, Schweiz).

In its first part this book identifies the "Energy Entrepreneurs" and "Machine Makers" as the key to using market mechanisms to promote rural electrification in developing countries. The following parts list in different articles some technical aspects of electrification. The technical descriptions follow the energy flow through the electrification scheme starting with the generator and ending with the distribution system at the consumers' connection. The commercial, financial and legal aspects emphasizing order and tender procedures, developing tariff structures and defining legal terms for a connection policy are also discussed.

Paying the Piper

Phil Evans: Paying the Piper. An Overview of community Financing of Water and Sanitation. Occasional Paper 18. IRC, The Hague, Netherlands, 1992. 46 pp. (International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC), P.O. Box 93190, Nk25 AD The Hague, Netherlands).

Failure to adequately cover the costs of improved water and sanitation services in developing countries has been identified as a major constraint to achieving the goal of safe water and adequate sanitation for all on a suitable basis. In recent years increased community financing, through user payment for services, has been strongly promoted as a solution. This document provides an overview of a number of key issues relating to community financing, cost recovery, and sustainability, which may help in responding this challenge.

Forestry Aid

M. A. Hisham, J. Sharma, A. Ngaiza, N. Atampugre: Whose trees? A People's View of Forestry Aid. Panos, London, 1991. 138 pp, ISBN: 1-870670-25-6, L 7,95 (Pangs Publications Ltd, 9 White Lion Street, London N1 9PD, UK).

In this book three different teams in Sudan, Tanzania and Nepal report how three projects are succeeding in involving local people and in meeting their real needs.

Their reports examine past mistakes and provide a fresh perspective on what sustainable forestry at the village level must entail if it is to succeed.

Plant Disease Management

H. David Thurston: Sustainable Practices for Plant Disease Management in Traditional Farming Systems.

Westview Press, Boulder, 1992. Oxford & IHB, New Delhi, 1992. 279 pp, ISBN: 0-8133-8363-3. (Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80301-2874, USA; Oxford & IHB Publishing, 66 Janpath, New Delhi 110 001, India).

In this book the author catalogs and reviews traditional farming practices and systems that are developed empirically over a very long period and are in danger of being lost in the modernization process. These proven practices often conserved energy, maintained natural resources, and reduced chemical use.

The author evaluates the sustainability, labor requirements, and external inputs needed for these diverse systems and their management, providing a comprehensive summary of effective traditional agricultural practices for plant disease management.