Cover Image
close this bookBasic Science and Health Education for Primary Schools, Uganda (UNICEF, 1992, 162 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentForeword
View the documentLinking Volume 1 and 2 of Basic Science and Health Education Teacher's Guide
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction to Book
View the documentCHAPTER 1. My Health and Other People's
View the documentCHAPTER 2. Caring for Our Bodies
View the documentCHAPTER 3. Causes of Accidents
View the documentCHAPTER 4. Names and Sources of Food
View the documentCHAPTER 5. The Importance of Immunisation
View the documentCHAPTER 6. Cleaning Things We Use
View the documentCHAPTER 7. Family Relationships and Interactions
View the documentCHAPTER 8. The Six Immunisable Diseases
View the documentCHAPTER 9. Food Hygiene
View the documentCHAPTER 10. Helping Others to Keep Healthy
View the documentCHAPTER 11. Worms, Diarrhoea and Dehydration
View the documentCHAPTER 12. Safety and Accident Prevention
View the documentCHAPTER 13. Germs and Prevention of Disease
View the documentCHAPTER 14. Working together for Good Health
View the documentCHAPTER 15. Topic: Keeping Clean
View the documentCHAPTER 16. Malaria, Trachoma and Sleeping Sickness
View the documentCHAPTER 17. First Aid for Common Accidents
View the documentCHAPTER 18. Food Preservation and Contamination
View the documentCHAPTER 19. Injuries and Their Care
View the documentCHAPTER 20. Digestive System
View the documentCHAPTER 21. Nutrition, Health and Disease
View the documentCHAPTER 22. Worms

CHAPTER 16. Malaria, Trachoma and Sleeping Sickness

Unit 7 Common Disease
P 3 Term 3

The three diseases, malaria, trachoma and sleeping sickness have been described separately, each disease with the fly that transmits it.

Malaria

Objectives:

By the end of this topic, the pupils should be able to:

1. Explain the cause of malaria.
2. Name the anopheles mosquito as a vector for malaria.
3. Describe the symptoms/signs and effects of the disease.
4. Describe the life history and characteristics of a mosquito.
5. Describe the control measures for malaria and mosquitoes.

Behavioural Changes:

Pupils should:

- Keep environment (home or school) free of breeding places for mosquitoes.
- Avoid mosquito bites.
- When unwell, report early for treatment.

Sub-Topics:

a) Malaria - what it is, the signs and causes.
b) The mosquito - life history and characteristics.
c) How mosquitoes spread malaria to us.
d) Ways to control the spread of malaria parasite i.e. ways for controlling the mosquitoes.
e) Ways of treating malaria.
f) Effects of malaria on our health.

Main Ideas:

Malaria is a dangerous disease.

Malaria is caused by a malarial parasite. Spread of malaria parasites from man to man is by anopheles mosquitoes.

A sick person has severe weakness, headache, pain all over the body especially in the joints.

It can be prevented by mosquito control and personal protection.

A special drug is needed to treat malaria.

Notes for the Teacher:

Malaria is a dangerous disease which is caused by malarial parasite (plasmodia). The malarial parasites live in the blood of a person who has the disease. The process of transferring germs from a patient to a healthy person is called transmission. A special mosquito called anopheles is the vector for malaria and transfers the malarial parasites from a patient to healthy people. Blood transfusion (receiving blood) can cause malaria, if the donor for this blood had malarial parasites in his body.


Figure

As they feed on human blood, mosquitoes inject their saliva containing malarial parasites into the body (i.e. if they have previously fed on a person with malaria). The injected malaria parasites quickly multiply and become many. At this stage they cause the disease and they can be picked by another mosquito which comes to feed on this patient.

A person with malaria complains of tiredness, headache, and pains all over the body. High fevers and chills come and go. A person with malaria is observed to be/have (i.e. signs) sweating, shaking, high temperature, and dehydration. Early treatment with chloroquine or other drugs cures malaria. Malaria is a serious disease and can cause death, so a patient must be seen by a health worker.

A Mosquito:

The life history of a mosquito requires two things:

· Blood for the eggs in the female mosquito to grow.
· Stagnant or slow moving water for the young mosquitoes (larvae) to develop into adults.


Figure

Mosquitoes lay their eggs on stagnant water or slow moving water. The eggs hatch into young mosquitoes (larvae) which look like small worms, and they need water to survive. The larvae develop into pupae and later into adult mosquitoes which have wings. A mosquito may feed three or four times (if disturbed) on different people before getting enough blood for growth of its eggs.

Control of malaria is possible if:

· All people protect themselves against mosquito bites.

· All those who have the disease are treated early so that they are not bitten by mosquitoes that pick the parasites.

· Mosquitoes in both adult and young stages are killed.

· The environment is kept free of all containers/places where water is likely to collect and stagnate.

SOME ACTIVITIES FOR PUPILS

1. Visit places in the environment where young mosquitoes are likely to be (Tree trunks, empty cans, water tanks, car tyres).

2. Observe movement of wormlike creatures in stagnant water (larvae).

3. Identify other life stages in water if possible, by comparing the creatures seen and what was observed in diagrams.

4. Collect larvae, etc. and demonstrate methods of killing.

a) Deny air by pouring oil on surface of water with larvae in glass jar.
b) Empty water on a flat surface and observe what happens.

MATERIALS REQUIRED:

· Health Kits on water/sanitation charts.
· Transparent water containers e.g. glass or jar.
· Live specimens found in school/home environment.

EVALUATION:

- Questions and answers; observations.
- Long term behavioural changes.

FOLLOW-UP:

Record class members who get malaria in the term.

Environmental hygiene home/school, observations of mosquito stages and destroy when seen.

TEST YOURSELF:

(What have you learnt from this chapter?)

1. Describe the places where mosquitoes breed.
2. What causes malaria?
3. State three ways by which mosquitoes can be controlled.
4. Explain how malaria is treated.

Trachoma

Objectives:

By the end of this unit Chapter pupils should be able to:

1. Explain the cause of trachoma.
2. Describe spread of trachoma.
3. Explain the symptoms/signs of the disease.
4. Explain treatment and control of trachoma.
5. Explain the effects of trachoma on people.

Behavioural Changes:

Pupils should:

- Practice good personal hygiene.
- Avoid and prevent flies from settling on eyes.
- Clean environment - destroy breeding places of houseflies.

Sub-Topics:

a) What is trachoma?; signs and symptoms.
b) Causes of trachoma flies and unhygienic environment.
c) Personal hygiene in controlling trachoma.
d) Treatment and control of trachoma.
e) The effects of trachoma.

Main Ideas:

Tracoma is a dangerous disease that can cause blindness. Plenty of water and good personal hygiene can prevent trachoma.

Notes for the Teacher:

Trachoma is a disease of the eye. It is caused by a small germ called chlamydia. The disease can be spread from one person to another by flies, dirty hands and sharing dirty (towels, basins) articles, with a person who has the disease. A person with trachoma complains of pain in the eyes. The eyes become watery, pinkish-red and swollen.

Pus may be seen in the eyes especially after sleep. Trachoma can result into blindness if it is not treated. Treatment of the disease consist of washing the eyes properly and applying the right eye medicines from a healthy worker. Trachoma is adisease which is common where water is scarce. People are unable to get enough clean water for washing.

Prevention of Trachoma:

The disease can be prevented by practising good care for the eyes, and avoiding to share basins, bath water, bath towels, and beddings with those who have the disease. It is important to keep a clean environment, bury or burn rubbish, use latrines etc.

SOME ACTIVITIES FOR PUPILS:

1. Demonstrate proper face washing and eye care.

2. Blindfold walk in pairs to illustrate what it is like to be "blind" and realise the importance of caring for eyes and maintaining good sight.

SKILLS TO DEVELOP:

Cleaning body
Cleaning environment

MATERIALS REQUIRED:

Basins, soap, clean water.

EVALUATION:

Written questions and answers to be corrected, relating to causes and prevention of the disease.

FOLLOW-UP

- Health parade - observe all the pupils for clean eyes.
- Record members in the class who get problems of the eye during the term.
- Note those children who may have difficulty in seeing.
- Note whether a member in the class gets a disease like trachoma.

TEST YOURSELF:

(What have you learnt in this chapter?)

1. What is the germ that causes trachoma?
2. Name four ways of spreading trachoma.
3. How can you destroy the breeding places of houseflies?

Sleeping Sickness and Tsetse Flies:

Objectives:

By the end of this topic pupils should be able to:

1. Explain the cause of sleeping sickness.
2. Name the tsetse fly as a vector for sleeping sickness.
3. Explain the symptoms/signs and effects of sleeping sickness.
4. Describe the life history of the tsetse fly.
5. Explain the control measures for sleeping sickness and tsetse flies.

Behavioural Changes:

Pupils should:

- Clear bush around homes/schools.

- Avoid tsetse fly bites.

- Report to authorities abundance of tsetse flies in the area and take part in activities of eliminating them.

Sub-Topics:

a) Sleeping sickness as a disease. Symptoms, signs, causes.
b) Tsetse fly: What it looks like; its characteristics; its habitat.
c) The life history of the tsetse fly.
d) How tsetse fly spreads sleeping sickness.
e) Measures to control tsetse flies.
f) Prevention and cure of sleeping sickness.

Main Ideas:

Sleeping sickness is dangerous because it causes ill health and death. It is caused by a parasite called trypanosoma, which is found in blood and other body fluids.

It is spread by tsetse flies. The fly feeds on humans and other animals.

The parasites also cause disease in wild animals, domestic animals and humans.

The disease can be prevented by vector control to reduce tsetse fly bites.

Notes for the Teacher:

Sleeping sickness is a dangerous disease and it can cause death. Sleeping sickness is caused by a parasite called trypanosoma. Spread of the disease is by tsetse flies. The flies feed on wild animals, domestic animals and humans, and introduces the parasites that cause the disease.

The parasites are left in human body by the biting infected tsetse fly. They increase in number by multiplication and spread to involve other parts of the body and the brain. People with the disease have fever, headache, swelling of lymph glands and a skin rash. They loose weight and sleep for long hours. They fail to eat and become dehydrated. Special drugs can be used to treat the disease in the early stages. A person with the disease has to be treated in a special health unit where the drugs for the disease are given.

Control of the disease involves:

- Killing the tsetse flies with insecticides or catching the flies with tsetse fly traps.

- Destroying the places where flies stay by bush clearing near water places and in other locations - extensive agriculture.

- Vehicles should be sprayed after going through areas which have tsetse flies, to kill those flies which they may have picked.

- All people with the disease should be treated early.

- They should be protected from fly bites, by covering arms and legs in bad areas and covering themselves at night.

A TSETSE FLY:

The adult fly has wings and a conspicuously long mouth (proboscis). Tsetse fly bites are very painful. The adults feed on blood and it requires a blood meal every five days. They bite during day time. Both female and male flies carry sleeping sickness. They live for 3-5 months and they need shade and moisture. They are attracted by moving objects like cars, trains, and when they are attached to these, they can be carried long distances away and in that way they spread disease.

The adult female produces one living larva every 12 days. The egg hatches inside the mother and feeds on milk from the mother's glands until it is a fully grown larva. The larva is produced and placed in a shade near soft soil, sand or dead leaves. A white maggot-like creature (larva) moves deep into the ground and turns into pupa, which is dark brown to black. One month later the adult fly forms, forces its way out of the ground, and rests on the surface before it starts looking for food (blood meals).

SOME ACTIVITIES FOR PUPILS:

1. Make simple nets for catching flies.

2. Catch tsetse flies. Look and identify. Other stages can also be identified if flies are many in the area (larva, pupa).

3. Draw a chart of the life history of the tsetse fly and of sleeping sickness transmission.

SKILLS TO DEVELOP:

Identification of insects.

MATERIALS REQUIRED:

· Pencil.
· Manilla paper.
· Strings and nets.
· Poles.
· Picture of Tsetse fly.

EVALUATION:

Written answers for questions relating to effects of sleeping sickness and methods of prevention.

FOLLOW UP:

In schools in the area where the disease is common, pupils should list and report to friends the patients in the village near homes. They can be assisted by parents.

TEST YOURSELF:

(What have you learnt in this chapter?)

1. What is the parasite which causes sleeping sickness?

2. Name two of the ways through which tse tse flies can be prevented from spreading sleeping sickness.

Diarrhoea and Dysentry

Objectives:

By the end of this topic pupils should:

1. Tell the difference between diarrhoea and dysentery.
2. Name possible causes for each and ways of spread.
3. Describe the effects of diarrhoea and dysentery.
4. Name possible treatment for each.
5. Describe control methods for each.
6. Repeat on places where flies frequent in their area.
7. Keep their classrooms, toilets and kitchens clean.

Behavioural Changes:

Pupils should:

- Use soap to wash hands before eating and after latrine visits.
- Protect food from flies.
- Reject and avoid buying rotting food, exposed food, and fruits with a broken skin.
- Purify and protect water for drinking.
- Drink plenty of fluids when they have diarrhoea.
- Mix correctly and give fluids or ORS.
- Use latrines properly.
- Wash plates and cups, wipe tables and sweep the floor immediately after the meal.
- Guide your young sisters and brothers in washing hands and not eating left over food.

Sub-Topics:

a) What is diarrhoea? What is dysentry?
b) How does dysentry differ from diarrhoea?
c) How diarrhoea is caused and how it spreads.
d) How dysentry is caused and how it spreads.
e) Possible treatment for diarrhoea.
f) Possible treatment for dysentry.

Main Ideas:

- Diarrhoea and dysentery are very dangerous diseases.

- They can cause dehydration which can kill.

- They can be prevented by simple health habits and availability of water to practice health habits.

Notes for the Teacher:

Information on diarrhoea - see Chapter 11.

Dysentry:

When a person has frequent loose or watery stools, a person has diarrhoea. if mucus and blood can be seen in stools, he/she has dysentery. The germs that cause the disease are passed out in the patient's faeces. These can be carried by fingers, or flies from feaces to food. These are the ways in which the underlined four F's spread the disease.

Faeces (1st F):

Germs of dysentery and other germs that cause diarrhoea are found in feaces. If it is put outside, children can touch it with their fingers, or it can flow away with rain to the water sources.

Flies (2nd F):

Flies eat faeces and they also want to eat our food if left uncovered. A fly from faeces carries germs and feaces on its body to our food when it comes to eat it.

Fingers (3rd F):

Fingers are always dirty and may carry germs that cause dysentery especially if there is a person who has the disease at home. They should be washed after passing stool and before eating meals.

Food (4th F):

There are a lot of flies in the market. All these can put germs on food bought in the market. Food bought should be washed properly and cooked well to remove and kill the germs.

Dysentery like diarrhoea can be prevented by availability of water and practising proper health habits. A person who has dysentery should be given plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and he/she should be taken to see a health worker for further treatment and advice. Always cover food to prevent flies from feeding or falling on it.

SOME ACTIVITIES FOR PUPILS:

Refer to Chapter 11 "Diarrhoea and Dehydration" (activities carried out for diarrhoea).

Experiment with washing hands with soap and water. Observe the dirty water.

MATERIALS REQUIRED:

· School Health Kits on Water and Sanitation, and Diarrhoeal Diseases.
· Basin, water and soap.

EVALUATION:

Question and answers related to differences between diarrhoea and dysentery, and methods of preventing and treating diarrhoea and dysentery.

FOLLOW-UP:

Observe how many pupils miss school due to diarrhoea in a term. Report to class, if members of family have the problem.

Visit children's homes where someone is suffering from diarrhoea and offer help.

TEST YOURSELF:

(What have you learnt in this chapter?)

1. What do you understand by:

a) diarrhoea?
b) dysentry?

2. What are the 4 F's and how do they cause diarrhoea?
3. Suggest three ways through which you can prevent diarrhoea and dysentry.
4. Why are diarrhoea and dysentry very dangerous diseases?

House Flies, Mosquitoes and Tsetse Flies

Objectives:

By the end of this topic pupils should:

1. Tell the life history of a housefly. Know the "life history" as a term.
2. Explain the characteristics of a housefly.
3. Know the dangers of a housefly.
4. Locate the breeding place of the house fly, tse tse fly and mosquito.

Behavioural Changes:

Pupils should:

- Keep an environment clean to reduce the breeding sites for houseflies.
- Participate in cleaning the home and school compounds.
- Kill adult and young houseflies.
- Avoid eating and drinking things in which houseflies have fallen.
- Precautionary measures from mosquito and tsetse fly bites.

Sub-Topics:

a) What is a housefly?
b) Where are house flies found?
c) Life history of a house fly.
d) Characteristics of a house fly.
e) Dangers of a house fly.
f) Control measures for house flies, mosquitoes and tsetse flies.

NB. For Mosquito this will be revision.

Main Ideas:

Main Ideas for Mosquitoes and tse tse flies are on previous pages.

- A housefly is found in many places and it is a dangerous insect.
- It spreads germs of many diseases such as trachoma, diarrhoea, dysentery and others.
- Number of flies in an area can be reduced by cleaning the environment.

Notes for the Teacher:

A housefly is found in most parts of the world, and it is a common insect in many homes. It is a very dangerous insect. It likes sitting and feeding on human food, and human excretions (i.e. urine, faeces, sputum and nasal secretions). Its body is covered with hairs and these hairs carry a lot of germs from dirty places. A housefly has a habit of vomiting and passing stool while feeding. Their vomits and faeces contain many types of germs if the fly was previously feeding on a dirty meal (e.g. faeces). The hairy body and the dirty feeding habits enable the fly to spread germs of many diseases to food, eyes and clean wounds if these are uncovered.

All the time, a housefly is looking for food and it is mainly active during day time and it rests at night.

An adult fly has two wings. The female lays her eggs in warm, moist, rotting material (e.g. faeces of many domestic animals, and humans, rotting food etc). In one day 150 eggs can be laid. One housefly can produce up to 3000 eggs during life.

CONTROL OF FLIES:

Deny a housefly suitable breeding places, by collecting all rubbish, feacal material, animal droppings etc and put in the right places. Cover with soil. Adult flies can be killed with insecticides.

Poisoned traps can be laid in the houses for flies (having cards with syrup and insecticide). Larvae can be killed by spraying the surface of exposed rubbish.

SOME ACTIVITIES FOR PUPILS:

- Discuss with children to find out their knowledge of a housefly and its characteristics and dangers.

- Collect specimens and identify the stages of the life history (in diagrams).

- Tell stories involving flies and disease.

- Discuss possible poisons for adult flies (exercise care when handling).

MATERIALS REQUIRED:

Glass jars or polythine bags.

Picture of a house fly.


Figure

EVALUATION FEEDBACK:

- Discussion with children to find out their knowledge of a housefly and its characteristics and danger.

- Collect specimens and identify the stages of the life history (in diagrams).

- Tell stories involving flies and disease.

- Each child explains the flies problem at home i.e. the situation whereby the flies are likely to spread diseases.

- Possible poisons for adult flies (exercise care when handling. Only handled by teacher).

Questions and answers relating to life history, habits and dangers of a housefly.

FOLLOW-UP:

Pupils should observe the dirty feeding habits of houseflies.

Report places where many flies are seen. Report of day when seen.

Destroy or remove breeding places of flies.

TEST YOURSELF:

(What have you learned in this chapter?)

1. Where do we find house flies?
2. Where does a house fly lay its eggs?
3. How can we prevent a house fly from breeding?
4. How does a house fly spread germs from place to place?

Bedbugs, Lice, Ticks, Mites, Rats and Mice:

Objectives:

By the end of this topic pupils should be able to:

1. Name a disease spread or caused by each of the insects and animals: bedbugs, lice, ticks, mites, rats and mice.

2. Explain the effects, signs and symptoms of diseases caused.

3. Tell methods of control/prevention and treatment of diseases caused.

4. Explain the ways of controlling of these insects/animals.

Behavioural Changes:

Pupils should:

- Kill these animals and insects.
- Practice good health habits.
- Keep environment clean.
- Avoid being bitten by these insects.

Sub-Topics:

Bed bugs:

a) What they look like and where they stay.
b) How to control them.
c) Diseases caused and spread by bed bugs and lice.
d) Prevention of the disease.

Ticks and Mites:

a) What they look like and where they stay.
b) How to control them.
c) Diseases caused and spread by ticks and mites.
d) Prevention of the diseases caused by the ticks and mites.

Rats and Mice:

a) What rats and mice are.
b) Where they are found.
c) How to control rats and mice.
d) Diseases caused and spread by rats and mice.
e) Prevention of the diseases caused by rats and mice.


Figure

Main Ideas:

· Bites of bedbugs, lice, ticks and mites are dangerous to health.

· Poisons and germs can be introduced into our bodies as a result of their bites, and these can cause dangerous diseases.

· Blood sucking insects that bite man and mice or rats are involved in the spread of diseases from rats to man.

· Mice and rats eat and spoil stored food.

· Good house keeping and spraying can control the diseases spread by these insects and animals.

Notes for the Teacher:

Bedbugs:

Bedbugs are reddish brown insects. They have flat bodies and they have no wings. They feed on blood throughout life by sucking man or birds. Bedbug bites result in loss of sleep, headaches and loss of blood. They hide in beds, cracks of walls and in beddings and mattresses. Bedbugs lay many white eggs in the same locations where they hide. These hatch into young ones which also feed on blood.

Good housekeeping can prevent the presence of these insects. All cracks in walls should be blocked. Adults can be killed by spraying with insecticides and hot water can also be used on young ones.

Lice:

Two types are common and these are the head louse which is mainly found on hairs (heads) and the body louse which is found in the beddings. Both of them feed on man by sucking his blood. Their bites cause irritation and allergy. They transmit louse-borne typhus fever which can cause death.

Control of the diseases involves:

1. Killing the lice by shaving hair and spraying.

2. Teaching the people involved about bodily cleanliness.

3. Providing the people involved with soap and water and encouraging them to bath, wash all the clothes and changing into clean ones.

All this good personal hygiene can prevent the disease which is common in areas where people are crowded because of hardships and starvation.

Ticks:

Ticks are common parasites of domestic animals (cows, dogs etc). Ticks can also bite man and cause loss of blood, body paralysis (temporary) and introduce poisons and germs into the body. Infected ticks transmit tick-borne typhus fever characterised by fever and weakness.

In animals they cause tick fever.

Control:

- Avoid bites from ticks.
- Animal dips and spraying their pastures to clear ticks. Dogs can be dusted with insecticides.
- Eliminate ticks from the environment of domestic animals.
- Pasture rotation.

Mites:

One type of mite common in Uganda causes scabies which is a disease that is associated with rashes around finger webs and wrists in adults. In children rashes can be all over the body especially on the arms. There is severe itching and the lesions can get other germs into them during scratching. This causes wounds and fever. Disease can easily spread from one person to another during shaking hands and if clothes and beddings are shared. People with the disease should be isolated during treatment with special lotions.

Prevention:

- Keep away from those who have scabies and do not share clothing with them.
- Practice personal cleanliness.

Rats and Mice:

They are found in rubbish damps and near our homes. They enter grain stores, eat and spoil our stored food. Fleas, mites, and ticks frequently suck their blood, and pick up germs that cause disease in rats and mice. Fleas, mites and ticks can transmit diseases from rats and mice to man. Typhus fevers can be transmitted to man through their bites, or by contamination of eyes, mouth or broken skin with faeces or crushed parts of infected mites, ticks, or fleas. These fevers all cause headaches and high temperatures and yellow body (jaundice). Plague is transmitted to man by a rat flea. Leptospirosis is a disease a person can get on contact with faeces or urine of rats. This can happen when a person stands, or bathes in water containing these rat wastes. All these diseases can be serious and they may cause death.

Control:

1. All sick people should be taken to hospital for appropriate treatment.
2. Environment should be kept clean so that rats and mice are not attracted in the area.
3. Rats and mice should always be killed to reduce their numbers.
4. Rats should always be excluded from dwellings by trapping.

SOME ACTIVITIES FOR PUPILS:

· Locate breeding places of each insect/animal.

· Collect and identify the insects. Check hair for head lice, organise hair cutting and washing monthly (liaise with the homes).

· Practice proper hair combing.

· Demonstrate proper bed cleaning to remove bedbugs.

· Carry out health parade to check for scabies. Have older children check young ones for scabies.

· Make rat/mice traps.

MATERIALS REQUIRED:

Mattress, bedding, comb, scissors, basin, water, material for traps.

EVALUATION:

Questions and answers relating to disease caused by insects/animals and methods of control of the diseases.

FOLLOW-UP:

1. Report to class if any of the insects/animals are seen in school or home environment.
2. Check young siblings for the insects (head lice) and report to mother and class.

TEST YOURSELF:

(What have you learnt in this chapter)?

1. Name any disease spread by each of the following: Bed bugs, lice, ticks, mites, rats and mice.

2. Give two ways to prevent the spread of diseases by these insects and all animals.

Cockroach:

Objectives:

By the end of this topic pupils should be able to:

1. Describe the life history of a cockroach.
2. Describe the characteristics of a cockroach e.g. habitation, feeding etc.
3. Describe ways of controlling it.
4. List all the insecticides on the market which can kill insects.

Behavioural Changes:

Pupils should:

1. Kill cockroaches whenever seen (adults, all young ones and eggs).
2. Protect food from cockroaches. Keep rubbish containers tightly closed while near houses.
3. Do not eat uncovered left over food.

Main Ideas

1. A cockroach is an insect. It lays eggs that hatch into young ones.

2. Cockroaches transfer germs from dirty places to food.

3. They can be prevented from appearing by good housekeeping and covering all food in the house.

Notes for the Teacher:

A cockroach is an insect with 4 wings. An adult female lays eggs which hatch into many young ones. Like adults they eat anything (paper, shoes, wood, cloth and our food). They leave their hiding places during darkness and they start to look for food. They walkthrough feaces, dirty places, and food. They can transfer germs from dirty places to food, and this can spread disease germs. The young ones increase in size by shading their covers. When they reach adult stage, they become adults with wings. They can be controlled by destroying eggs, killing young ones (eggs, young and adults) seen and cleaning the cupboards and food stores. Insecticides are useful to reduce them.

SOME ACTIVITIES FOR PUPILS:

1. Collect live insects and eggs and identify

2. Discuss with the children the appearances and characteristics of the different stages of a cockroach.

3. Compare with diagrams of the life history of a cockroach.

MATERIALS REQUIRED:

Picture of cockroach, Insecticide

EVALUATION:

Questions on life history, characteristics and control methods.

Do weekly cleaning at home to eradicate cockroaches (kitchens, stores etc.)

FOLLOW-UP:

1. Record and report the places where cockroaches were seen at home.
2. Describe how the insects seen behave/characteristics.

TEST YOURSELF:

What have you learnt from this chapter?)

1. Describe how cockroaches spread germs.
2. Describe ways of controlling cockroaches.