|Basic Science and Health Education for Primary Schools, Uganda (UNICEF, 1992, 162 p.)|
UNIT 15 ACCIDENTS AND FIRST AID
P4 TERM 2
By the end of the topic, pupils should be able to:
1. Name some road traffic accidents.
(i) Avoid situations that are likely to cause falls, fractures and sprains.
(ii) Exercise care when climbing, walking, running and playing.
(iii) Give First Aid for falls, sprains and fractures.
(iv) Observe the Highway Code.
a) Road traffic accidents, Common accidents, causes and ways of preventing them. the highway code.
b) Common injuries to bones, types of fractures and first aid for fractures.
c) Common injuries to joints and muscles, symptoms of sprains/strains and first aid for sprains/strains.
d) Ways of preventing falls, fractures and sprains. When there is time, take an extra lesson to let pupils practice the first aid.
1. Many accidents take place on the road and can be prevented.
2. Overturning, falling, colliding and knocking are some accidents that take place on the road.
3. Road accidents are caused by over-speeding, being drunk, careless walking, riding and driving and failure to follow the Highway Code.
4. Sprains, fractures and dislocations are common injuries to bones and joints.
5. Proper care is important
- at the time of the accident.
- during the healing process.
Notes for the Teacher:
Refer especially to Chapter 17 in this Guide and to "Skeltal and Muscular Injuries" p.63 in Teacher's Guide Vol. I. and to Basic Science Book 4.
How do road accidents happen?
Let pupils tell you what accidents have happened recently and how they happened. Refer to list under main ideas (no. 3) and chapter 17.
Symptoms of fractures:
The most common fractures are of arms/hands and legs/ankles.
A fracture is a break. Broken bones can be either simple or compound fractures.
In simple fractures the bone is broken but remains inside the skin. The broken part (especially on an arm or leg) looks the wrong shape, may be swollen, or bruised and is very painful.
In a compound fracture the bone will have broken through the skin and there may be bleeding also.
Symptoms of sprains/strains:
A sprain is an injury to a joint. Usually the ligaments (soft tissue connecting two bones) are torn or pulled. The joint will become swollen and painful. If there is a bad tear, there may be bruising as well.
Symptoms of muscle injuries.
The most common injuries to muscles are cuts and bruises.
First Aid for broken bones
When a broken bone is a simple fracture, do the following:
1. Keep the injured bone still.
2. If it is broken arm or wrist, put it in a sling to rest it and keep it still.
3. If it is a broken leg or arm you can also make a home-made cast or splint. This is something to keep the injured bone still. You can make this from rolled up newspapers, a clean, smooth stick or something similar.
4. Take the patient to a health unit where they may be able to have an x-ray. The patient may need help to walk.
5. A broken bone may take many weeks to heal. All patients may need understanding, and may need assistance with moving around or carrying things. Also, cheer them up by spending time with them.
A compound fracture:
1. Cover the wound to prevent infection.
2. Stop bleeding if a lot, by applying pressure above the injury.
3. Support the injured part and keep it still, using suggestions for casts or splints above.
4. Get help quickly.
First Aid for Sprains/Strains:
1. Raise the injured part.
2. Put on a cold wet cloth or ice to the injured part to reduce swelling and pain for 24 hours.
3. The joint should be supported and kept still using methods explained above.
5. Severe sprains heal after 3 or 4 weeks.
6. The health worker may prescribe some asprin to take for the pain.
Take the injured person to the clinic.
Care during recovery.
A broken bone may take many weeks to heal. All patients need understanding, and may need assistance with moving around or carrying things. Also cheer them up by spending time with them!
A sprain may swell, and benefit from a cold wet cloth, and raising the injured part on a cushion.
Sometimes it is extremely difficult to know if a hand or foot is only bruised, sprained or broken. X-rays are taken to help. A tear in a joint is called sprain. The joint should not be moved about. It should be wrapped with something that gives support. Severe sprains heal after 3 or 4 weeks. Broken bones take longer. You can keep the twisted joint into the correct position for healing by using a home-made cast/or elastic bandage.
In order to relieve pain and swelling, keep the sprained part raised high after care. For the first 24 hours, put ice or cold wet cloth over the swollen joint. This helps to reduce swelling and pain. It is also advisable to take some asprin as prescribed by the Health Worker. After 24 hours you should soak the sprain in very warm water several times.
SOME ACTIVITIES FOR PUPILS:
1. Discuss with pupils why it is dangerous to cross the roads at bends.
2. Take children to the nearest road site that presents these problems and demonstrate how to overcome them. You could also use the school compound for pupils to demonstrate road safety. Use road signs to promote awareness.
3. Let pupils make up picture stories to show accidents e.g. falls, sprains, fractures - their causes and how to give First Aid to each one of them.
4. Compose a song with pupils to describe prevention of these accidents.
5. Let children practise putting on a sling and splint.
6. Let children demonstrate how to transport a person with a sprain/fracture to a Health Centre.
SKILLS TO DEVELOP
Observation, predicting, drawing, construction, lifting/carrying injured people.
Splint, cloth, pictures/posters, Highway Code.
Pupils may describe causes of the accident discussed and First Aid for each of them. Let them observe drawings, pictures to identify fractures.
Help pupils form Health Committees and make a record of accidents that happen in the area.
(What have you learnt from this chapter?)
1. List 5 causes of road traffic accidents.
2. Describe how to cross a road safety.
3. Describe the steps for first aid for a broken bone.
4. What is a sprain?
5. List the steps for first aid for a sprain or strain.