Cover Image
close this bookBasic Science and Health Education for Primary Schools, Uganda (UNICEF, 1992, 162 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentForeword
View the documentLinking Volume 1 and 2 of Basic Science and Health Education Teacher's Guide
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction to Book
View the documentCHAPTER 1. My Health and Other People's
View the documentCHAPTER 2. Caring for Our Bodies
View the documentCHAPTER 3. Causes of Accidents
View the documentCHAPTER 4. Names and Sources of Food
View the documentCHAPTER 5. The Importance of Immunisation
View the documentCHAPTER 6. Cleaning Things We Use
View the documentCHAPTER 7. Family Relationships and Interactions
View the documentCHAPTER 8. The Six Immunisable Diseases
View the documentCHAPTER 9. Food Hygiene
View the documentCHAPTER 10. Helping Others to Keep Healthy
View the documentCHAPTER 11. Worms, Diarrhoea and Dehydration
View the documentCHAPTER 12. Safety and Accident Prevention
View the documentCHAPTER 13. Germs and Prevention of Disease
View the documentCHAPTER 14. Working together for Good Health
View the documentCHAPTER 15. Topic: Keeping Clean
View the documentCHAPTER 16. Malaria, Trachoma and Sleeping Sickness
View the documentCHAPTER 17. First Aid for Common Accidents
View the documentCHAPTER 18. Food Preservation and Contamination
View the documentCHAPTER 19. Injuries and Their Care
View the documentCHAPTER 20. Digestive System
View the documentCHAPTER 21. Nutrition, Health and Disease
View the documentCHAPTER 22. Worms

CHAPTER 22. Worms

UNIT 7 COMMON DISEASES
P 4 TERM 3

Objectives:

By the end of this topic pupils should be able to:

1. Describe how each worm enters and harms the body; roundworms, hookworms, threadworms and tapeworms.

2. Name signs and symptoms of worm infestations.

3. Describe some ways of preventing worm infestation.

Behavioural Changes:

Pupils should:

1. Always wash their hands before eating and handling food.
2. Defecate in a latrine.
3. Always wash their hands after using the latrine.
4. Wash fruits and vegetables before eating them.
5. Wear shoes if possible.

Sub-Topics:

a) Signs and Symptoms of Worm Infestation
b) Types of Worms

- Roundworm
- Hookworm
- Threadworm

c) Prevention of Worm Infestation.

Main Ideas:

1. Worm infestation can be prevented through simple health habits.

2. All worms can cause discomfort in the stomach and abdomen.

3. Hookworm is dangerous because it causes severe anaemia

4. Roundworms are dangerous because they can cause a blockage.

5. Hookworms, roundworms, threadworms and tapeworms are all found in the faeces of infected persons.

Notes for the Teacher:

There are many different kinds of worms which can infest a person.

The most common are roundworms, hookworms threadworms and tapeworms.

1. Hookworm:

The Problem:

Hookworms live in the bowels. They fasten themselves to the wall of the intestines and suck the person's blood. (Hookworm causes blood loss and) severe anaemia.

How they are spread:

Hookworm eggs are present in the feaces of infected people. The eggs hatch into larvae in the ground and live for a long time. They enter people through their skin, usually the feet. When they enter the body, they travel via the blood to the lungs. They are coughed up and swallowed and then reach the intestines where they grow into adult worms.

How to Recognise and Treat Hookworms

There is itching and a rash where the larvae enter the skin.

The child will be pale and weak.

If a lot are present the child may develop fever, dullness, and slowness, and severe anaemia.

Take the child or person to a health centre for treatment.

Give them food rich in iron e.g. green vegetables, fish.

How to Prevent Hookworms

1. Wear shoes. This is the only sure protection.
2. Encourage children not to rest elbows on the ground.
3. Keep toilet blocks clean.
4. Defecate in a latrine.
5. Avoid walking barefooted in areas which are contaminated by faeces.

2. Threadworms:

The Problem:

Threadworms are very small about 1 cm long and live in the large intestine. They are not dangerous but can cause bad itching around the anus. In girls they may cause pain by crawling over the hymen.

How they are spread:

At night the female lays thousands of eggs outside the anus. The person scratches the area and the eggs get under the fingernails. The person can infect himself again by eating these eggs or can infect others by contaminating their food, or water with these eggs.

How to Recognise and Treat Threadworm:

They can be seen around the anus at night (like small pieces of white thread).

They can sometimes be seen in the faeces.

They will cause bad itching especially at night.

Take the person to the health centre for treatment.

Also cut their nails very short, wash carefully and wash all clothes and bed linen to kill eggs.

How to prevent threadworms:

The best way is always to wash carefully. If possible, wash with soap and water after defecating. Keep nails short, especially if eating with hands.

General Conclusion about Intestinal Parasites

In order to effectively prevent the spread of intestinal parasites we must be obedient to rules of cleanliness.

a) There should be adequate provision for the disposal of all human excreta, and the use of proper toilets should be universal, human excreta should not be used to fertilize fields and gardens. Excreta manure is good for gardens if treated properly.

b) Both adults and children should avoid going barefooted in places where the ground may be contaminated.

c) People should keep their bodies as clean as possible and wash their hands throughly before eating and handling food.

d) Children should be provided with clean places in which to play, and should be taught to keep their fingers and all other objects, except proper food out of their mouths.

Some Activities for Pupils:

1.

a) Take the picture story "Dirty Habits" from the School Health Kit on Water and Sanitation. Use the pictures to tell a story about a person with worms.


b) Ask children to make up their own stories.

2.

Select the posters in the School Health Kit on Diarrhoeal Diseases which mention worms. Get children to choose those pictures and messages which are relevant to worms.

3.

List methods that are used to keep latrines clean.

4.

Let children examine each others nails for cleanliness.

SKILLS TO DEVELOP:

1. Write/tell stories.

2. Listen.

3. List.

4. Sequence (pictures and story).

5. Interprete pictures (from the Health Kits).

6. Understand what can cause things and what effects are (e.g. Lack of wearing shoes may cause hookworm. The effects will be anaemia etc.)

MATERIALS REQUIRED:

1. School Health Kit on Water and Sanitation, especially the picture story "Dirty Habits".
2. School Health Kit on Diarrhoeal Diseases especially the posters:

a) Prevent diarrhoea.
b) Prevent diarrhoea.
c) How germs can spread.

EVALUATION:

1. Ask children to explain how the different worms are spread.

2. Ask children to list the simple health habits to keep them free of worms.

3. Give a story and ask each child to record the places in the story where a "wrong habit" is being practised.

FOLLOW UP:

1. Observe the condition of children for signs and symptoms of worms.

2. Observe and encourage the washing habits of children at school, and the condition of their nails.

3. Children can report every week on whether family members have worms, and how often families wash.

TEST YOURSELF:

(What have you learnt from this chapter?)

1. Describe how each worm enters and harms the body:

a) Roundworm.
b) Hookworm.
c) Threadworm.