|Basic Science and Health Education for Primary Schools, Uganda (UNICEF, 1992, 162 p.)|
UNIT 7 COMMON DISEASES
P 4 TERM 3
By the end of this topic pupils should be able to:
1. Describe how each worm enters and harms the body; roundworms, hookworms, threadworms and tapeworms.
2. Name signs and symptoms of worm infestations.
3. Describe some ways of preventing worm infestation.
1. Always wash their hands before eating and handling food.
2. Defecate in a latrine.
3. Always wash their hands after using the latrine.
4. Wash fruits and vegetables before eating them.
5. Wear shoes if possible.
a) Signs and Symptoms of Worm Infestation
b) Types of Worms
c) Prevention of Worm Infestation.
1. Worm infestation can be prevented through simple health habits.
2. All worms can cause discomfort in the stomach and abdomen.
3. Hookworm is dangerous because it causes severe anaemia
4. Roundworms are dangerous because they can cause a blockage.
5. Hookworms, roundworms, threadworms and tapeworms are all found in the faeces of infected persons.
Notes for the Teacher:
There are many different kinds of worms which can infest a person.
The most common are roundworms, hookworms threadworms and tapeworms.
Hookworms live in the bowels. They fasten themselves to the wall of the intestines and suck the person's blood. (Hookworm causes blood loss and) severe anaemia.
How they are spread:
Hookworm eggs are present in the feaces of infected people. The eggs hatch into larvae in the ground and live for a long time. They enter people through their skin, usually the feet. When they enter the body, they travel via the blood to the lungs. They are coughed up and swallowed and then reach the intestines where they grow into adult worms.
How to Recognise and Treat Hookworms
There is itching and a rash where the larvae enter the skin.
The child will be pale and weak.
If a lot are present the child may develop fever, dullness, and slowness, and severe anaemia.
Take the child or person to a health centre for treatment.
Give them food rich in iron e.g. green vegetables, fish.
How to Prevent Hookworms
1. Wear shoes. This is the only sure protection.
2. Encourage children not to rest elbows on the ground.
3. Keep toilet blocks clean.
4. Defecate in a latrine.
5. Avoid walking barefooted in areas which are contaminated by faeces.
Threadworms are very small about 1 cm long and live in the large intestine. They are not dangerous but can cause bad itching around the anus. In girls they may cause pain by crawling over the hymen.
How they are spread:
At night the female lays thousands of eggs outside the anus. The person scratches the area and the eggs get under the fingernails. The person can infect himself again by eating these eggs or can infect others by contaminating their food, or water with these eggs.
How to Recognise and Treat Threadworm:
They can be seen around the anus at night (like small pieces of white thread).
They can sometimes be seen in the faeces.
They will cause bad itching especially at night.
Take the person to the health centre for treatment.
Also cut their nails very short, wash carefully and wash all clothes and bed linen to kill eggs.
How to prevent threadworms:
The best way is always to wash carefully. If possible, wash with soap and water after defecating. Keep nails short, especially if eating with hands.
General Conclusion about Intestinal Parasites
In order to effectively prevent the spread of intestinal parasites we must be obedient to rules of cleanliness.
a) There should be adequate provision for the disposal of all human excreta, and the use of proper toilets should be universal, human excreta should not be used to fertilize fields and gardens. Excreta manure is good for gardens if treated properly.
b) Both adults and children should avoid going barefooted in places where the ground may be contaminated.
c) People should keep their bodies as clean as possible and wash their hands throughly before eating and handling food.
d) Children should be provided with clean places in which to play, and should be taught to keep their fingers and all other objects, except proper food out of their mouths.
Some Activities for Pupils:
a) Take the picture story "Dirty Habits" from the School Health Kit on Water and Sanitation. Use the pictures to tell a story about a person with worms.
b) Ask children to make up their own stories.
Select the posters in the School Health Kit on Diarrhoeal Diseases which mention worms. Get children to choose those pictures and messages which are relevant to worms.
List methods that are used to keep latrines clean.
Let children examine each others nails for cleanliness.
SKILLS TO DEVELOP:
1. Write/tell stories.
4. Sequence (pictures and story).
5. Interprete pictures (from the Health Kits).
6. Understand what can cause things and what effects are (e.g. Lack of wearing shoes may cause hookworm. The effects will be anaemia etc.)
1. School Health Kit on Water and Sanitation, especially the picture story "Dirty Habits".
2. School Health Kit on Diarrhoeal Diseases especially the posters:
a) Prevent diarrhoea.
b) Prevent diarrhoea.
c) How germs can spread.
1. Ask children to explain how the different worms are spread.
2. Ask children to list the simple health habits to keep them free of worms.
3. Give a story and ask each child to record the places in the story where a "wrong habit" is being practised.
1. Observe the condition of children for signs and symptoms of worms.
2. Observe and encourage the washing habits of children at school, and the condition of their nails.
3. Children can report every week on whether family members have worms, and how often families wash.
(What have you learnt from this chapter?)
1. Describe how each worm enters and harms the body: