|Basic Science and Health Education for Primary Schools, Uganda (UNICEF, 1992, 162 p.)|
Unit 6 - Our Health
P.1 Term 1
By the end of this topic pupils should be able to:
1. Explain and demonstrate when and how to wash hands.
· Keep their bodies clean.
· Exercise regularly to keep strong and healthy.
· Keep compounds clean.
· Use latrines properly.
· We need to wash our hands regularly to avoid disease.
· Exercise keeps us strong and healthy.
· A clean compound helps to prevent disease.
· Using latrines properly and keeping them clean help to prevent disease.
· A clean body and a clean environment make us healthy and happy.
Notes for the Teacher
Germs cause disease and are found in dirty places. Insects like flies and cockroaches live in dirty places and transmit these germs to humans.
Dirty places include places where:
· Rubbish is dumped.
· Faeces are deposited.
· Dead animals are left to rot.
Germs from dirty places reach us through:
· Dirty clothes and bedding.
· Flies carrying germs onto our food, fingers or utensils.
· Using dirty hands or utensils.
We can prevent the spread of these germs by:-
· Washing our bodies daily (or several times a day, if need be).
· Putting beddings in the sun regularly.
· Washing clothes and bedding regularly, and ironing them.
· Washing hands before eating, cooking, and after using the latrine.
· Using latrines for defecating and urinals for urinating.
· Keeping latrines and urinals clean.
· Keeping utensils clean.
· Burying, burning or safely disposing of rubbish and dead animals.
· Keeping houses and compounds clean.
Exercise is good for the body.
· It helps the blood to flow faster and carry out its functions better.
· It helps the digestive system to process food through the bowels.
· It makes muscles stronger.
· It improves appetite.
· It makes us healthy and happy. Exercise should be done regularly.
SOME ACTIVITIES FOR PUPILS:
1. Show children the proper way of washing and cleaning different parts of the body especially hands, hair and nails.
Let children show each other how to wash hands properly.
Organise health parades every day to check on the standards of cleanliness.
Let the older children show the younger ones how to improve their cleanliness.
2. Compose stories on using clean compound and toilet and let pupils engage in role play, e.g. A family was not using a clean toilet and its members were getting sick everyday. Their father was taking them to a health centre or clinic for injections and other forms of treatment. One day Jane learnt that dirty places keep germs and germs cause disease. She went home and told the family to start cleaning the toilet and to remove rubbish from the compound. The following week members of the family were free from diseases and were happy.
3. Demonstrate how to clean the classroom and compound and how to dispose of rubbish properly.
4. Show children how to use a latrine properly by putting two chairs near each other and asking children to demonstrate how to use the latrine.
(Steps for using the pit latrine are found in the School Health Kit 'Water and Sanitation'. Follow this up by asking children to demonstrate the proper use of a latrine).
5. Set up class competition for personal cleanliness and tidiness of the classroom.
SKILLS TO DEVELOP:
1. Following instructions.
4. Manipulating skills.
Water, soap, brooms, combs, toilet covers, matches, hoes, slashers, rubbish tins. Half dried leaves.
School health kit on water and sanitation especially the picture of clean and dirty home.
Model of latrine.
Other pictures of clean and dirty environment.
1. Give simple verbal questions on the importance of using clean things.
2. Conduct health parades everyday to check their cleanliness.
3. Inspect school premises everyday.
4. Observe general cleanliness inside and around the class.
5. Observe role plays.
1. Get children to report when the latrine is not being used properly.
2. Get children to report when rubbish is being left lying about in the compound.
3. Put locally made baskets for rubbish around the compound.
4. Use the responsibility roster (time table) for keeping the classroom clean and tidy.
(What have you learnt from this chapter?)
1. What are the reasons why we wash our hands?
2. Cleaning our hair, nails and bodies is very important. What are the reasons? Why is it important?
3. What is the importance of doing exercise?
4. Describe good and bad posture?
5. Explain the dangers of dirty places.