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close this bookTraining Entrepreneurs for Small Business Creation: Lessons from Experience (ILO, 1988, 154 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentManagement Development Series
View the documentPreface
View the document1. Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2. Factors influencing programme design
Open this folder and view contents3. Organisation and administration
Open this folder and view contents4. Components of training programmes
View the document5. Some observations
View the document6. Xavier Institute of Social Services, Ranchi, India
View the document7. Madhya Pradesh Consultancy Organisation Ltd., India
View the document8. Directorate of Industrial Training, Uganda
View the document9. Calcutta “Y” Self-Employment Centre
View the document10. Bangladesh Management Development Centre
View the document11. Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India
View the document12. Hawaii Entrepreneurship Training and Development Institute
View the document13. The Entrepreneurship Institute, Columbus, Ohio
View the document14. Manpower Services Commission: New Enterprise Programme, United Kingdom
View the document15. Bibliography
View the documentOther ILO publications
View the documentBack Cover


A remarkable phenomenon has emerged in the last two to three decades: planned development activities have produced entrepreneurs whereas, in the past, the vast majority of entrepreneurs emerged merely as a result of fortuitous circumstances. The phenomenon is still a small one but it is growing.

This monograph is written for those involved in designing and implementing entrepreneurship training programmes in developing countries. Typically such people hold positions in the management assistance or training departments of development banks and industrial development corporations, but they may also be found in management training centres, technical institutes, government ministries of commerce, education or agriculture and in such non-government groups concerned with economic and social development as co-operatives, church groups, chambers of commerce, small business associations and employers’ federations. The information contained herein may also be of interest to those responsible for planning economic and social development policies and programmes and to those funding such programmes.

The individual who perceives needs, conceives goods or services to satisfy the needs, organises the factors of production, and creates and markets the products is called “an entrepreneur”, the role he performs is called “the entrepreneurial function”, and the process is called “entrepreneurship”. The entrepreneur, the entrepreneurial role and the process of entrepreneurship have been the subject of much study and debate. Perhaps nothing is more indicative of the importance of the entrepreneur than the duration and scope of the debate. That entrepreneurs are an important - and perhaps the most important - ingredient in the wealth of nations is being increasingly recognised.

This monograph reviews nine programmes that have been judged successful in developing entrepreneurs for business creation and four publications on small enterprise development in developing countries. It identifies the elements common to successful programmes and discusses the major issues in the design and conduct of each element. The conclusions drawn are in the form of general principles and guide-lines, not step-by-step procedures and checklists. Readers who wish to find examples of specific practices, procedures, forms, materials, etc., are referred to the bibliography in section 15.

Perhaps it needs to be said at the outset - entrepreneurs can be trained. The examples cited in this monograph demonstrate that some programmes have been accomplishing this in a cost-effective manner for many years. The entrepreneurs developed and the businesses they create provide many economic and social benefits that far outweigh the costs of the programmes. At the same time it must be recognised that a large number of attempts at entrepreneurship development have not been effective. It is to help those responsible for the design and implementation of programmes to recognise the elements and issues that account for the difference that this monograph has been written.

In the developing countries of the world much effort has been expended on human resources development and technical assistance for business creation and management. The International Labour Office has been a major participant in these efforts for more than three decades. Through its Management Development Branch, and particularly the Small Enterprise Development Section of this Branch, the ILO has assisted countries in the design of programmes, the transfer of expertise, the preparation of training materials and the development and strengthening of local institutions. As part of its regular budget the ILO has funded special studies and publications relevant to these tasks. This monograph is such a publication.

The author is a professor in the Faculty of Administrative Studies of Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada and a consultant to the ILO on the training and development of entrepreneurs. While this monograph was being written, the author spent time at ILO Headquarters in Geneva making use of the library and files. He visited relevant institutions in Europe as well as field projects in Africa. Financial contributions to make this possible were made from the regular budget of the ILO as well as the Netherlands Ministry for Development Co-operation and are here gratefully acknowledged.

In March 1985, the ILO requested information on small enterprise development programmes from a large number of institutions and individuals. Substantial extracts from the material submitted appear throughout this monograph. Much appreciation is owed to these pioneers for their willingness to document and share their experiences and acquired knowledge.

The many individuals both within and outside the ILO who have provided encouragement and advice are too numerous to mention. It is the author’s sincere wish that this monograph be worthy of their collaboration and that the result will make a contribution to furthering their small enterprise development efforts throughout the world.

ILO Management Development Branch,
December 1987.