|Journal of the Network of African Countries on Local Building Materials and Technologies - Volume 2, Number 4 (HABITAT, 1993, 66 p.)|
Published by UNCHS (Habitat)
Women and Human Settlements Development
Women are providers of basic services and infrastructure in the majority of human settlements, especially among the poor. Their critical role in primary health care and in preserving hygiene cannot be challenged. Women also provide a great portion of the energy resources consumed in settlements, and in transporting rural produce. Yet, their contributions are unrecorded and their participation in the planning and management of community services and infrastructure is unrecognized and hindered.
While the promotion of the participation of women in non-traditional areas of activity and in mainstream development sectors has been advocated, little has been done to enhance their participation in the development of human settlements and in the construction, management and upkeep of the built environment. Ensuring the participation of women in the construction sector, as policy- and decision-makers, as planners and professional and as workers, is only one aspect of the incorporation of women into shelter development Because there are concrete and identifiable implications of all human settlements policies for women, whether they deal with land, finance, building materials, construction technologies or design of dwellings, communities and settlements, all aspects of shelter development require specific consideration of the roles of women.
This publication is an attempt to examine the roles of women in the development and management of human settlements. Since these roles are extremely diverse, a number of exclusions have been made. Although the participation of women in human settlements takes many forms and covers a wide spectrum of shelter and infrastructure activities, the focus has been placed on shelter issues. Emphasis is also placed on urban areas, both because the contributions of women to urban settlements is unappreciated and because the problems faced by the urban poor cannot be solved without the full participation of women. Finally, issues which lend themselves to policy analysis and intervention are given greater emphasis in order to create policy awareness on women's issues and to demonstrate that a women-friendly approach to development need not cause conflict and competition over scarce resources; rather it constitutes an effort to mobilize society at large to take part in the solutions of settlements problems.
98 p. HS/192/89E: ISBN 92-1-131118-7
Human Settlements and Sustainable Development: the Role of Human Settlements and of Human Settlement Policies in Meeting Development Goals and in Addressing the Issues of Sustainability at Global and Local Levels
The condition of human settlements - how they develop, use natural resources and interact with the natural environment -will be central to any successful transition to sustainable development. This applies particularly to settlements in the developing countries not only because an increasing share of the world's population lives there, as population growth and urbanization concentrate in the developing countries, but also because these settlements play a key role in social and economic development. They not only are centres for new jobs for innovation and for expanding economic opportunities; settlements also play a crucial role in support of agricultural development as well as in the provision of social and other basic amenities.
However, it is particularly in urban settlements that the world's resources are consumed or transformed into products. The relationships between human settlements and natural environments are complex at the village level, but inefficient use of natural resources by large populations is putting ecological systems under stress most visibly in urban areas of developing countries. Cities draw heavily on natural resources, such as water, minerals and fuels, and, if improperly managed, they discharge wastes in a fashion that distorts natural biochemical recycling processes.
The purpose of this publication is to demonstrate the relationship between human settlements and sustainable development. It highlights the significance of shelter and settlements for sustainable development and the trends and approaches to sustainable development. It analyses a number of issues related to the theme of the publication such as: settlements and natural resources; settlements and renewable and non-renewable resources; water supply; sanitation; transport and energy; construction sector; physical planning etc. It finally proposes a policy framework and instruments and the role of international agencies in meeting development goals.
60 p. HS/214/90E: ISBN-92-1-131134-9
Environmental Guidelines for Settlements Planning and Management
The history of the efforts made by the United Nations system to promote environmentally sound planning and management of human settlements reaches back well over a decade.
Over the past decade, concepts relating to environmental planning and management and to human settlements planning and management have developed considerably. Initially, the emphasis was on understanding the main interactions between human settlements and the natural environment. This has been followed by a concern with improved analysis and planning methods. As these concerns were pursued, factual information concerning settlements/environment relationships became much more widespread, as did the array of environmental planning approaches available to solve specific problems.
While awareness has improved, the environmental conditions of settlements have not. Deterioration is evident not only in the large cities, but also in the smaller urban centres and rural settlements. Unplanned development is damaging the resource base upon which human settlements depend. The damage comes both through excessive use of natural resources, and the polluting effects of the various wastes generated and borne by air and water.
The publication, is the product of a major joint United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and UNCHS (Habitat) project designed to distil available knowledge about the relationship between the natural environment and the built environment and to provide guidelines to planners and decision-makers that would help them use that knowledge in settlements planning management.
The publication, produced jointly by the UNEP and UNCHS (Habitat), is published in three volumes each dealing with separate issues.
Institutionalizing environmental planning and management for
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Environmental considerations in metropolitan planning and
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Environmental considerations in regional planning and management
Towards a Strategy for the Full Participation of Women in all Phases of the United Nations Global Strategy for shelter to the Year 2000
This document reports on the process initiated by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) to promote the role of women in the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000.
It is presented in three parts. The Introduction outlines the general process followed by UNCHS (Habitat) to define and create awareness of women's shelter issues. Part one presents highlights of findings and required actions identified during 1988-1989 at five regional seminars organized by UNCHS (Habitat) and funded by the Governments of the Netherlands and Norway. Part two presents the strategy or plan of action which was developed and recommended by the Interregional Seminar to Promote the Full Participation of Women in all Phases of the Global Strategy for shelter to the year 2000, held at Nairobi, from 4 to 8 December 1989.
60 p. HS/198/90E: ISBN 92-1-131113-6
Roles, Responsibilities and Capabilities for the Management of Human Settlements
At its twelfth session, the United Nations Commission on Human Settlements reviewed a theme paper on the roles, responsibilities and capabilities of governmental and non-governmental sectors in the field of human settlements. This publication is based on the text of that theme paper and has been prepared for the purpose of disseminating the information and the operational conclusions contained in the theme paper to a wider audience of policy-makers, researchers and practitioners in developed and developing countries. It identifies recent policy and institutional innovations in the management of human settlements, in line with the "enabling" strategy adopted by the Commission on Human Settlements at its tenth session and the principles of the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000. Its main focus is the identification of the range of innovations initiated and implemented to improve, through various forms of partnership and cooperation between the governmental and non-governmental sectors, the efficiency of human settlements management, so as to provide an effective, sustainable and equitable response to the settlement need of all income groups.
61 p. HS/199/90E: ISBN 92-1-131117-9