Cover Image
close this bookParticipatory Impact Monitoring - PIM Booklet 2: NGO-Based Impact Monitoring (GTZ, 1996, 38 p.)
close this folder2. NGO-based impact monitoring
View the document2.1 Advantages and obstacles
View the document2.2 Steps in introducing and carrying out NGO-based monitoring of socio-cultural impacts
View the document2.3 Joint reflection workshops
View the document2.4 Facilitating the PIM process

2.4 Facilitating the PIM process

Generally, PIM will be introduced in a group or people's organization on the initiative of the NGO. To a certain extent, therefore, the promoters are responsible for ensuring that group-based impact monitoring works.

For the NGO staff, it should again be emphasized that all of the group-based PIM and most of the impact analysis at the Joint Reflection Workshop is done by the group. The facilitator acts as catalyst. S/he does not tell people how to interpret the results of observation, but if necessary s/he will guide the group by asking questions. For group-based impact monitoring, it is crucially important that the community (not the NGO's field staff ) identifies with the analysis.

You should not risk nipping group-based impact monitoring in the bud due to disagreements. If the group's and the NGO's observations differ, other opportunities should be provided or created for analyzing the content and the causes (e.g., the post-workshop step). If the staff member cannot cope with the conflict of roles, i.e. acting both as facilitator and as NGO representative, other facilitators must be found.

How can PIM be introduced into the self-help group?

Especially at the beginning, it is uncertain whether the idea has been well explained and understood. How do you carry on after the expectations and fears have been identified? To find out what is important, to find observable indicators, to find good observers, to observe, to feed back the results to group meetings - all this is easily said but not so easily done.

The NGO staff involved in PIM will probably have to stay in the village or with the group for several days when introducing the basic steps for the first time. During the first few weeks after setting up the first "draft" of group-based impact monitoring, the observers will need support. Presentation of the findings at group meetings should be facilitated by NGO personnel for the first year at least. How this is done is shown in examples from the field phase given in Booklet 3.

This may seem to be a lot of additional work; but if PIM is introduced when a new project is implemented, when we assume that frequent visits wild be needed in any case, extra visits specifically for PIM will probably be unnecessary. And don't forget: PIM will definitely also help save time because

Action without reflection is a waste of time!

We need the cooperation of other practitioners and thinkers to test and to improve PIM.
If you are implementing and testing PIM in your project area we would be very interested to hear from you. Write and tell us about your experience with PIM.

We are planning to organize more regular and more efficient exchanges, if a substantial number of practitioners continue with the development and adaptation of PIM.

Please write to

Association for Appropriate Technologies
Gheidestral 43
D - 70184 Stuttgart, Germany


German Appropriate Technology Exchange
Postfach 5180
D - 65726 Eschborn, Germany

Thank You