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close this bookExtension of Complex Issues - Success Factors in Integrated Pest Management (LBL - SKAT - SDC, 1997, 102 p.)
close this folder1 Introduction
View the document1.1 The challenge: Extension of a sustainable agricultural practice
View the document1.2 The meaning of ''extension''
View the document1.3 The meaning of ''IPM''
View the document1.4 Methodology
View the document1.5 Structure of this study

1.2 The meaning of ''extension''

Explanations on the Extension Elephant Model

Animate/motivate Encourage individual initiative, develop new organisational forms co-operatively with clients

Educate adults Conduct adult education in the field of awareness building and technical training

Disseminate information Gather relevant information from diverse sources, assimilate and disseminate it

Assist in solving problems Help to promote awareness of existing problems, analyse them, and find solutions

Formulate extension contents and methods Formulate appropriate and relevant extension themes based on research results farmers' experience and ideas Develop "user friendly" methods to apply them in practice

Extension planning Establish extension goals with clients Prepare work plans and materials

Extension evaluation Supervise extension work continually (monitoring, accompanying extension agents) and assess periodically (evaluation)

"Agricultural extension" is a term with many and varying connotations. In the following chapter we introduce our understanding of extension. Two metaphors serve this purpose:

· The "Extension Elephant", that shows the essential roles that should be performed by any extensionist (LBL 1990).

· The "Extension Butterfly", which is a functional extension model (LBL 1993).

We will use the "Extension Butterfly" as a grid on which to organise the subsequent parts of this study.


Figure 1: Roles of an extensionist: The Extension Elephant

The butterfly-extension model

"Successful extension": What do we mean by this?

We consider extension efforts to be successful, if

· there is a reasonable and quantifiable degree of acceptance among the groups (clients) to which they are addressed

· their resources are used efficiently

· they have a broad impact i.e. it is not only a small scale pilot project

· the envisaged impact among clients remains alive over a prolonged period at least for several years i e it remains sustainable

· the result is a process among clients that develops a dynamic of its own, i.e. that spills over and is adapted to similar situations, and/or partly modifies itself overtime in order to adapt to changing external conditions

In agriculture, knowledge and decision-taking capacity determine how production factors - soil, water and capital - are utilised. Agricultural extension is central in formulating and disseminating knowledge, and in enabling farmers to become competent decision makers. Therefore, extension plays an important role in most agricultural projects. Extension in general, or an extension service with the above described functions (Elephant) in particular, is part of a larger system of protagonists who influence farmers' decisions. Such systems are known as Agricultural Knowledge Systems (AKS). The "Extension Butterfly" is a schematic AKS delineating the functions and relationships necessary to improve the utilisation of production factors (LBL 1993).

The butterfly's body is formed by the Extension Elephant, whilst the head stands for relevant policies in a given context. The left wing depicts the interactive triangle between Research, Extension and Farmers as it is known for example from Farming Systems Research. In selected pockets the actors in this triangle find "new things that work". This process is also called "Participatory Technology Development" (PTD), The right wing of the butterfly represents the logistical base. It ensures that required inputs and services are available to farmers on a wide scale. The crucial question is to spread new things that work from the selected PTD pockets to a wider area. This is partly the function of an extension service. Considering time and fund limitations, however, it becomes more and more a task for farmer interactive extension, which is symbolised in the butterfly's abdomen.

The structure of this model has been applied for the analysis of the five IPM projects (compare Annexes) and to get an order to the theses concerning the success factors in extension for IPM (compare Chapter 3.1).


Figure 2: Functional extension model: The Extension butterfly