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close this bookCommunity Approach to Integrated Basic Services Promoting Health and Livelihood for the Urban Poor - UNCHS Pilot Project: Lucknow, Rajkot, Visakhapatnam (Government of India - HABITAT, 1999, 90 p.)
close this folder3. Rajkot City Project
View the document3.1 The City Profile
View the document3.2 Socio-economic Profile of Slums
View the document3.3 Infrastructure Arrangements
View the document3.4 Institutional Arrangements, Management and Finance
View the document3.5 Slum Areas under UNCHS Programme
View the document3.6 Strategies and Activities

3.2 Socio-economic Profile of Slums

The population of the city has always shown a steep rise which is evidenced by the population statistics. A population of 36,000 in the year 1901 rose to 700,000 in the year 1991. By the end of 20th century, it is expected to rise to 900,000.

The UNCHS programme slum survey has shown that in Rajkot, 160,000 people live in 28/000 households in the 74 slums localities. The average household size is 5.71.

The population in the slums varies from one locality to another. The distribution of the slum localities in Rajkot in different ranges of population is given in Table 3.1.


Poor housing, lack of facilities, poverty and illiteracy were widespread prior to the UNCHS programme interventions in Rajkot slums.

Table 3.1 Rajkot Slums - Household Distribution by Range

Households (Ranges)

Slum Pockets (Numbers)

Percentage to Total Slum

>500

8

10.00

501-1000

27

36.48

1001-2000

14

18.90

2001 -3000

13

17.52

More than 3000

12

17.10

Total

74

100.00

Religion and caste play an important role in the social structure of the Rajkot slums. This is normal from the nomenclature itself. Certain slum pockets are known by the caste of its inhabitants. The majority (almost 90 per cent) of the slum dwellers are Hindus, the remaining being Muslims and Christians.

Productivity Stratification

If the capacity to earn and productivity are analysed taking age as a factor, the slum population of Rajkot had the following characteristics. The productive population, i.e. those people who were above 20 but less than 60, is about 53 per cent. The definitely dependent population, i.e. those less than 15 years and those above 60 worked out to about 35 percent. The population falling under the age group between 15 and 19 years is either dependent or productive. This is summarised as follows:

Productivity Stratification of Slum Population

Status

Percentage

Productive

53

Dependent

35

Other

12

Total

100

Education

In Rajkot slums, children below school going age form 8.91 per cent and older children (above 6 years) form 3.67 per cent of the total population. The age group 5-17 pre-dominantly consist of school going children and account for 22.7 per cent of the total population. Primary and secondary education is free of cost. Adult education programmes are being arranged under the UBS project through NGOs.

Slum Housing

Most of the slum population reside either in pucca or semi-pucca houses. About 10 per cent reside in huts made of kutcha (temporary) materials. Generally a house has one multi-purpose room, kitchen and verandah. The roofing material is either local tile or precast slabs. Because of the limited space, no toilet facility is available. To provide sanitation facilities, the RMC has constructed community latrines and surface drainage for disposal of waste water. Underground sewerage is also available in some of the slum settlements. Solid waste generated by the people is being collected and transported regularly through the city's solid waste management scheme. The maintenance of community latrine is a constant and vexing problem because of which the RMC has implemented two programmes, namely:

1. Conversion of community latrines into pay and use toilets
2. Provision of (low-cost sanitation) individual latrines with 80 per cent subsidy from RMC.

The successful implementation if these efforts has had a positive impact on health and hygiene in the slums. The classification of the slum dwelling units according to type of building material is as follows:

Hutment Type

Number

Percentage Total

a) Temporary (Kutcha)

2660

9.5

b) Semi-Permanent

23660

84.5

c) Permanent

1680

6.0

Total

28000

100.00

As indicated above, 94 per cent of the hutments in the slums in Rajkot are built of semi-permanent or temporary (kutcha) material. This indicates the poor condition of the dwellings in slum population.