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close this bookRural Energy and Development: Improving Energy Supply for Two Billion People (WB, 1996, 132 p.)
close this folderChapter four - Options for rural electrification
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentProgress to date
View the documentPricing and financial policies
View the documentCost-effectiveness and the choice of alternatives
View the documentCosts of grid supplies
View the documentReducing initial investment costs by using appropriate design standards
View the documentMicro-grids supplied by diesel generators
View the documentElectricity supplies from renewable energy sources
View the documentRegulatory and price reforms, unbundling, and privatization
View the documentImplication for rural electrification
View the documentApproaches

Reducing initial investment costs by using appropriate design standards

The high initial costs are a major barrier to service extension. but can be reduced appreciably by using design standards suitable for areas with lower demand (once demand rises, standards can be increased). The demands of most rural consumers range from 0.2 kilowatts (kW) to 0.5 kW; however: the minimum service connection ratings in developing-country utilities are typically 3 to 7 kW. which raises costs. For the same reason. the costs of installation and wiring provided by the utility are high. Simplifying wiring codes and using load limiters (circuit breakers) for lower levels of consumption can reduce costs significantly. In addition, using cheaper poles and involving local people in works and maintenance will also reduce service costs. When service is being provided to millions of people, the aggregate of such economies is considerable.