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close this bookRural Energy and Development: Improving Energy Supply for Two Billion People (WB, 1996, 132 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentAbbreviations and acronyms
View the documentExecutive summary
View the documentThe new agenda
View the documentThe role of the world bank
Open this folder and view contentsChapter one - Introduction
Open this folder and view contentsChapter two - The rural energy situation
Open this folder and view contentsChapter three - Emerging practices and policies
Open this folder and view contentsChapter four - Options for rural electrification
Open this folder and view contentsChapter five - Innovations in renewable energy
Open this folder and view contentsChapter six - Cooking fuels: toward more sustainable supply and use
Open this folder and view contentsChapter seven - The role of the world bank group
Open this folder and view contentsAppendix
View the documentNotes
View the documentBibliography

Notes

Chapter One: Introduction

1. The term traditional fuel refers to such fuels as wood, charcoal, agricultural residues. dung. grass. leaves. and other biomass materials using open fires. “three-stone” stoves, and wood and charcoal stoves. These are sometimes also called biofuels. The term modern includes liquid fuels. such as liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and Kerosene, electricity: coal. modern biomass. including improved stoves and bagasse gasification and co-generation and innovative renewable energy technologies. such as those that use wind, solar. and small-scale hydroelectric resources The term commercial energy is sometimes used instead of modern energy.

2. This was a recurrent question members of the World Bank's Board posed during the discussions of the policy papers in 1992 and during a review of progress with these policies in 1994.

Chapter Two: The Rural Energy Situation

3. The term lower-income developing countries refers to the classification in the WDR's statistical annexes. This group had per capita incomes of less than US$695 in 1993.

Chapter Three: Emerging Practices and Policies

1. The distinction between subsidies and financial support is not always clear-cut. Some programs may require subsidies in the short term to absorb start-up costs. but mote than compensate for this by their revenues and profitability in the long-term. The topic is discussed further in relation to rural electrification anti renewable energy.