|Rural Energy and Development: Improving Energy Supply for Two Billion People (WB, 1996, 132 p.)|
Chapter One: Introduction
1. The term traditional fuel refers to such fuels as wood, charcoal, agricultural residues. dung. grass. leaves. and other biomass materials using open fires. three-stone stoves, and wood and charcoal stoves. These are sometimes also called biofuels. The term modern includes liquid fuels. such as liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and Kerosene, electricity: coal. modern biomass. including improved stoves and bagasse gasification and co-generation and innovative renewable energy technologies. such as those that use wind, solar. and small-scale hydroelectric resources The term commercial energy is sometimes used instead of modern energy.
2. This was a recurrent question members of the World Bank's Board posed during the discussions of the policy papers in 1992 and during a review of progress with these policies in 1994.
Chapter Two: The Rural Energy Situation
3. The term lower-income developing countries refers to the classification in the WDR's statistical annexes. This group had per capita incomes of less than US$695 in 1993.
Chapter Three: Emerging Practices and Policies
1. The distinction between subsidies and financial support is not always clear-cut. Some programs may require subsidies in the short term to absorb start-up costs. but mote than compensate for this by their revenues and profitability in the long-term. The topic is discussed further in relation to rural electrification anti renewable energy.