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close this bookQuality Control Guidelines - Fibre or Micro Concrete Tiles (SKAT, 1991, 79 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2. Raw materials
Open this folder and view contents3. Production process
Open this folder and view contents4. End control
View the document5. Further readings
View the documentAnnex 1 - Summary of tests
View the documentAnnex 2 - Preparing sample sand
View the documentAnnexes related

1. Introduction

What are FCR and MCR

FCR (Fibre Concrete Roofing) is a new roof covering technology. It consists of concrete tiles made of cement mortar mixed with a small amount of natural or synthetic fibre. Today many producers have abandoned the use of fibre. This product is called Micro Concrete Roofing or MCR.

The FCR/MCR Toolkit

This guide is one element of the FCR/MCR Toolkit. This kit mediates the entire know-how that is required in the field of the FCR-technology, covering all technical aspects as well as the economical, organizational, management and marketing aspects. The toolkit-diagram shows the structure of its contents. The kit is now (1991) at its development stage. Many elements are already available, other elements exist in a draft version or at least in an outline. The entire kit or elements of it are available from SKAT.

What you will find in this guidelines:

The guidelines provide detailed technical information on how to control and test the quality of the product. It contains a systematic guideline on how to test

· the raw materials
· the production process
· the product.

What you will NOT find in this guidelines:

The guidelines are intended for persons who already know the basics of FCR/MCR or who are already producing FCR/MCR elements. Consequently it does not contain:

· the basic information required for new-comers such as advantages and disadvantages, and guidelines to be considered as first steps towards FCR/ MCR.

It also does not contain:

· rules for the production
· information on production management
· specifications of cost and profit
· information about particular problems in particular countries

If you are interested in basic information we suggest you procure and read the following booklet:

“The Basics of Concrete Roofing Elements. Fundamental Information on the Micro Concrete Roofing (MCR) and the Fibre Concrete Roofing (FCR) Technology for New comers, Decision makers, Technicians, Field Workers and all those who want to know more about MCR and FCR. “ (available free of charge in English, French and Spanish). This publication as well as the FCR/MCR toolkit and further information are available from

Roofing Advisory Service
Tigerbergstrasse 2
CH-9000 St. Gallen
Tel 071 /30 25 85

Objectives of this guidelines

The roof constitutes the most important part of a building and special care has to be taken in preparing the roof and the roofing elements. The best available raw materials should be used and throughout the production process it should be kept in mind that a bad quality roofing product will not only result in a failing roof but may also lead to severe damage to the whole building.

To promote the FCR/MCR technology a product of high and constant quality is required. This is not only needed to gain and maintain a reputable product but also because misinvestments can not be afforded by the low income sector . Therefore, systems of constant quality control and assurance as well as adequate technology transfer and comprehensive dissemination of know-how are important tools in the production process of FCR/MCR. This guidelines are designed for advisory centres and producers, to facilitate the implementation of the necessary tests in a standardised manner. These tests should become a routine part of the production process. The chances of improved production on a broad basis are then increased, benefiting from the well established technological know-how that exists.

The structure of this guidelines

The guidelines are structured on a modular basis, consisting of tests for laboratory use and tests for field (workshop) use. The numbering system (code) allows an easy update at the stage of an eventual later edition in case additional or other tests are to be included. The systematic also corresponds to the Production Guide (Toolkit-Element 22) so that these two guides can easily be used side by side.

The field tests:

Simple tests that can easily be implemented on the workshop level are printed on yellow paper and are numbered with the code x.x.10.

The laboratory tests:

Some tests are too difficult to be reliably implemented in a simple workshop situation. They require higher qualified personnel and also specific equipment. These tests are printed on brown paper and are numbered with the code x.x.20.

Description of tests:

The description of tests contains information about the reasons for testing, the method, the person that should implement and the moment when the test should be carried out. Also information is given about the result to be achieved and the consequences in case the test fails.

The summary:

In the summary all tests are listed with indication of the frequency and the time when the tests should be implemented.

The reporting formats:

The annex contains reporting formats numbered with the code of the related test. They are an important working instrument to maintain proper records. Spare formats for use in the workshop or laboratory you can find in the back-cover.


At the end of this guidelines you find a bibliography with recommended further readings.

Rules for production

Complementary to these guidelines the Production Guide, element 22 of the toolkit, shall be used. It is concipated with a corresponding structure and numbering system and contains the necessary guidelines and rules for the production.

General remarks

For each test it is specified who shall implement it. However, the sole responsibility that the tests are done correctly and at the right time, and also that the records are filled in, should lie with one person (i.e. the head of the workshop). Keep the records for at least five years.

Validity of the figures:
The rules and figures presented in this guidelines are based on a general average. Figures such as the mix to be used, compaction and curing time as well as the test results etc. may vary slightly from place to place. Experience will tell you the exact dates that are valid for a particular workshop.


Comments and feed back information are welcome and will help to further improve these guidelines and with it the technology. They may be sent to SKAT.


We would like to thank all the persons that were helping us with their valuable comments and remarks based on their wide experience. The draft version of these guidelines was field tested in various leading workshops, and their contribution was an important input to guarantee its practical suitability. The following groups participated in this field testing phase:

Development Alternatives, New Delhi
Development and Consulting Services, Butwal, Nepal
Grupo Sofonias, Caribbean
Mateco SA, Peru
Intermediate Technology Development Group, Kenya