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close this bookDesigning Human Settlements Training in African Countries - Volume 2: Trainer's Tool Kit (HABITAT, 1994, 182 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe lecture
View the documentVisual aids
View the documentQuestion and answer
View the documentDiscussion
View the documentDemonstration
View the documentSimulation
View the documentThe case method
View the documentCritical incidents
View the documentRole-playing
View the documentInstrumentation
View the documentBrainstorming
View the documentNominal group technique (NGT)
View the documentForce field analysis
View the documentAction planning
View the documentOther learning transfer strategies
View the documentPerformance analysis & needs assessment
View the documentTraining impact evaluation
View the documentTraining the staff to train
View the documentCoaching
View the documentTeam development
View the documentRole negotiation
View the documentIntergroup conflict intervention
View the documentOrganizational goal setting
View the documentA closing note

Introduction

Ask any experienced trainer and you will be told that good training doesn’t just happen - it’s carefully designed. When we speak of designing training, we mean deciding on the learning resources we intend to use and how we intend to use them to reach our training goals.

Our purpose in this volume is to introduce you to some of the learning resources you can rely on to meet your own training goals. What do we mean by learning resources? Imagine you are a carpenter who has just been hired to build a house for an important client. You are excited. “A house to build, and a big house too,” you say. “That’s great!” However, in a little while, the initial flush of excitement is replaced by something else - a measure of doubt and uncertainty. Maybe you’ve never built a big house before. Where do you start? What materials do you need? What tools? Shouldn’t you have a set of plans before ordering anything? What does the client mean by a “big” house, anyway?

So, what do carpenters and big houses have to do with training? Just this. You might think of the house in our story as a training programme - a big training programme. Likewise, you might think of the resources you need as tools - the tools a carpenter might need for a house-building task. Now you’re beginning to understand why we chose the name “Trainer’s Tool Kit” for this volume.

There are so many tools available to trainers these days that it was hard to know what to include and what to leave out of our tool kit. We have chosen some of the time-honoured techniques used by trainers the world over. We have included a few favourites of our own as well.

Our tool kit is easy to use. Each tool is explained in detail. In many cases, the explanation is followed with a practical demonstration or example of the tools as we or others have used them to enrich a training programme. One caution! While all of these tools are believed to have value in facilitating learning anywhere in the world, the specific examples we have used to explain them may not have. Given this possibility, you should consider our examples as guidelines for making up tool kits of your own - with tools that will be understood and accepted easily by the people who will be attending your programmes.

LEARNING EMPHASIS

Before you open the tool kit, we want to share some of our assumptions about adult learning and how these assumptions relate to the tools in the kit. You may recall from the case study presented in Volume I of Designing Human Settlements Training in African Countries that we subscribe to the idea of learning as a multi-staged process consisting of three steps or areas of learning emphasis: (a) presenting, (b) processing, and (c) applying. In other words, learning begins when someone is exposed to a new idea and ends when the idea is internalized and put to use in the form of a new skill or behaviour. The first step, presenting, involves conveying or generating new information through lectures, discussions, demonstrations, coaching, brainstorming and the like. If the process stopped at this point, however, training would be little more than fun and games.

Next, participants engage in processing or reflecting on and practising with new ideas in the relatively safe training environment. Role-playing, the case method, critical incident analysis, team development, role negotiation and other techniques can help people think about and become intellectually committed to new ways of thinking and doing things. However, even this is not enough to bring about real learning. If training is going to transfer from the training environment to a participant’s daily work routines, steps must be taken while participants are still in training, to help them think about and plan for the application of what they have been learning. Force-field analysis, learning contracts, training trainers and application checklists can help with this important transition phase.

ORGANIZATIONAL FOCUS

We also subscribe to the notion that learning is a process that occurs within a single individual but that it can affect the behaviour of groups and whole organizations as well. While some training tools focus principally on groups of learners - lectures, case studies, and role playing, - others, like coaching, training trainers, and learning transfer focus principally on individual learners. A third group of tools, including instrumentation, performance analysis, impact evaluation, intergroup interventions and organization goal setting, can be used to facilitate learning on a multi-group or organization-wide scale.

On the next couple of pages you will find two diagrams. In the first diagram, the 23 learning tools presented in the tool kit are shown in relation to the three stages of learning described above: presenting, processing and applying. In the second diagram, the same tools are presented in relation to their usefulness for facilitating learning in individuals, groups and organizations. Each of the tools is shaded according to the area of learning emphasis and organizational focus it supports: black = “mostly used for;” gray = “somewhat used for;” and white = “seldom used for.”

It’s time to open the tool kit. May it serve you well, and - good training to you!


Presenting

Processing

Applying

Lecture




Visual aids




Question and answer




Discussion




Demonstration




Simulation




Case method




Critical incident




Role-playing




Instrumentation




Brainstorming




Nominal group




Force field analysis




Action planning




Learning transfer




Perf anal and needs assess




Training impact evaluation




Training the staff to train




Coaching




Team development




Role negotiation




Intergroup conflict interv




Organizational goal setting





Mostly


Somewhat


Seldom


Individual

Group

Organization

Lecture




Visual aids




Question and answer




Discussion




Demonstration




Simulation




Case method




Critical incident




Role-playing




Instrumentation




Brainstorming




Nominal group




Force field analysis




Action planning




Learning transfer




Perf anal and needs assess




Training impact evaluation




Training the staff to train




Coaching




Team development




Role negotiation




Intergroup conflict interv




Organizational goal setting





Mostly


Somewhat


Seldom