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close this bookKerala: Radical Reform as Development in an Indian State (FF, 1994, 140 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the document1. Introduction to the 1994 printing
View the document2. The land of coconuts
View the document3. Kerala's achievements
View the document4. Behind Kerala's success
View the document5. Food for all
View the document6. Health
View the document7. Education
View the document8. Land reform
View the document9. Helping workers
View the document10. Overcoming caste
View the document11. Women and the Kerala reforms
View the document12. Lessons from Kerala
View the documentNotes
View the documentNotes to the introduction
View the documentBibliography
View the documentInstitute publications
View the documentAbout the institute

Notes

1. Some scholars prefer co derive the name from Chera, an ancient south Indian empire. Menon 1984:9.

2. Computed from GOK 1989:36.

3. World Bank 1988:222 and GOK 1986.

4. A brief overview of Dravidian culture in the context of general Indian history can be found in Wolpert 1982; more details in Sastri 1966.

5. Menon 1984:1-244.

6. Other adjustements included ceding of Tamil-speaking areas to the state of Tamil Nadu to the ease and south of Kerala.

7. Details of Kerala's complicated and fragmented party structure are provided in Nossiter 1982; Nossiter 1988; and Sathyamurthy 1985.

8. Nossiter 1988.

9. GOK 1985:1.

10. Seligson 1984:38-88 gives a sampling of these approaches with a detailed bibliography.

11. The most influential study in this area is probably Schultz 1964. See also Mosher 1966 and 1969.

12. The classic paper is Kuznets 1955. A recent example from India is Westley 1986.
13. Sereeten et al. 1981.

14. Webster 1984:34.

15. Lipton 1977, 1988.

16. Schumacher 1973; Webstet 1984:169-187.

17. Seligson 1984:95-282 gives examples of dependency and world syseems theory and critical responses to it.

18. Cereseto and Waitzkin 1988. The authors of this article contrasted one hundred capitalist countries with thirteen socialist counties and ten recent revolutionary countries grouped into five income categories on ten major development indicators.

19. Nossiter 1988: 74-76.

20. Sathymaurthy 1986:183, 197, 238.

21. Sathymaurthy 1985:315; Nossiter 1982:258; Nossiter 1988:99.

22. Menon 1988:5.

23. Kannan 1988:24.

24. Mencher 1966a.

25. Menon 1984:45-53.

26. Wolf 1969.

27. Tharian and Tharakan 1986; Kannan 1988:51.

28. Two autobiographies of Kerala Communist leaders are Namboodiripad 1976 and Nayanar 1982. Both are from former high caste and very wealthy families and both could have led privileged lives had they not gone into radical politics. E. M. S. Namboodiripad, for example, sold his portion of his family's extensive land holdings upon receiving his inheritance in 1940 for the then phenomenal sum of 70,000 rupees and donated the money to establishing a publishing company for the workers' movement (1976:197). He has since led an economically austere life. Namboodiripad was the chief minister in 1957-1959 of the first elected Communist government in Kerala and is now the all-lndia leader of the Communist Party Marxist (CPI-M or CPM). Nayanar became chief minister of Kerala following the March 1987 electoral victory of the Left Democratic Front, led mainly by the CPM. The main outside history of the Kerala Communist movement is Nossiter 1982.

29. Personal communication from a participant.

30. UN 1975:41.

31. Sathyamurthy 1985:394. Seven other Indian states currently have school lunch programs, but Kerala's has been the most extensive and consistent in the country. Subbarao 1989:32.

32. UN 1975:43; GOK 1988:88.

33. UN 1975:41; GOK 1989:97.

34. Gwatkin 1979:248; Subbarao 1989: 25-26.

35. Sathyamurthy 1985:176.

36. Gwatkin 1979:249.

37. GOK 1989:15.

38. George 1971:181-187.

39. GOK 1988:17-19.

40.UN 1975:43,48.

41. Grant 1988:66.

42. Jeffery 1988:131; World Bank 1988, tables 7 and 29. The 2,400 minimum comes from the FAO as cited in UN 1975:31.

43. UN 1975, chapter 2.

44. Mencher 1980:1789; Panikar 1980.

45. Kumar and Stewart 1987:4; Mahadevan and Sumangala 1987:40.

46. A good summary of the current debate is contained in Messer 1986. 47. Cited in Kumar and Stewart 1987:3. Kerala reduced the rate of severe malnutrition from 4.8% in 1975-79, already the lowest of any Indian state, to 1.5% in 1982, ranking it second to West Bengal which achieved a rate of 0.0%. The third best state was Tamil Nadu with 5.2%. Kerala ranked first and way above all other states with 31.8% "normal" in weight for age by international standards in 1982. See Subbarao 1989:13.

48. Panikar and Soman 1984:65-70. Older children and teenagers, however, are shorter and smaller in Kerala than in most other states, but not enough to be statistically significant.

49. Panikar and Soman 1984:58. The precise definition of unfit is not given.

50. UN 1975:196; Panikar and Soman 1984:59; GOK 1988:81; ICSSR 1983:8994.

51. Menon 1988:35.

52. Panikar and Soman 1984:50,123. We do not have comparable data for Cochin and Malabar, the other two major regions that combined with Travancore in 1956 to create Kerala State.

53. Grant 1988:68; Panikar and Soman 1984:60; GOK 1988:217-218; GOK 1989:89.

54. Kannan and Pushpangadan 1988:A125- A126.

55. Panikar and Soman 1984:49-50.

56. Panikar and Soman 1984:34; ICSSR 1983:103.

57. Panikar and Soman 1984:39; UN 1975:141-145; Grant 1989:82-89. 58. GOK 1985:13-14.

59.UN 1975:139.

60. GOK 1989:83; ICSSR 1983:108; Mahadevan and Sumangala 1987:36.

61. GOK 1989:122.

62. Mencher 1980; Basu 1986; Mahadevan and Sumangala 1987.

63. Krishnan 1976:1219; Ronyer 1987:463.

64. Nair 1974; Panikar 1975; Ratcliffe 1977:136.

65. Mahadevan and Sumangala 1987:39.

66. Rouyer (1987:463) found that 70 percent of the variance in birth rates among Indian states could be accounted for by these three factors combined.

67. Ratcliffe 1977:139. His suggestion of a role for declining opportunities for child labor has yet to be confirmed. The specific effects of the land reform on family size decisions have also to be demonstrated.

68. Zachariah 1983a:15.

69. Ratcliffe 1977:140. Emphasis in original. This approach is also described in Lappe and Schurman 1988.

70. Mencher 1980:1781-1782.

71. Cited in Nag 1989:418.

72. Nag 1989:418.

73. Mahadevan and Sumangala 1987:145-146.

74. Pillai 1981, 1984.

75. Nair 1983:4.

76. Nair 1983:10.

77.Nair 1983:17.

78. Nair 1983:28-33, 36, 71.

79. Nair 1983:43, 46, 72.

80. Kannan 1988:35-88.

81. Mencher 1966.

82. Isaac 1983.

83. Kannan 1988:127-134; Mahadevan and Sumangala 1987:36.

84. Sathyamurthy 1985:382-420.

85. Continuing conflict between church and secular state leftist governing parties is noted recently in the New York Times, 18 October 1988, p. 4.

86. Nair 1979:85-90.

87. Sathyamurthy 1985:409-411; Isaac and Ekbal 1988.

88. Nair 1983:106-109.

89.Jeffrey 1987.

90. Murickan 1975:73.

91. Nag 1989.

92. A detailed examination of each provision of the 1957 proposed act appears in Paulini 1979:241-252; of the 1963 watered down version, pp. 257-260 and 267-272; and of the eventual 1969 Kerala Land Reform Amendments (Act) that became the main land reform in practice, pp. 292296.

93. UN 1975:65.

94. Cited in United Nations 1975:58; Herring 1983:161.

95. Namboodiripad 1984:77.

96. Herring 1980:A67; Mukherjee 1979:6-9.

97. Survey by Joan Mencher, which we analyzed for our village study to be published in the future.

98. UN 1975:71; Herring 1980:A60. Detailed reviews of the consequences in one village are given in Chasin 1988 and Franke 1988a.

99. Herring 1983:188-189.

100. Herring 1989.

101.Sathyamurthy 1985:146-150.

102. Sathyamurthy 1985:151-152; Miller 1976:147.

103. Kannan 1988:119.

104. Sathyamurthy 1985:152- 158,166,176.

105. Sathyamurthy 1985:225.

106. Herring 1983:180-216 details the intricate political, legal, and on-the-ground battles surrounding the culmination of the land reform act and its implementation.

107. Kannan 1988:10.

108. Kannan 1988:283.

109. Kannan 1988:258 and 263; UN 1975:87; Westley 1986:318. 1974 is the latest year for which we have been able to locate the appropriate comparative wage figures.

110. Computed from Kannan 1988:286.

111.Nossiter 1988:105;GOK 1988:89.

112. GOK 1989:98.

113. Rajeev 1983:58.

114. GOK 1988:12-13.

115. Mencher 1980:1783.

116. These data on traditional caste behaviors were derived from Fuller 1976, Iyer 1909, Mathew 1986, Mencher 1980a, and Unni 1959. Readers will recognize the effects of caste ideas on English language usage. We sometimes speak of a person being an "outcast" or a "pariah." The term "pariah" is actually the (south Indian) Tamil word for one of the untouchable castes in the Madras region. North Americans sometimes also refer to members of the rich New England elite as "Boston Brahmins."

117. Iyer 1909 [1981]:122.

118. Mathew 1986:101-102; Saradamoni 1980:148.

119. Mathew 1986:104.

120. Jeffrey 1978:152-153.

121. Gough 1970:149.

122. Mencher 1980a:280.

123. GOK 1988:89; 1989:99.

124. Mathew 1986:106.

125. Mathew 1986:140.

126. GOK 1988:90; 1989:99.

127. GOK 1989:99.

128. Mathew 1986:146.

129. Sivanandan 1976 and 1979.

130. Gough 1970.

131. Joshi 1986:2.

132. Joshi 1986:2; See also Cultural Survival 1989.

133. Joshi 1986:137.

134. Nossiter 1988:191.

135. Charlton 1984; ISIS 1984; Mukhopadhyay 1984; Nelson 1979; Rogers 1980; Sen and Grown 1987. The special problems of women agricultural laborers in Kerala have been discussed in detail by Mencher 1980 and 1982; Mencher and Saradamoni 1982; and Saradamoni 1982 and 1983. Additional research on women in Kerala appears in Gulati 1984.

136. Miller 1981, 1982; Harris and Ross 1987.

137. Charlton 1984:36; Das Gupta 1987; Agarwal 1986:170-180.

138. GOK 1987:73; See also Saradamoni 1981:41-43.

139. Murickan 1975:72.

140. GOK 1984:93-95; Murickan 1975 77.

141. Calculated from GOK 1984:85.

142. Mencher and Saradamoni 1982:153.

143. Jain, Sing, and Chand 1982:8. P. M. Mathew 1986 gives a detailed picture of the process for Kerala.

144. Mencher 1966; Namboodiripad 1976:92-104.

145. Gough 1961; Fuller 1976.

146. Saradamoni 1983:52.

147. Menon 1984:329-331 lists the acts and their dates. Jeffrey 1976 details the breakup of Nair taravads in Travancore.

148. Mies 1980;88-89; Mencher 1962.

149. Indian Express, 5 April 1987; see also Visvanathan 1989.

150. New York Times, 15 January 1989, p. 4.

151. Ibid.

152. ICSSR 1983:162 and 211.

153. Murickan 1975:84.

154. Liddle and Joshi 1986:137-141 give all-India examples of women's restricted mobility.

155. Kannan 1988:260-262.

156. This point has been forcefully argued in Mencher 1980.

157. Menon 1987:5, 8-11.

158. Grant 1988:28-29.

159. Grant 1988:25.

160. Grant 1988:28.

161. New York Times, 20 December 1988, p. 1; Grant 1989:1.

162. GOK 1988:7, 75; 1989:81, 87.

163. New York Times, 20 December 1988, p. 6.