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close this bookKerala: Radical Reform as Development in an Indian State (FF, 1994, 140 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the document1. Introduction to the 1994 printing
View the document2. The land of coconuts
View the document3. Kerala's achievements
View the document4. Behind Kerala's success
View the document5. Food for all
View the document6. Health
View the document7. Education
View the document8. Land reform
View the document9. Helping workers
View the document10. Overcoming caste
View the document11. Women and the Kerala reforms
View the document12. Lessons from Kerala
View the documentNotes
View the documentNotes to the introduction
View the documentBibliography
View the documentInstitute publications
View the documentAbout the institute

Notes to the introduction

1. We gathered some of the information for this introduction during a December 1992-January 1993 visit to Kerala. We acknowledge travel funding from the Montclair State University Global Education Committee and the Dean of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences.

2. Franke 1993:197.

3. Franke 1993a:360.

4. GOK 1994:50.

5. Howes and Jha 1992; Mooij 1994, especially pages 123-124.

6. Mooij 1994:119.

7. Geeeha and Suryanaraya 1993:2207.

8. GOK 1994:21. Kerala model critic K. K. George (1993) argues that the state is spending toc much of its potential development investment resources on subsidies for consumption. M. A. Oomen (1993:208) takes a similar position. 9. Franke 1993:219-221; cf Franke 1993a

10. Soman 1992:86; Kumar 1993a.

11. Soman 1992:86.

12. We computed the 1990 figures from George and Nandraj 1993:1673 and 1674. India overall had 70 hospital beds per 100,000 in 1990, showing the high urban bias outside Kerala (World Bank 1993:208). Various sources report widely ranging figures on hospital beds per 100,000 depending on whether they refer to rural, rural and urban, private or private and government combined.

13. India Abroad 13 December 1991, page 32.

14. We could not locate a Kerala state figure, but for all-India, 88% of pregnant women are anemic. This means they have a hemoglobin level of below 110 grams per liter of blood (World Bank 1993:197 and 204). India's figure is the highest of any country for which data are presented.

15. K. C. Zachariah 1992:111-41.

16. Rajan and lames 1993:1890.

17. K. C. Zachariah 1992:111-43.

18. GOK 1994:119 and World Bank 1993:208.

19. Kumar 1993:108; Kannan et al 1991.

20. Quoted in Kumar 1993:115-116; see also Rajan and James 1993.

21. Kumar 1993:116 citing Murray and Chen.

22. Kannan et al 1991.

23. Mencher 1991.

24. Mari Bhat and Rajan 1990; K. C. Zachariah 1992.

25. Franke 1993:237.239.

26. K. C. Zachariah 1992:1V-3.

27. K. C. Zachariah 1992:V-1.

28. Bose 1991:67. This book, pages 12 and 48, gives the 1981 female literacy as 66%. The reason for the discrepancy is that the Indian literacy statistics were recently revised to reflect only persons over age 7. In the text of this introduction we use the two figures that are appropriate to compare to each other

29. Gulati 1990:341.

30. GOK 1990:111.

31. Franke 1993:180-183.

32. Franke 1993:192. In 1993, the number of agricultural labor pensions rose to 341,000 (GOK 1994:144).

33. Pillai 1992:68.

34. Pillai 1992:80.

35. Pillai 1992:76 and 78.

36. GOK 1993:120.

37. Pillai 1992:67.

38. S. Guhan 1993:1802.

39. Pillai 1992:80.

40. Premi 1991:4445; Nath 1991:2149.

41. Kumar 1989:519 and 524.

42. Oldenburg 1992:2660.

43. Cited in Harris (1981:134) In 1989, the most recent year for which we could obtain crime statistics, Kerala had 524 murders, about 1.5% of India's total of 34,844 murders for that year (NCRB 1991:183). This puts Kerala's rate at just below half its percent of India's population.

44. K. C Zachariah 1992:VIII-18.

45. K. C. Zachariah 1992:VIII-11 and 12.

46. K. C. Zachariah 1992:VIII-4 to 8.

47. Gargan 1993.

48. NCRB 1991:183.

49. This problem is compounded by Kerala's high unemployment. It is further compounded by the statistical effects of die practice of men marrying women about 5 years their junior. This is explained in detail in Billig 1992.

50. K. C. Zachariah 1992:VII-4.

51. See Billig 1992:210.

52. Jeffrey 1993:273 and 1994:549.

53. Jeffrey 1993:217.

54. Jeffrey 1993:218.

55. Computed from Isaac 1992:24.

56. Franke 1993:165.

57. Franke 1993:266-272.

58. Isaac 1992:32.

59. Isaac 1992.

60. Isaac 1992:21.

61. Isaac 1992:39. The 45% figure includes Iraqi produced oil and oil from the former USSR that came through Iraqi pipelines also closed to India by the embargo.

62. Introductions to the Ayodhya crisis and its aftermath, appear in Bidwai, Praful, Democracy at risk in India, The Nation, January 25, 1993, pages 84-88 and Gopal Sarvepalli, editor, Anatomy of a Confontation: Ayodhya and the Rise of Communal Politics in India. London: Zed Press. The Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 25(4), 1993, is devoted entirely to aspects of the Ayodhya crisis with special emphasis on the role of women in Hindu extremism and among its opponents. The horror of the Bombay killings and the role of the police appear in many Indian newspaper accounts and are summarized in Gargan Edward A. 1993. Tnust is tom police role in Bombay riots. The New York Times 4 February 1993.

63. Nair, C. 1992:122.

64. Indian Express 2 January 1993.

65. Indian Express 25 December 1993.

66. Elections in several central and northem states in November 1993 also indicate declining support for Hindu religious parties and a concomitant belief among the poorest Indians that their interests lie with socialist and reform' oriented parties.

67. See especially pages 7, 26-27, 61, 84-85 and 104 of this book. A detailed analysis of the 1991 elections and the general record of the 1987-1991 LDF ministry appears in Isaac and Mohana (1991). The authors of that article- veteran LDF activists-suggest the parallel with the 1957 ministry.

68. The KSSP is described in Isaac and Franke (1994) and Zachariah and Sooryamoorthy (1994).

69. Tharakan 1990.50

70. Gupta 1991:77. The New York Times missed the story. Their account (Crossette 1990) makes the literacy program appear to be the brainchild of Ernakulam District Collector K. R Rajan. While Rajan deserves much credit for his active support of the campaign, KSSP is the true creadng and implementing organization.

71. Gupta 1991:80. K. K. George (1993:129) suggests that Kerala use its widespread literacy and educational facilities to "be a pioneer in the 'Postmodern' skill and knowledge intensive industries." This would be a different kind of new Kerala model.

72. Centre for Science and Environment 1982:149.

73. Centre for Science and Environment 1985:123. Isaac and Franke (1994) cite other studies showing additional harmful effects of breathing the smoke from cooking fires.

74. Isaac and Franke 1994 provide more details on this program.

75. Unnikrishnan 1992.

76. Chattopadhyay, Srikumar et al. 1991.

77. Gangadharan 1993.

78. Bello 1994:68.

79. Bello 1994; Nash 1994.

80. Bello 1994:2.

81. UNDP 1992:1, 36, and 98.

82. UNDP 1992:7.

83. World Bank 1993:238 and 276-277.

84. Wimberley 1991:406.

85. Wimberley 1991:419.

86. Nash 1994:7.

87. Kaplan 1994.

88. Attali 1991:84.

89. Attali 1991 73-75 and 12.

90. Bowles, Gordon, and Weisskopf 1990 223. Business Week has also discovered the harmful effects of inequality on the U.S. economy. Their cover story (15 August 1994) summarizes several recent studies showing that job grows in U.S. cities is greater where levels of inequality are lower.

91. The New York Times, 8 January 1994:A39.

92. French 1994:158.

93. World Bank 1993:210.