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close this bookEffective Educational Practices (IAE - IBE - UNESCO, 2000, 24 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe International Academy of Education
View the documentPreface
View the documentIntroduction
View the document1. Parent involvement
View the document2. Graded homework
View the document3. Aligned time on task
View the document4. Direct teaching
View the document5. Advance organizers
View the document6. The teaching of learning strategies
View the document7. Tutoring
View the document8. Mastery learning
View the document9. Co-operative learning
View the document10. Adaptive education
View the documentReferences
View the documentThe International Bureau of Education - IBE


This booklet on effective educational practices has been adapted for inclusion in the Educational Practices Series developed by the International Academy of Education and distributed by the International Bureau of Education and the Academy. As part of its mission, the Academy provides timely syntheses of research on educational topics of international importance. This booklet is the third in the series on educational practices that generally improve learning.

I originally prepared the material in this booklet for the generic section of the Handbook of research on improving student achievement, edited by Gordon Cawelti, and published in a second edition in 1999 by the Educational Research Service (ERS). The Handbook, which also includes chapters on subjects such as mathematics and science, is available from ERS (2000 Clarendon Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22201-2908, United States of America; telephone: (1) 800-791-9308; fax: (1) 800-791-9309; e-mail:; and web site:

ERS is a not-for-profit research foundation serving the research and information needs of educational leaders and the public. Established in 1973, ERS is sponsored by seven organizations: the American Association of School Administrators; the American Association of School Personnel Administrators; the Association of School Business Officials; the Council of Chief State School Officers; the National Association of Elementary School Principals; the National Association of Secondary School Principals; and the National School Public Relations Association. As Vice-President of the IAE and Series Editor, I express the gratitude of the Academy's officers to ERS officials who have allowed us to make the material adapted from the Handbook available to educators in many countries.

For their review of the material in this booklet. I thank Professors Lorin Anderson, Jere Brophy and Margaret Wang, and fourteen of my doctoral students. Any shortcomings of this booklet are attributable to me.

I also thank my co-author, Susan Paik, for helping to adapt the material in my Handbook chapter for this booklet intended for educators in various parts of the world. Susan is a doctoral candidate at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where she has taught. As a volunteer, she has participated in projects in Africa, Asia, Central America, Europe and the United States. She has presented her research at Oxford University in the United Kingdom, the University of Cape Town in South Africa, and at professional meetings in Australia, South America and the United States. In Chicago, she founded and directed a character-development programme for inner-city youth.

The officers of the International Academy of Education are aware that this booklet is based on research carried out primarily in economically advanced countries. The booklet, however, focuses on aspects of learning that appear to be universal in much formal schooling. The practices presented here seem likely to be generally applicable throughout the world. Even so, the principles should be assessed with reference to local conditions, and adapted accordingly. In any educational setting, suggestions or guidelines for practice require sensitive and sensible application, and continuing evaluation.

Editor, IAE Educational Practices Series,
University of Illinois at Chicago.

This publication has been produced in 2000 by the International Academy of Education (IAE), Palais des Acades, 1, rue Ducale, 1000 Brussels, Belgium, and the International Bureau of Education (IBE), P.O. Box 199, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.

It is available free of charge and may be freely reproduced and translated into other languages. Please send a copy of any publication that reproduces this text in whole or in part to the IAE and the IBE. This publication is also available on the Internet in its printed form, see:

The authors are responsible for the choice and presentation of the facts contained in this publication and for the opinions expressed therein, which are not necessarily those of UNESCO/IBE and do not commit the organization. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO/IBE concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

Printed in Switzerland by PCL, Lausanne.