|Effective Educational Practices (IAE - IBE - UNESCO, 2000, 24 p.)|
The practices described in this booklet can generally be applied to classroom subjects in primary and secondary schools. They show large, positive learning effects for students in widely varying conditions. Educators may find the many references valuable in investigating the applicability of the practices in their particular circumstances. As with all educational practices, of course, they can be effectively or ineffectively planned and conducted, and the results may vary accordingly.
The research on these practices has accumulated over half a century. Several of the major references used are studies conducted by my colleagues and myself. These studies compiled the results of research summaries and synthesized several hundred investigations of educational practices by many scholars. The practices were further investigated by analysing large national and international achievement surveys. Much of the research employed examinations covering the facts and principles of the usual or predominant academic subjects. The research is less pertinent to art, music and athletics, subjects that may have a more behavioural and less academic emphasis. Nor did the research concentrate on such aspects of learning as writing, problem-solving and completing laboratory projects. Research on these subjects and skills may be found in the references and elsewhere, and the Academy may sponsor booklets on these matters.
As mentioned above, the practices in this booklet are generally powerful and consistent in promoting important aspects of academic learning. Some other practices are nearly as good. For further reading on many effective practices, the following works may be consulted: Hus& Postlethwaite, 1994; Lipsey & Wilson, 1993; Walberg, 1984; Walberg & Haertel, 1997; Wang, Haertel & Walberg, 1993b; and Waxman & Walberg, 1999.