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close this bookTutoring (IAE - IBE - UNESCO, 36 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe international academy of education
View the documentSeries preface
View the documentIntroduction
View the document1. Real-life goals
View the document2. Question and prompt
View the document3. Check and correct errors
View the document4. Discuss and praise
View the document5. Reading: support and review
View the document6. Writing: map and edit
View the document7. Mathematics: make it real and summarize
View the document8. Recruit and match partners
View the document9. Provide training and materials
View the document10. Monitor and give feedback
View the documentConclusion
View the documentReferences and further reading
View the documentBack cover

4. Discuss and praise

Discuss, praise and summarize/review

Research findings

Discussion leads tutees to actively process information and develops deeper understanding, rather than just learning facts by rote.

Praise is a powerful form of feedback, especially if it comes from someone with whom the tutee has a good relationship. Research has clarified ways to make praise especially effective.

A summarizing discussion should come at the end of the tutoring session. Reviewing the most important things that have been learned will help the tutee remember. This review discussion also leads naturally into planning what you might do in the next session (see Booklet 1 in this series; Brophy, 1981; Good & Brophy, 1995; Topping & Ehly, 1998).

Practical applications

· Discuss. The questioning mentioned in Chapter 2 and the promotion of self-correction mentioned in Chapter 3 should lead into elaborated discussions. These will help to establish deeper and wider understanding in the tutee - and perhaps also in the tutor!

· Praise. Most tutors do not praise their tutees as much as they think they do. Most tutors also criticize their tutees more than they think they do. Try to observe your own tutoring behaviour carefully. Tutoring is a private situation that should be within a context of trust. Embarrassment about giving and receiving praise publicly should not be a problem. So give more praise!

· When to praise. Praise for success with particularly hard problems or tasks. Praise for self-correction. Praise for increasing time-span without error. Praise for effort as well as success when the tutee is struggling. Praise ‘better efforts’ even if still not quite right. Praise increasing tutee independence. At the end of the session, give praise for the whole session. Write some praise on any record of the session.

· Effective praise. Praise specifying the reason for it - say exactly what the tutee has done well. Vary the praise - use as many different praise words as you can think of. See if your tutee can think of some more! Praise as if you mean it - sound and look pleased! Smile, at least.

· Summarize/review. At strategic points during the tutoring session, and certainly at the end of it, ask the tutee to summarize or review the key or main points that have been learned. You might be surprised at what they think are the main points. You might need to remind them of one or two important things, which they already seem to have forgotten. Have a final discussion and agree about the main points. Do not try to cram in too many ‘main’ points. This is all good preparation for the review or recapitulation that should start your next session.

The next three chapters (5 to 7) give more specific principles and advice about how to tutor in reading, writing and mathematics.