|Tutoring (IAE - IBE - UNESCO, 36 p.)|
Support the tutee through challenging text and discuss and review to ensure understanding
There is no doubt that tutoring in reading can be effective (Cohen, Kulik & Kulik, 1982; Fuchs & Fuchs, 1998; Wasik & Slavin, 1993). However, structured methods tend to be most effective.
The advice given here is based on the model of Duolog Reading, a specific structured form of paired reading. This is one of the most extensively researched of educational interventions. There are several major reviews of the many studies in the research literature (Topping, 1995, 2001; Topping & Lindsay, 1992; Topping & Whiteley, 1990). Review of multiple unselected project evaluations in one large school district will also be found here. This gives a more realistic indication of real-world effectiveness, which is still impressive. Most of these studies are outcome studies, measuring improved reading skills in a variety of ways. A substantial number involved control or comparison groups. There is also evidence of enduring gains at follow-up (Topping, 1992). Studies show that the method tends to result in: fewer refusals (greater confidence); greater fluency; greater use of the context; greater likelihood of self-correction; fewer errors (greater accuracy); and better phonic skills.
In a recent review of the effectiveness of twenty interventions in reading (Brooks et al., 1998), Duolog reading ranked as one of the most effective. One or two other methods produced more spectacular results, but only with very small numbers of children. By contrast, Duolog reading has been demonstrated to be effective with thousands of children in hundreds of schools in many countries. Tutors and tutees can be trained in the method in a short space of time. It can be used with any reading material available, and so is very flexible and cost-effective.
· Select material. Have the tutee chose any reading material of high interest to them. Difficulty should be above the tutees independent readability level, but not above the tutors.
· Read together. Support the tutee by both reading all the words aloud together. Adapt your reading speed to exactly match that of the tutee. The tutee must read every word.
· Correct errors. When the tutee reads a word wrong, just tell the tutee the correct way to say the word. (Do not give clues, or the flow of reading will be interrupted.) The tutee must repeat it correctly. Then you continue. Always correct all errors this way, and no other way.
· Pause. However, do not jump in and put the word right straight away. Pause and give the tutee four seconds. If they put it right by themselves (self-correct) in this time, there is no need to interfere. (However, with a reader who rushes, you might need to pause for less time, and finger point back to the error word).
· Agree on a signal for reading alone. Agree on a way for the tutee to signal to stop reading together, for when the tutee wants to read an easier section without support. This signal could be a knock, a sign or a hand squeeze. The tutor must stop reading together immediately at the signal.
· Return to reading together. Sooner or later while reading alone the tutee will make an error, which they cannot self-correct within four seconds. Correct the error (as above) and join back in reading together.
· Continue. Go on like this, switching from reading together to reading alone, to give the tutee just as much help as they need at any moment, but no more. Reading together will still be needed as the tutee moves on to harder and harder books.
· Praise. Praise your tutee for: good reading of hard words; signalling for reading alone; reading alone correctly for longer; getting all the words in a sentence right; and self-correcting. Try to use a variety of different praise words, and look pleased.
· Review. Talk about the book. Why it is interesting? Talk about the meaning of difficult words. What were the main ideas in the book? In what order?