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close this bookAPPEAL - Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE) - Volume 1: Continuing Education: New Policies and Directions (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 115 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentChapter 1: The Context of Continuing Education
View the documentChapter 2: The Relationship Between Formal Education and Continuing Education
View the documentChapter 3: The Present Status of Continuing Education
View the documentChapter 4: ATLP-CE: Its Origin, Scope and Development
View the documentChapter 5: An Infrastructure for Continuing Education with Special Reference to Learning Centres
View the documentChapter 6: Strategies for Implementing Continuing Education Programmes - Administrative Aspects
View the documentChapter 7: Clientele, Delivery Systems and Learning Resources for Continuing Education
View the documentChapter 8: Guidelines for Setting Up or Strengthening Continuing Education Programmes
View the documentChapter 9: A Training Curriculum for Continuing Education Personnel
View the documentAnnex: List of Participants

Chapter 7: Clientele, Delivery Systems and Learning Resources for Continuing Education

A. Introduction

The various types of continuing education programmes defined and briefly outlined in Chapter 6 each has its own characteristics in regard to target clientele, its delivery system (modality) and the resources required. This chapter identifies these characteristics, presenting them in a checklist format.

By clientele is meant the people for whom the programmes are intended. In the case of Post Literacy Programmes, for instance, the clientele are likely to be those who are only basically literate and school dropouts and semiliterate adults will probably form the largest groups. Such people generally lack advanced reading skills, frequently are unemployed or are otherwise socially disadvantaged, and usually have low incomes. It is important to define and characterise the clientele in this way in order to plan the most appropriate delivery system or modality for them and determine the types of resources they need.

By delivery system or modality is meant the mode by which the programme is presented perhaps in a classroom type setting using various face-to-face teaching methods, through a correspondence course or through individual self-monitored study. Delivery systems may also involve more specialized and less conventional approaches. For example, in Income Generating Programmes, hobby groups could be established, on-job training provided or exhibitions and product or trade fairs mounted, to name just a few of the possibilities. The modality selected must be suitable for the clientele involved and for the types of activities to be included in the programme. As an example, in the case of future oriented programmes where the clientele are likely to be people who need help with implementing change, delivery systems which ensure access to new knowledge and technologies are likely to be successful.

By «resource» is meant the personnel needed; the learning materials; support items such as venues, furnishings and equipment, and administrative resources such as record keeping systems. Each type of continuing education programme has its own resource needs consistent with its objectives and scope.

Apart from the issue of «types of programmes» as defined and described in Chapter 1 and Chapter 6 there is another type of classification of continuing education activities which should be taken into consideration when reviewing clientele; delivery systems and learning resources. This classification, based on a model developed by G. Roger Snell, is given in figure 7.11.

1 Snell, G. Roger The Providers Perspective for Research on Life-long Learning Paper presented as part of a symposium entitled: «Research Perspectives on the Adult Years of Life-long Learning», AERA Annual Meeting, March 27-31,1978, Toronto, Canada. P.2.

Figure 7.1 A classification scheme for continuing education activities. (Based on G. Roger Snell, 1978). Note that as defined order APPEAL, continuing education clients include both adults and post-primary school youth.

Figure 7.1 shows that adult learning opportunities (i.e. continuing education activities) can be thought of either as being (a) deliberately planned with learning objectives in mind or (b) as random or unplanned. Most unplanned learning in incidental or at least casual and without clear-cut objectives. More deliberately planned experiences and activities may occur in formal, non-formal or informal education. They are of two types: (AI) those provided by the learner himself or herself or by an informal self-initiated learning group; and (A2) those provided by an agent (institution, organisation, person) other than the learner. Self-provided learning opportunities (At) include learning projects2 that are planned and directed by a learner or group of learners with minimal outside assistance. Learning opportunities provided by others (type A2) include courses, programmes and other organized activities planned and directed by someone other than the learner or the learning group, by some formal or non-formal educational institution, or by some basically non-educational institution (e.g. business or industry) and by groups with a designated teacher or resource person. This idea was also discussed in Chapter 5 - see figure 5.1.

2 As defined by Tough, Allen The Adult’s learning projects: a fresh approach to theory and practice in adult learning. Research in Education Series No. 1. Toronto, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1971.

The importance of these ideas by Roger Snell is that they open our thinking about the range of continuing education activities away from programmes and courses alone. This idea is fully consistent institutionally based with the UNESCO concept of a learning society in which all agencies are seen to be instrumentalities for learning.

This type of classification of continuing education activities should be kept in mind when interpreting the checklists presented below in sections B to G of this chapter. Some of the programme types may contain some random unplanned elements in balance with more that are deliberately planned. Some of the deliberately planned activities within a particular programme type may be provided by the learners themselves and some by others. Delivery systems and resources, therefore, have been kept flexible and varied to cater for these various approaches.

B. Post Literacy Promotion Programmes (PLPs)

Since these programmes are mainly to strengthen and build on basic literacy skills the most appropriate delivery systems will have some features in common with those for literacy training activities as covered by ATLP. In addition, however, the approach taken and the resources required should cater for individual differences and should promote self-initiated learning, self-pacing and reduced dependency on formal teaching.

In the checklist below contact sessions, self-learning and distance learning are noted as possible delivery systems. In the case of the contact sessions it is important to stress that the methods must be appropriate for the clientele and for the purpose of the programme. For example, face-to-face sessions should not involve conventional «from the front» teaching but should be based on group activities, peer tutoring, supervised self-paced learning and so on. Most of the activities in the types of programmes are highly structured and are usually, but not always, the responsibility of formal or non-formal education.



1.1.1 People only basically literate
1.1.2 School dropouts
1.1.3 Semi-literates


1.2.1 Lack advanced reading skills
1.2.2 Are disadvantaged/unemployed
1.2.3 Belong to low income groups


1.3.1 Contact session (Face-to-face)
1.3.2 Self-learning
1.3.3 Distance Learning
1.3.4 Mixed approach - i.e. combinations of 1.3.1 to 1.3.3


1.4.1 Graded/programmed learning materials
1.4.2 Teachers/Tutors/Facilitators
1.4.3 Support learning facilities and equipment
1.4.4 Mastery tests
1.4.5 Multi-media materials
1.4.6 Diagnostic materials
1.4.7 Individualized records

C. Equivalency Programmes (EPs)

Equivalency programmes form a somewhat specialized category of continuing education since they generally seek the same types of outcomes as the formal system but do so by alternative means. In some countries, equivalency programmes are thought of very flexibly to include alternative ways of obtaining any form of certification or accreditation within the formal non-formal or even the informal subsectors. In other countries they are limited to alternative ways of achieving a specified level of formal education only. Some equivalency programmes therefore are very broad in scope and others may be confined to only one subsector. An example of a single subsector equivalency programme, in this case the university subsector, is the system of «life» credits allowed by a particular network of colleges in the United States. In this example work in the informal subsector receives credit for degrees and diplomas awarded by the formal subsector. Probably the most common types of equivalency programmes however are those which provide alternatives to formal primary and secondary schooling.



2.1.1 Literate adults seeking formal qualifications by alternative means
2.1.2 Primary school graduates
2.1.3 High school dropouts


2.2.1 Are employed
2.2.2 Are out-of-school youths/adults
2.2.3 Are ambitious and self-motivated
2.2.4 Are seeking accreditation for employment and/or promotion
2.2.5 Cannot or are unwilling to attend formal education


2.3.1 Contact session (Face-to-face)
2.3.2 Self-learning
2.3.3 Distance learning
2.3.4 Counselling programmes
2.3.5 Mixed approach, i.e. combinations of 2.3.1 to 2.3.4


2.4.1 Graded/programmed learning materials
2.4.2 Teachers/tutors/facilitators
2.4.3 Learning support facilities and equipment
2.4.4 Mastery tests
2.4.5 Multi-media materials
2.4.6 Diagnostic materials
2.4.7 Individualized records
2.4.8 Standardized tests
2.4.9 Acceptance certificates
2.4.10 Certification body/authority
2.4.11 Curriculum materials for specific equivalency programmes or courses of study
2.4.12 Guidance and counselling materials

D. Income-Generating Programmes (IGPs)

Delivery systems for these types of programmes are very varied and can be provided through the formal, non-formal and informal subsectors. Certainly most of the activities would be self initiated with the learning objectives set by individual participants. An important dimension, however, is the need to support the programme by a good counselling and advisory service. Advocacy is also important and field CE consultants should be alert to identify potential providers and to encourage participation by individuals seeking to generate income.



3.1.1 Employed, seeking extra income or self-fulfillment

3.1.2 Prospective entrepreneurs

3.1.3 Those seeking re-training or alternative jobs

3.1.4 Specific groups seeking extra or basic income, e.g. women, housewives, unemployed, students/dropouts, minority groups; handicapped, etc.

3.1.5 Members of co-operatives


3.2.1 Are youths and adults at varying levels of literacy with specific interests/needs
3.2.2 Are highly motivated to improve their life situations


3.3.1 Contact sessions (Face-to-face)
3.3.2 Self-learning
3.3.3 Distance learning
3.3.4 Mixed approaches of 3.3.1 to 3.3.3
3.3.5 Apprenticeship programmes
3.3.6 Workshops
3.3.7 Interest groups
3.3.8 Hobby groups
3.3.9 «Sandwich» courses
3.3.10 Study tours/visits
3.3.11 On-the-job training
3.3.12 Guidance and counselling
3.3.13 Co-operative programmes
3.3.14 Exhibitions/fairs
3.3.15 Project-based learning
3.3.16 Sheltered workshops for the handicapped
3.3.17 Entrepreneurship training


3.4.1 Outputs/products of IGPs
3.4.2 Facilities/tools/equipment
3.4.3 Raw materials
3.4.4 Expertise/resources
3.4.5 Training materials
3.4.6 Individual logbook/diaries
3.4.7 Local case studies
3.4.8 Information on changing world of work
3.4.9 Resources for managing income wisely

E. Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIPs)

Since the focus in these types of programme is on upgrading the living standards and life styles of all citizens to at least an acceptable level of development, the clientele obviously includes all youth and adults. A key aspect is that the scope of the programme, the types of delivery systems and the resources provided should be consistent with national development plans. The programme should penetrate all levels and all subsectors of the community. Every citizen should have ready access and this implies the development of local community based delivery points and of varied activities to satisfy the needs of all categories of society.



4.1.1 All youths and adults in developing societies


4.2.1 Are literate?
4.2.2 Include categories of people with specials needs in relation to development plans.


As in 1.3 but delivered through the following:

4.3.1 Community development actions/approaches
4.3.2 Campaigns for improved living
4.3.3 Cultural activities
4.3.4 Networks of community consultants
4.3.5 Contests and competitions
4.3.6 Learning Centres
4.3.7 Ideal models of lifestyle and standards


4.4.1 Appropriate reading materials
4.4.2 Mass media
4.4.3 Community groups
4.4.4 National development plans/programmes
4.4.5 Religious institutions
4.4.6 Reading centres, libraries, community halls, and so on

F. Individual Interest Programmes (llPs)

In many respects programmes which cater for the individual interests of adults and which promote their personal development should be the main core of any system of continuing education. Personal development and the development and interests should occur throughout life. Because the activities under this programme, and hence the clientele, delivery systems and resources, are almost limitless in potential and scope, the cumulative output contributes very considerably to the overall educational development of the society and hence to its economic development.

Individual interest programmes are always undertaken to meet specific learning objectives determined by the learners. Providers, on the other hand, must be sensitive and responsive to patterns of interest in the community and be willing to offer what participants need and want.



5.1.1 All youths and adults


5.2.1 Are literate
5.2.2 Are specifically motivated


5.3.1 All types


5.4.1 According to individual interests and wants

G. Future Oriented Programmes (FOs)

While all activities under continuing education cause change (growth) in individuals, groups and organisations and in society as a whole and therefore have a future orientation, special programmes should be provided which focus on the nature, agencies and processes of change itself. Their aim should be to facilitate planned change for a better world. The main clientele are therefore those needing to change or are involved in change or who are in a position to affect change. The delivery systems should have a future perspective and orientation and the resources needed should be forward looking. Future oriented programmes could be provided by the formal, non-formal and informal subsectors but the latter probably has a major role. Activities could be structured or unstructured and structured activities could be either self or provider initiated.

Future oriented programmes have a key role to play in both human resource development and economic development as they provide inputs which ensure meaningful and effective growth.



6.1.1 All youths and adults
6.1.2 Organizations and institutions
6.1.3 Publishers and other producers of communication materials
6.1.4 Managers, planners community leaders
6.1.5 Change agents


6.2.1 Are literate
6.2.2 Have a scientific attitude
6.2.3 Include individuals and organizations needing to change or involved in change
6.2.4 Have leadership potential


6.3.1 R & D systems
6.3.2 Seminars/comparative studies
6.3.3 Information networks/communication research
6.3.4 Futures study systems
6.3.5 Exchange systems
6.3.6 Study visits/cross national studies
6.3.7 Expositions
6.3.8 Computer systems
6.3.9 Industrial/commercial training systems
6.3.10 Organizational renewal systems
6.3.11 Programmes of scientific literacy/philosophy of science
6.3.12 Life planning programmes based on analysis of values and trends
6.3.13 Innovation projects
6.3.14 Think tanks


6.4.1 Products of think-tanks and of future studies
6.4.2 Research literature
6.4.3 Science and technology centres
6.4.4 Case study materials
6.4.5 Satellite communication resources
6.4.6 Electronic media resources, computers, and computers software
6.4.7 Arts and cultural centres
6.4.8 Museums
6.4.9 Mass media
6.4.10 Up-to-date books/references
6.4.11 Science fairs/clubs
6.4.12 Simulation and scenario materials
6.4.13 Data banks

H. Conclusion

In Volume 10 of the ‘UNESCO ATLP series of books it was argued that the path from illiteracy to the emergence of a learning society passes through well defined growth stages. Lifelong learning is the vehicle for affecting this growth. Since continuing education, by definition, is the provision of opportunity for life-long learning, continuing education is the key to the emergence of a learning society. This chapter has highlighted the need to provide a variety of programmes catering for different categories of clientele, rich and varied delivery systems, and effective resources for continuing education. Since in a true learning society, all societal agencies become educational outlets, fostering variety in delivery and encouraging more and more categories of providers, is a key aspect of implementing programmes of continuing education. In this way the elements of the learning society gradually fall into place and contribute effectively to both human and economic development.