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close this bookAPPEAL - Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE) - Volume 1: Continuing Education: New Policies and Directions (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 115 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentChapter 1: The Context of Continuing Education
View the documentChapter 2: The Relationship Between Formal Education and Continuing Education
View the documentChapter 3: The Present Status of Continuing Education
View the documentChapter 4: ATLP-CE: Its Origin, Scope and Development
View the documentChapter 5: An Infrastructure for Continuing Education with Special Reference to Learning Centres
View the documentChapter 6: Strategies for Implementing Continuing Education Programmes - Administrative Aspects
View the documentChapter 7: Clientele, Delivery Systems and Learning Resources for Continuing Education
View the documentChapter 8: Guidelines for Setting Up or Strengthening Continuing Education Programmes
View the documentChapter 9: A Training Curriculum for Continuing Education Personnel
View the documentAnnex: List of Participants

Chapter 8: Guidelines for Setting Up or Strengthening Continuing Education Programmes

A. Introduction - General Procedures

In setting up programmes of continuing education the following general procedures need to be undertaken:

1. Determine the needs to be met by the programme and carefully define the characteristics of the groups for whom the programme is intended.

2. A management system must be established to implement and monitor the programme.

3. A delivery system must then be organized. That is institutions, agencies and individuals who could provide courses and activities within the programme must be selected or established and brought together in a coordinated system.

4. All types of relevant personnel need to be recruited including managers, trainers of trainers, field consultants, presenters and so on.

5. A programme of training for all categories of personnel then needs to be planned and implemented.

6. All resources such as personnel, facilities and materials such as meeting venues, teachers, training manuals, and non-print learning materials have to be mobilized at points of delivery. This mobilisation, in the main, would be at local level.

7. Existing activities (courses etc.) relevant to the programme need to be identified and supported using the resources mobilized. If some aspects of the programme are inadequate new additional activities may have to be designed and implemented.

8. A system for evaluating the effectiveness of the programme then needs to be developed. This system may involve the organization of short and longer term impact studies.

B. Procedures for Specific types of Programme

The precise procedures would differ for each type of continuing education programme. The following types, defined and discussed in previous chapters (especially chapters 1, 6 and 7), would each have their specific procedures.

1. Post-literacy Programmes (PLP)
2. Equivalency Programmes (EP)
3. Income Generating Programmes (IGP)
4. Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIP)
5. Individual Interest Improvement Programmes (DIP)
6. Future-Oriented Improvement Programmes (FO)

These procedures would vary according to the purpose of the programme, the range or variety of agencies and activities involved, the types of resources needed and so on. For example, needs analysis (step 1) for a programme of post-literacy would almost certainly involve a survey of the numbers of people and their socio-demographic characteristics at defined levels of literacy whereas needs analysis for IGPs would probably have to be based on labour market studies.

The following pages list the key procedures for setting up for each of the six types of programmes in tabular form (table 8.1).

Table 8.1 Implementation Procedures for Six types of Continuing Education Programmes


I. Post-literacy Programmes (PLPs)

II. Equivalency Programmes (EPs)

1. Determine needs/target groups.

1.1 Survey numbers of people and their socio-demographic characteristics at defined levels of literacy.

2.1 Survey numbersreaching each standard of formal education.

2. Establish management system.

1.2 Establish/identify and support provincial and local management committees

2.2 Establish rules/regulations and a system for accreditation at all levels.

3. Organize delivery systems.

1.3 Identify, establish and/or strengthen appropriate delivery systems drawing from the strengths of the basic education system.

2.3 Identify/recruit and accredit institutions which could offer equivalency programmes.

4. Recruit CE personnel.

1.4 Re-train ATLP personnel in CE and recruit additional personnel capable of developing advanced reading skills, e.g. formal school teachers.

2.4 Select teachers, supervisors and other required personnel.

5. Develop a training Programme for CE personnel.

1.5 Train post-literacy personnel in advanced reading, in the techniques of learning how to learn and in related skills.

2.5 Conduct orientation programmes for equivalency personnel.

6. Mobilize resources especially at local level.

1.6 Identify and mobilize local personnel, facilities, materials and others resources.

2.6 Identify and mobilize personnel, facilities, equipment and other resources; and develop a recording system for accreditation.

7. Design new and/or identify existing CE programmes.

1.7 Strengthen and expand existing post-literacy programmes to meet emerging needs.

2.7 Strengthen and expand opportunities for equivalency and accreditation programmes.

8. Plan programme evaluation.

1.8 Plan an evaluation system for assessing progress And for monitoring impact.

2.8 Evaluate standards, achievements and impact.


III. Income-Generating Programmes (IGPs)

IV. Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIP)

1. Determine needs/target groups.

3.1 Conduct a labour market study.

4.1 Identify QL indicators of the country; conduct/review sample studies of QLIP statues for different groups.

2. Establish management system.

3.2 Establish/strengthen networks for IGPs at all levels.

4.2 Identify and recruit institutions/individuals which offer QLIP activities; ensure local participation.

3. Organize delivery systems.

3.3 Establish an inventory of institutions and agencies offering IGPs; encourange and support new providers of IGPs; establish/strengthen counselling services.

4.3 Support institutions/individuals offering QLIPs.

4. Recruit CE personnel.

3.4 Identify and accredit agencies and individuals; appoint vocational counsellors.

4.4 Identify, support and co-ordinate social service agencies and individuals fostering QLIPs.

5. Develop a training programme for CE personnel.

3.5 Train IGP instructors in adult learning, work/practice, marketing, and linking with industries; train counselling staff in vocational guidance.

4.5 Support respective agencies and individuals which are providing QLIPs in (i) adult learning, (ii) QL indicators, (iii) and approaches to effective implementation.

6. Mobilize resources especially at local level.

3.6 Co-ordinate providers of IGP and at local level.

4.6 Co-ordinate providers of QLIPs and develop a network.

7. Design new and/or identify existing CE programmes.

3.7 Motivate community participation in generating new programmes and in strengthening IGPs.

4.7 Encourage development agencies to be involved, and strengthen QLIPs at all levels, especially at community and family level.

8. Plan programme evaluation.

3.8 Plan for short- and long -term

4.8 Monitor and evaluate the programme for sustaining improvement; plan a long term strategy for monitoring overall impact on quality of life improvement in general.


V. Individual Interest Programmes (IIP)

VI. Future-Oriented Programmes (FOs)

1. Determine needs/target groups.

5.1 Conduct local interest surveys.

6.1 Undertake trend analyses of change over time.

2. Establish management system.

5.2 Establish a co-ordinating committee which collects and disseminates information on all available interest programmes.

6.2 Establish a Future-Oriented body to stimulate and co-ordinate CE development (e.g. a Commission for the Future).

3. Organize delivery systems.

5.3 Stimulate/create the development of wide range of delivery systems as possible catering for individual interests.

6.3 Identify, establish and support development agencies which could offer future-oriented CE.

4. Recruit CE personnel.

5.4 Assign field consultants to assist providers in organizing programmes.

6.4 Assign planners, organization renewal experts, policy makers and R & D personnel to work with individuals and organizations in CE.

5. Develop a training programme for CE personnel.

5.5 Train field consultants in effective intervention strategies, networking, etc.; orient co-ordinating committees.

6.5 Conduct consultative meetings, seminars and the like for defined target groups; provide training in R & D and its dissemination.

6. Mobilize resources especially at local level.

5.6 Provide a mechanism for information dissemination.

6.6 Provide mechanism for an information network and develop resources for renewal activities.

7. Design new and/or identify existing CE programmes.

5.7 Encourage and support a wide range of providers; encourage volunteerism.

6.7 Stimulate the development of techniques and systems for organizational and personal development; encourage the organization of expo’s, and other ways of disseminating new ideas and developments.

8. Plan programme evaluation.

5.8 Evaluate extent of programme offerings and degree of participation; conduct case studies.

6.8 Evaluate the programme’s impact against national development indicators and perspective; encourage impact studies on individuals and organizations.

C. Interactive Aspects

The setting up of each of the six types of programme should be viewed in the context of the general infrastructure for Continuing Education reviewed and discussed in Chapter 5. In particular each programme should be developed within the framework established by the National Coordination Committee and each should emerge as a result of the implementation strategies and the delivery mechanisms outlined in Chapters 6 and 7.

An important point is that as the classification of types of continuing education programmes adopted by ATLP-CE is somewhat arbitrary, there are inevitable overlaps in terms of purpose and scope and therefore in establishment procedures. Also not all types of programmes have been included within ATLP-CE e.g. high level professionally oriented programmes at, say, post-doctoral standard. ATLP-CE has focused mainly on the immediate continuing education needs of developing countries.

Another significant point is that the various types of programmes should be viewed as components of an overall system of continuing education. They do not stand alone and must be seen to be both mutually interactive and to have complementarity with the formal, non-formal and informal educational approaches and with all other relevant agencies of the society. (Figure 8.1).

Figure 8.1: The six types of continuing education programmes are interactive and have complementarity with all aspect of education and other societal agencies

All six types are functional in that they involve the development of functional knowledge. The functional knowledge is used as a motivator and delivery emphasis with the aim of making learning relevant to living and working. The functional relationships between the six types of CE programmes are show in the following figure (Figure 8.2)

Figure 8.2: The six types of continuing education

Vertical dotted lines at the bottom left-hand side of the diagram show the extent to which regression is possible. In the first five types from left to right a neo-literate may relapse into complete illiteracy by dropping out or because of lack of motivation. This is less likely in the case of equivalency programmes because these involve carefully graded steps and usually learners are strongly motivated.

The irregular pathway with the single directional arrow towards the bottom of the figure shows that in all types of CE, with the exception of equivalency programmes, there is a possible drift backwards and forwards between illiteracy and literacy. One of the major challenges for continuing education is to minimize this drift.

Figure 8.2 also shows that all six types of continuing education are available as parallel alternatives after the achievement of basic literacy. Theoretically any one learner could follow all six alternatives at the same time, although in practice this would be highly unlikely. The possibility of cross-over from programme to programme, however, is indicated in the diagram (figure 8.2) by the lines with double-headed arrows which pass from vertical column to vertical column.

As mentioned previously (Chapter 1 Section D) many Member States combine aspects of various types of programmes into a single programme. For example most so-called equivalency programmes include elements of post-literacy, income-generation and quality of life improvement. Programmes mainly concerned with post-literacy also emphasise income generation and perhaps individual interests. But since each type has its own characteristics they have been treated in this volume as though they are separate programmes.