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close this bookAPPEAL - Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE) - Volume 1: Continuing Education: New Policies and Directions (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 115 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentChapter 1: The Context of Continuing Education
View the documentChapter 2: The Relationship Between Formal Education and Continuing Education
View the documentChapter 3: The Present Status of Continuing Education
View the documentChapter 4: ATLP-CE: Its Origin, Scope and Development
View the documentChapter 5: An Infrastructure for Continuing Education with Special Reference to Learning Centres
View the documentChapter 6: Strategies for Implementing Continuing Education Programmes - Administrative Aspects
View the documentChapter 7: Clientele, Delivery Systems and Learning Resources for Continuing Education
View the documentChapter 8: Guidelines for Setting Up or Strengthening Continuing Education Programmes
View the documentChapter 9: A Training Curriculum for Continuing Education Personnel
View the documentAnnex: List of Participants

Chapter 9: A Training Curriculum for Continuing Education Personnel

A. Retraining of ATLP Personnel

As discussed in Volume 10 of the UNESCO ATLP series literacy levels are steadily improving in most countries of Asia and the Pacific and infrastructures and personnel once needed for basic literacy activities can gradually be diverted to continuing education. This general transition is illustrated in figure 9.1 (Figure 3.2 ATLP Volume 10)

Figure 9.1: Changing roles of the Literacy Trainer, Teacher or Facilitator for Continuing Education

Under ATLP three levels of literacy personnel were identified and it is suggested in ATLP Volume 10 that these levels remain for continuing education but with changed roles (see figure 9.2 which is a reproduction of figure 5.1 from ATLP volume 10).

The changes in emphasis would be as follows (Volume 10 ATLP).

1. Level A - senior administrators and policy-makers. Level A personnel under ATLP are those individuals who make policy and plan and implement the literacy training system for their country. As a country approaches universal literacy, new roles would need to be added and some previous roles phased out. However, many of the roles would remain but would have a different orientation. As the demands for literacy training decline, the altered roles should become more significant and dominant and would focus on promoting and implementing continuing education.

Figure 9.2: The Reorientation of the Three Levels of Training Proposed by ATLP to Cater for Continuing Education

Types of level A personnel for continuing education would include the following:

1. Senior educational managers
2. Educational planners
3. Socio-economic planners
4. Human Resource planners
5. Senior managers in non-government agencies

2. Level B - provincial/district supervisors and trainers of trainers. The ATLP system assumes that a cadre of high-level professional supervisors and trainers will emerge to operate in key locations throughout a country. Today, most of these people, while skilled in catering for the needs of adults, must continue to focus on basic literacy training. However, as this need is met and as basic literacy becomes universal, their roles must change. This implies that a systematic restraining programme will be required. In some countries that are well-advanced in achieving universal literacy, this restraining is needed immediately for large numbers of Level B personnel. In countries primarily concerned with basic literacy, smaller proportions of Level B personnel need immediate re-training, but the proportional effort given to this re-training should be systematically increased as literacy levels improve. At first, there may be two categories of Level B personnel. The first category would remain entirely involved in the work of the basic literacy programme and the second could have dual responsibilities in literacy and in the newly emerging area of continuing education. At a later stage, a third category of Level B personnel could emerge and gradually become predominant, that is, personnel concerned only with continuing education.

Under continuing education the following types of level B personnel would need training:

1. Trainers of trainers
2. Resource developers
3. Field consultants
4. Consellors and guidance officers
5. Members of provincial CE management committees
6. Evaluators

It is also likely that the training provided would need at least to some degree, to cater for personnel concerned with different types of continuing education such as post-literacy work, quality of life improvement, or promotion of individual interests.

3. Level C - teachers and field consultants in continuing education. There is a need for two types of Level C personnel. The first would provide extensive training for neo-literates to foster their continuing development towards autonomous learning. Others could be the providers of specialised programmes such as quality of life improvement or income-generating programmes. The second category would have a more general and broader community role, functioning as field consultants throughout the community to promote and foster growth in the provision of opportunities for life-long learning. Both types of level C Personnel would need to be trained by level B following the national guidelines developed at level A.

The categories of continuing education personnel to be trained at this level would include the following.

1. Field consultants
2. Local counsellors and guidance offices
3. All types of providers, especially lay teachers and volunteers
4. Tutors
5. Facilitators
6. Monitors
7. Instructors
8. Motivators
9. Change agents

B. An Exemplar Competency Based Training Curriculum for Continuing Education Personnel

In the sections which follow, the broad outlines of a competency based training curriculum for continuing education personnel at levels A, B and C are presented. The curriculum is based on a scalar analysis of the likely duties and tasks (competencies) required by the types of personnel listed above in part A of this chapter.

Several points need to be made about the organisation of the exemplar curriculum.

1. The description of each duty and competency has been kept very general. Each educational system would need to interpret and define the scope of each competency according to its own needs and circumstances.

2. The layout of the curriculum for each level as a series of equal sized boxes or cells indicates that a modular approach is advocated. That is within each curriculum grid the training time required for each competency is the same.

3. Time frames for training would vary from level to level. Also the amount of time needed for the total training and hence for each cell would vary according to (i) depth of training required (ii) local needs and (iii) resources and personnel available. In the case of level A about one day of training would be required for each module (cell); for levels B and C perhaps two or three days would be needed for each cell.

4. The cells or modules of each grid could be developed either as single training modules for self-study; as a full set of modules for self-study or as chapters in a training manual. For level A a self-study approach is advocated. For levels B and C group work based on a minicourse approach would probably be bests1.

1 See Meyer G. Rex «the development of minicourses (With a basis in educational technology) for the in-service education of teachers and trainers», PLET Vol. 16 No. I February 1979 pp. 23-37.

5. The training design developed for each cell should be based on the systems approach That is each module should consist of INPUT - PROCESS - OUTPUT (IPO) activities arranged in a sequence. They should be activity based and learner oriented. For details of this approach readers are referred to Volumes I and 2 of the UNESCO/PROAP ATLP series.

6. The learning sequences in these types of training curricula are not as strict as in the case of a literacy training curriculum (ATLP Volume 1). This is because the learning steps are not so carefully defined. The duties are listed in the first column and the tasks or competencies for each duty are arranged in a logical sequence in each row. To a fair extent, however, each cell (competency) could stand alone and the sequence and scope of the training could be determined according to the needs of trainees. For those experienced in the area of continuing education some cells could be omitted. For those with inadequate background additional cells could be added as required.

7. Each competency grid could also be used as a self-diagnosing checklist for all relevant personnel. Those who feel they need more training in one or more specified competencies could seek training in those areas.

8. An important feature of the grids for levels B and C personnel is that the competencies are grouped under (i) general duties and (ii) special duties associated with each of the six types of programme outlined and discussed in Chapters 1 and 6 to 8. For level A only general duties are prescribed. This implies that at levels A, B and C all personnel should undertake training for all the general duties but that level B and level C personnel also need specialized training. Ideally all trainees should develop all competencies associated with all of the six types of continuing education programmes. In some systems, however, specialised personnel may be recruited for particular types of programme only. For example, in Thailand there are different teams involved in post-literacy, equivalency and quality of life programmes. These teams would only need to be trained in the general duties and competencies plus the duties and competencies relevant to their particular speciality.

9. In interpreting the curriculum grids for levels B and C it is important to appreciate that general competencies (e.g. curriculum design, materials development and so on) are not repeated within the lines of specialised duty. Only those additional competencies directly relevant to the specialized duty are listed. This implies that the training for general competencies should be illustrated by examples from the various specialities e.g. the general curriculum design cell for level B (cell B1.2) should refer to the specialised curriculum needs of all six types of programme. If certain of these examples are not relevant to particular trainees they could be omitted from their training workshops.

C. The Training Curriculum for Level A

(a) General Aspects. Since level A personnel are senior policy makers at top levels of management the training should be entirely self-directed and self paced. Each unit or module should be self-contained and at the most, should involve no more than one day of training.

(b) The Training Grid. The training grid for level A personnel is set out below (table 9.1). Only three major duties have been identified. As this level must determine overall policy and implement a complete system, specialized duties relating to the six types of continuing education programme are not necessary. At the conclusion of the training level A personnel should be able to:

(i) Determine a national policy for continuing education integrated with national socio-economic development plans.

(ii) Plan, implement, monitor and evaluate the continuing education system.

(iii) Undertake forward planning for the future development of continuing education consistent with emerging societal trends.

Table 9.1 A Modular Training Curriculum for Level A Personnel









Integrate CE with National Development Plan

Understand concepts and principles of CE

Assess and strengthen the present CE system

Integrate CE with National Plans

Advocate acceptance of CE by central agencies

Plan, implement, monitor and evaluate CE programmes

Assess and strengthen CE coordination

Prepare planning implementing and evaluation guidelines

Mobilize human and financial resources

Anticipate challenges for socio-economic and tech. change

Acquire humanistic values essential for CE

Undertake policy analysis for CE

Undertake comparative studies of CE systems

Undertake visits to review application of theory

Initiate action oriented research in CE

Initiate impact studies

(c) Notes on Each Cell. Thirteen competencies have been identified for level A.

Brief comments are provided on each.

A.1.1 Understand concepts and Principles of CE. Includes knowledge and understanding of the definition and scope of continuing education and of its various modalities.

A.1.2 Assess and strengthen the present CE system. This unit should provide guidelines for assessing the present level of development of CE; for comparing this with various ideal models and with practice in various countries, and for identifying areas needing support, or areas needing new initiatives.

A.1.3 Integrate CE with national plans. CE should be seen as a vehicle for human resource development and as a main factor in guiding and energizing socio-economic development.

A.1.4 Advocate acceptance of CE by central agencies. Policy procedures and methods for promoting awareness of the nature and role of CE among all relevant government and non-government agencies at national level should be considered. The idea of the learning society should be stressed, especially in regard to the roles of agencies other than the Ministry of Education.

A.2.1 Assess and Strengthen CE Coordination. This unit should provide guidelines for assessing and strengthening the degree of coordination between all national agencies. Various mechanisms for coordination should be reviewed, including networking.

A.2.2 Prepare Planning, Implementation and Evaluation Guidelines. Methods of ensuing that development plans, implementation procedures and evaluation procedures are appropriate and effective need to be reviewed. Guidelines for a CE infrastructure should be presented.

A.2.3 Mobilise human and financial resources. Guidelines for general training policies need to be established and methods of identifying, mobilizing and strengthening resources should be reviewed.

A.3.1 Acquire humanistic values essential for CE. The philosophical basis of CE needs to be reviewed with special reference to human resource development. CE should be seen as a force for both personal and societal development. The ideal of lifelong learning should be stressed and its relationship to the evolution of a learning society should be reviewed.

A.3.2 Undertake policy analysis for CE. This unit should develop those critical, analytical and conceptual skills necessary to anticipate the challenges and demands of the community arising from modem technological change. Responsibilities and responses of CE in this regard should be examined.

A.3.3 Undertake comparative studies of CE systems. Guidelines for international and internal comparative studies should be provided with the purpose of determining, analysing and adapting those features most appropriate for the country.

A.3.4 Undertake field visits. Guidelines need to be established for undertaking field studies, both internationally and nationally, for reviewing the application in practice of CE theory.

A.3.5 Initiate Action Oriented Research in CE. In particular, guidelines should emerge for planning and improving CE programmes in response to changing values at the family level, with the aim of enhancing social and economic growth.

A.3.6 Initiate Impact Studies. The nature and role of impact studies in CE should be reviewed. In particular skills should be developed in the broad methods of assessing the impact of CE on social, economic and technological change in local communities and of assesing their overall impact on national development.

D. The Training Curriculum for Level B

(a) General Aspects. Level B has to make operational the policies and general strategies determined at level A. Its main roles are to implement an infrastructure, train personnel, develop and promote resources and monitor and supervise the work of level C. In this curriculum both general and specialized duties need to be addressed. There are 13 general competencies and 17 specialized competencies in this grid. Ideally all level B personnel should develop all competencies but electives according to specialisation remain a possibility.

(b) The Training Grid. The curriculum grid for level B personnel is given below in table 9.2. Four general duties and six specialized duties relating to the six types of continuing education programme have been included. At the end of the training programme level B personnel should be able to:

(i) plan the organization and administration of an effective CE system at provincial level.

(ii) plan an infrastructive for CE at provincial level.

(iii) develop a training programme for Level C.

(iv) develop guidelines for promoting, monitoring and evaluating any of the six types of CE programmes.

(v) identify methods for promoting advanced reading skills.

Table 9.2 A Modular Training Curriculum for Level B Personnel










Train Level C Personnel

Needs analysis

Design curriculum

Materials development

Design training activities

Establish linkage

Foster links between agencies involved in CE

Mobilize resource & agencies for CE

Publicize CE in the province

Provide a community-wide consultancy service in CE

Monitor & evaluate

Monitor & supervise Level C

Evaluate & report work of Level C

Undertake research including impact studies

Staff development

Integrate HRD into CE programme

Organize CE programme


Organize Post-literacy programme in the province

Develop curriculum in advanced reading

Promote reading centres


Support equivalency programmes in the province

Prepare equivalency programme and rules

Organize equivalency tests

Advocacy for equivalency programmes


Promote IGP

Analyze labour market

Develop guidelines for marketing products

Promote entrepreneurship

Develop guidance and counselling services for IGP


Promote QLIP

Promote parent education & personal development

Promote positive social values & attitudes


Promote opportunity for individual interests

Develop guidelines for establishing learning centres

Organize special programmes for individual interests


Strengthen future-oriented programmes

Identify and strengthen growth points

Utilize the outcome of Think-Tanks

Utilize R & D results in CE programmes

Disseminate up-to-date information

(c) Notes on Each Cell. Thirty competencies have been identified for Level B. Brief notes have been provided on each.

B1.1 Needs analysis. Level C personnel should understand how to undertake needs surveys and level B personnel require training in how to develop these techniques at Level C. Needs should be seen in both the short and long term and across all types of CE programmes.

B1.2 Design Curriculum. Two levels of training are required here. Level B personnel should have skill in designing an effective CE curriculum across all six types of programme and should also have skill in helping all types of providers in designing specialised curricula.

B1.3 Materials development. Level B personnel should appreciate the differences between basic literacy (ATLP) materials and materials for CE in regard to both design and development. They should not only be able to produce relevant materials for CE but also help level C providers produce materials for their particular specialised programmes.

B1.4 Design training activities. Level B should be able to design training activities for level C based on the systems (IPO) approach. The scope of this training is outlined in the competency grid for level C personnel (table 9.3).

B2.1 Foster links between agencies. Networking at provincial level is especially important in CE and level B personnel need to develop skill in developing, and maintaining linkages and in coordinating the work of all relevant provincial agencies.

B2.2 Mobilize resources and agencies. Information networking should lead to the identification of all present and potential CE providers and in finding ways of means of strengthening their activities. In some cases province wide learning materials and other resources may need to be developed, especially for basic programmes concerned with post-literacy, equivalency and quality of life. Level B should be given guidelines for the mobilization of all resources at provincial level.

B2.3 Publicize CE in the province. Level B personnel should know how to collect data about providers and prepare and disseminate inventories, catalogues and other lists. They should also know how to utilize mass media and local outlets such as learning centres in publicising CE programmes.

B2.4 Provide a community wide consultancy service. A field system of consultants working with level C providers is an essential component of an effective CE infrastructure. (See Chapter 5). The skills of consultancy need to be developed at Level B.

B3.1 Monitor and Supervise Level C. While monitoring and supervisory skills are critical for the work of Level B personnel these skills are very different for each of the six types of CE programme described in previous chapters. In some cases monitoring should be direct and continuous, say, for example, in the case of post-literacy programmes. In other cases, for example individual interest activities, more generalized monitoring and supervisoring Skills would be involved. Level B personnel also should be able to help providers at level C monitor and supervise their own activities.

B3.2 Evaluate and report work of Level C. Evaluation techniques for CE are more complex than for systematic programmes such as basic literacy twining in which there are clearly defined stages of achievement. The outcomes of CE are varied and wide ranging and are at many levels of achievement - some are very specialized. Level B personnel require precise training in a wide range of CE programme evaluation methods. They also should know how to advise many types of presenters in the evaluation of their own programmes.

B3.3 Undertake research, including impact studies. Since CE is a relatively new area in many Member states, and in all is a rapidly growing and changing system, systematic research is needed about aspects such as: optimal approaches; suitable presentation techniques; effectiveness of alternative delivery methods; impact on personal and societal development and so on. Level B personnel therefore need guidance in designing and undertaking relevant research studies.

B4.1 Integrate HRD into CE programmes. Level B personnel need to know about the principles of personal development; life line planning; humanistic psychology and human resource development (HRD). They need to develop skill in applying these principles in establishing suitable CE delivery systems and in the design of appropriate activities across all six types of CE programmes.

B4.2 Organize CE programmes. By ‘organise’ is meant both (i) set up actual programmes and (ii) encourage a range of providers to establish suitable programmes of all six types. Skills are needed at level B to develop a CE system to satisfy the personal and societal needs of all citizens of a given community. This means that level B personnel should ensure that a comprehensive CE coverage is provided to cater for the known levels of development of defined groups of adults.

B5.1 Develop a curriculum in advanced reading. All level B personnel, whatever their speciality, should acquire the skills of advanced reading and be able to train others in these skills. Advanced reading skills include vocabulary building, establishing mental schema, building general knowledge, promoting critical reasoning and fostering problem solving (see ATLP Volume 10, especially pages 26-27 and 53-54).

B5.2 Promote reading centres. Reading centres, either alone or as part of more general learning centres, are essential components of the infrastructure for CE. Level B personnel should understand how to establish and supervise such centres. (Also see cell B9.1).

B6.1 Prepare rules and regulations for equivalency programmes. While general policy regarding equivalency should be determined at level A, level B personnel should know how to adapt rules and regulations at provincial level.

B6.2 Organize equivalency tests. Level B personnel may have to devise and sometimes actually administer equivalency tests. They may also have to advise and/or accredit various institutions within the equivalency programme. Level B personnel should also understand how to collect and maintain records.

B6.3 Advocacy for equivalency programmes. At the provincial level CE personnel should be able to prepare equivalency records, encourage institutions to be involved in equivalency programmes and help individuals obtain qualifications by alternative means.

B7.1 Analyze labour market. The skill of reviewing labour needs and employment trends is particularly important for IGPs at provincial level.

B7.2 Develop guidelines for marketing products. Level B personnel involved in IGP should be able to provide guidance on the most effective marketing techniques for IGP products. They themselves should be trained in the general skills of marketing and in specific skills relevant to the types of products being produced in the province.

B7.3 Promote entrepreneurship. Level B personnel need to be able to help groups and individuals establish small businesses and take the initiative in developing income generating activities.

B7.4 Develop guidance and counselling services for IGP. This is a critically important skill for level B personnel involved in IGP. Individuals and groups entering the programme and institutions and agencies presenting income generating activities need advice on likely economic opportunities, marketing and on training.

B8.1 Promote parent education and personal development. Skills of parenting and of life planning for families and individuals are key components of quality of life improvement programmes. Level B personnel should have these skills and be able to pass them on to level C personnel.

B8.2 Promote positive social values and attitudes. Level B should understand national policy in these areas, be sensitive to provincial needs and deficiencies and be able to develop positive thinking and behaviour at level C.

B9.1 Develop guidelines for establishing learning centres. While learning centres (and reading centres associated with them) are especially important within an individual interests programme they are also essential parts of the infrastructure of CE as a whole. All level B personnel should be trained in how to establish and monitor learning centres at village and township levels.

B9.2 Organize special programmes for individual interests. The level B role in this area is mainly to help individuals and agencies provide activities which cater for local interests and to help individuals locate and participate in activities relevant to their interests. The main skill required is to be able to design special interest courses and activities and be effective field consultants in this area. The key task would be to help providers offer useful and effective courses and activities.

B10.1 Identify and strengthen growth points. Within the future oriented programmes level B personnel should be able to identify leadership groups and individuals, and effective forward looking agencies, businesses and industries and encourage them to participate in CE activities.

B10.2 Utilise the outcomes of ‘think tanks’. By «think tank» is meant a group of future oriented people who generate ideas about effective change and development. These may be organized nationally at level A or provincially at level B. Level B personnel should know how to establish and utilize the products of think thanks in FO programmes.

B 10.3 Utilize R and D results in CE programmes. Level B personnel should have access to research and development agencies, should themselves be involved in R & D and should know how to make use of the latest relevant R & D outcomes in designing courses and activities within an FO CE programme.

B10.4 Disseminate up-to-date information. At provincial level information networks should be established to support all types of CE activities, but especially FO type programmes. Level B personnel should also have the skill of producing newsletters and other forms of disseminating new ideas.

E. The Training Curriculum for Level C

(a) General Aspects. Level C personnel are those who mutually present or promote CE activities at local level. They need to know how to respond to local needs, to encourage participation and to design, present and evaluate courses and activities. They are the implementers of national policy at local level and should be trained and supported by level B personnel (see Section D). In the training curriculum for level C two general and six specialized duties have been identified involving nine general and 22 specialised competencies.

(b) The training Grid. The curriculum grid for level C personnel has been given below in table 9.3. Many of the competencies will be the same as for level B since level C will be trained by level B. The notes on these competencies, therefore, have been condensed. At level C not all personnel will require all 22 of the specialised competencies as set out in the curriculum since most will be involved in only one specialized type of CE programme. This is in contrast to level B where it is desirable for all personnel to develop all competencies.

At the end of the training programme level C personnel should be able to:

(i) design, present and evaluate effective CE activities within their speciality.
(ii) promote CE in their local districts.
(iii) be involved in local evaluative and impact studies.
(iv) work with level B personnel in improving the quality of their CE activities.
(v) report on all aspects of their work to level B.

(c) Notes on each cell. Thirty-two competencies have been included in the level C training curriculum. Since these competencies have to be developed through training offered by level B. they reflect the competencies of that level, and therefore only very brief notes have been provided below.

Table 9.3 A Modular Training Curriculum for Level C Personnel










Promote CE programmes

Promote understanding of CE programmes

Promote understanding of CE links with national development

Apply motivational and communication skills

Organize CE programmes

Apply Relevant management skills

Apply skills of working with adults

Promote leadership skills

Organize alternative learning approaches

Develop or adapt learning materials

Mobilize resources and organize learning centres


Contact and promote post-literacy programmes

Identify and assess neo-literates

Apply advanced literacy techniques

Monitor post-literacy programmes

Obtain or develop practical literacy materials


Promote equivalency

Identify and Utilize local resource personnel

Establish linkages


Conduct and promote IGP

Undertake vocational guidance

Undertake labour market studies

Adapt IGP activities to local conditions

Mobilize local resources for IGP

Link IGPs with local private enterprise and marketing

Promote small scale industry


Conduct and promote QLIP

Assess local development against national QL indicators

Design QLIP activities to suit local needs

Mobilize local resources for QLIP


Promote opportunities for individual interest

List local providers catering for special interest

Contribute to provincial level interest surveys

Encourage IIP providers to promote local interest

Train local IIP providers in methods of CE


Promote and Strengthen future oriented programmes

Analyze future CE needs

Utilize experience from other communities

Identify and involve local change agents in FO programmes

C1.1 Promote understanding of CE programmes. Level C personnel should be able to explain differences between formal, non-formal and informal aspects of CE and the role of CE in lifelong learning.

C1.2 Promote understanding of CE links with national development. Concepts such as sustainable development, human resource development and socio economic development and their links to CE should be clear to all level C personnel.

C1.3 Apply motivational and communication skills. All level C personnel should know how to motivate potential participants and to be able to communicate with them clearly and effectively.

C2.1 Apply relevant management skills. Since level C personnel actually set up and present CE activities they need to know how to manage them effectively.

C2.2 Apply skills in working with adults. Training in adult learning and in organising learning experiences suitable for adults are essential skills at this level.

C2.3 Promote leadership skills. Not only should level C personnel be effective leaders themselves but they should be able to develop such skills in others.

C2.4 Organize alternative learning approaches. Level C presenters should be aware of a range of learning methodologies and draw on them to vary their presentations consistent with their learning objectives.

C2.5 Develop or adapt materials. At the local level materials must be suitable for the stage of development of the community and of the individuals. Level C presenters need to be able to select and/or adapt learning materials suitable for local participants.

C2.6 Mobilise resources and organise learning centres. Learning centres may well be the most likely venues for all types of local CE activities. An understanding of how to organize such centres and of mobilising their resources is essential at this level.

C3.1 Identify and assess neo-literates. It is essential that level C personnel involved in post-literacy programmes have the ability to survey the literacy achievement levels of all adults in their communities.

C3.2 Apply advanced literacy techniques. While this is an essential skill for those involved in post-literacy work it is desirable that all level C personnel have competency in this area. Certainly all should be able to encourage local people to read, and help them to read effectively.

C3.3 Monitor post-literacy programmes. All level C personnel in this speciality should know how to assess progress and how to report outcomes, difficulties and successes to level B.

C3.4 Obtain or develop practical literacy materials. In post-literacy work reading and numeracy materials must be carefully graded by difficulty. Criteria for selecting and/or developing materials at different level should be known to and applied by all presenters.

C4.1 Identify and utilise local resource personnel. This is an especially important skill for effective equivalency programmes. Level C personnel should act as local «agents» for all equivalency offerings in their areas.

C4.2 Establish linkages. While the main equivalency network will have been established at provincial level (level B), level C personnel should support all local aspects of the provincial network.

C5.1 Undertake vocational guidance and counselling. IGP personnel located at Learning Centres need the ability to advise local people on IG opportunities and on marketing possibilities.

C5.2 Undertake labour market studies. Local studies need to be undertaken in cooperation with level B personnel and appropriate skills need to be developed.

C5.3 Adapt IGP activities to local conditions. Providers of IGP locally need to know how to train local people in income generating work at a level suitable for their present stage of development and according to their local circumstances.

C5.4 Mobilise local resources for IGP. Locally available resources (e.g. farm products, sheet metal, bamboo, clay for pottery etc.) should be utilized for income generation and level C personnel should be able to identify and make maximum use of such resources. People skilled in the use of these materials also need to be identified and encouraged to become involved.

C5.5 Link IGPs with local private enterprise and marketing. Providers of IGP at the local level should know how to work with private businesses and manufacturers, to draw on their skills and to involve them in activities. They should also know how to train local people in the effective marketing of IGP products.

C5.6 Promote small scale industry. Level C personnel involved in IGP should be able to help groups of local people establish cottage industries and other types of local enterprises.

C6.1 Assess local development against national QLIP indicators. While this will have been done by QLIP workers at level B for the province as a whole, level C QL specialists should know how to compare stages of development locally with a range of nationally prescribed QLIP indicators.

C6.2 Design QLIP activities to suit local needs. Since QLIP activities are to improve the living standards of all citizens they must be appropriate for local individuals, families and social groups. Level C workers in these programmes should know how to identify and respond to such local needs.

C6.3 Mobilise local resources for QLIP. Level C QLIP personnel should be able to involve all members of the community in self-help programmes and be able to draw on all available local resources for this purpose.

C7.1 List local providers catering for special interests. Level C personnel working in the area of special interests should be able to identify all local providers, prepare inventories and catalogues and make this information widely available to potential participants.

C7.2 Contribute to provincial level interest surveys. Level C personnel should have basic survey skills and be able to help level B personnel collect data on local interests for the benefit of potential providers.

C7.3 Encourage SIP providers to promote local interests. All individuals and agencies who could provide CE activities catering for local interests should be encouraged to present courses and activities responding to and promoting these interests. Level C personnel should have the ability to facilitate this involvement.

C7.4 Train local LIP providers in the methods of CE. Such providers are usually knowledgeable and skilled ion the areas of their speciality (e.g. motor mechanics, creative writing, jewelry making, pottery etc.) but have no course design or presentation skills. Level C personnel should be able to work with them in developing such skills.

C8.1 Analyze future CE needs. Level C personnel involved in FO type programmes should be sensitive to local trends, and have the ability to analyze and predict likely future developments.

C8.2 Utilise experience from other communities. Level C personnel working in FO programmes should be able to benefit from the experience of other districts and communities in designing local activities.

C8.3 Identify and involve local change agents in the FO Programme. Since FO programmes are to promote effective change, all those likely to facilitate this, or who are themselves involved in change, need to be identified and recruited. Level C Personnel should be trained in techniques for achieving this.

F. Conclusion

In concluding this chapter it is important to again stress that the training curricula presented are exemplars only. They show how modular training programmes for CE personnel could be developed but each Member state would need to interpret and develop the curricula according to national needs and circumstances.

At present few, if any, Member States have developed comprehensive training programmes such as these. This is one reason why not all countries in the Region have as yet developed a systematic and comprehensive system of continuing education. It is hoped that these exemplar curriculum grids will provide at least a useful framework from which to draw ideas for designing training curricula for CE personal at national, provincial and local levels.