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close this bookA Training Manual in Conducting a Workshop in the Design, Construction, Operation, Maintenance and Repair of Hydrams (Peace Corps, 1981, 216 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsGuidelines for users
Open this folder and view contentsSession 1: Introduction to training (1½ hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 2: Introduction to hydrams (3½ hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 3: Water measurement techniques (3 hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 4: Measuring heads and distance (2-4 hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 5: Review exercise #1 (2 hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 6: Hydram theory (2-3 hour)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 7: Basic plumbing tools and materials (1-1½ hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 8: Hydram construction - Pipefitting (4 - 6 hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 9: Hydram design theory and parameters (2 hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 10: Hydram construction - concrete (18 hours over a 7 day period)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 11: Hydram component design criteria (1-1½ hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 12: Hydram selection (1½ - 3 hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 13: Inter-relationships within the hydram (11-15 hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 14: Repair and maintenance (2-4 hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 15: Review exercise #2 (2 hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 16: Use of multiple rams (1½ hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 17: Site development (2 hours)
Open this folder and view contentsSession 18: Hydram system site selection (2-4 hours)
View the documentSession 19: Project planning (2-4 hours)
View the documentSession 20: Wrap up and evaluation (2-4 hours)
View the documentGlossary of terms
View the documentEnglish-metric units conversion table
View the documentReferences
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Foreword

In 1772, John Whitehurst developed the first known machine to utilize the water hammer effect to pump water. Whitehurst's device included a water supply tank, a 1½ inch, 600 foot long drive pipe, a check valve, an accumulator and a delivery pipe. He used a hand-operated impulse valve, employing child labor to open and close the valve in continuous cycles.

In 1776, Joseph Michael de Montgolfier invented a similar machine but replaced the hand operated valve with an automatic impulse valve which was opened and closed by the rebound wave inside the hydram itself. Montgolfier's machine was called "le belier hydraulique," from which the term "hydraulic ram" was derived. (Because "hydraulic ram" can have more than one meaning, however, we prefer the British term "hydram" to describe these water pumping devices, and will use this term throughout this manual.) The invention was so simple and reliable, it has survived over 200 years with very little change.

The technical information contained in this manual has been developed through experiments and experience. We have tried to present the fruits of our experience in such a manner as to be easily transferred to other situations and application The transfer cannot always be complete, however, and situations cannot always be predicted. The performance of a hydram is dependent on many variables. The information contained in this manual should therefore be regarded as guidelines based on past experience, rather than absolute rules.

David Jessee
Perennial Energy, Inc.


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