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close this bookSchool Health Education to Prevent AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) : Handbook for Curriculum Planners (UNESCO - WHO, 1994, 88 p.)
close this folderA. Designing the programme
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentProgramme model
View the documentMaking a situation assessment
View the documentDefining the type of programme
View the documentSelecting objectives
View the documentMaking a curriculum plan
View the documentPlanning for material production
View the documentDeveloping the students’ activities
View the documentParticipation of parents and family members
View the documentInvolvement of peer leaders
View the documentDeveloping the teachers’ guide
View the documentValidating the curriculum
View the documentPlanning for teacher training
View the documentDesigning the programme evaluation

Designing the programme evaluation

Impact evaluation

By carrying out an impact evaluation study of the programme about HIV/AIDS/STD, the education system will be able to:

· Determine whether there have been measurable effects on the students’ knowledge, attitudes, skills and behavioural intent as a result of the programme.

· Demonstrate to education officials, general public and teachers that effective programmes can be carried out.

· Make a case for obtaining additional staff or funds.

· Increase the support to the programme of teachers, parents and communities.

To measure the impact of the programme, the same test is administered to classes that do not receive the programme (control group) and to those that are taking the programme (experimental group), before the programme starts and after it is completed. A comparison between the experimental and control group will help evaluators decide whether learning is in fact associated with the programme or with other outside factors (media, parents, etc.). The control group must be similar to the experimental group and close to the numbers participating in the programme. Students in the control group will receive the programme at a later stage. There should be a central collection of the results of the tests and reassessment of the programme in light of the results.

The evaluation should be conducted by a trained evaluator experienced in sampling and the collection and analysis of data. A clear distinction between the programme developers and the evaluation research person or team should be considered: programme planners should only have responsibility for programme design, preparation and delivery; developing programme evaluation criteria and instruments; and making revisions in response to the evaluation process.

For a discussion on evaluation issues, please refer to School Health Education to Prevent AIDS and STD.

Evaluation instruments will have to be developed. An example of a Pre-Post Test Evaluation, to be given to the students in both the experimental and control groups before and immediately after the programme, is presented in this package. The model test and the scoring procedure are in Programme evaluation instrument 1; additional questions are listed in Programme evaluation instrument 2. Results from the pre-test will give useful indications to the teacher about the most common misconceptions or incorrect attitudes, and enable her/him to ensure that these issues are properly covered and given appropriate emphasis.

The model test consists of:

· 19 knowledge items, representing the eleven core objectives.

· 11 attitude statements, covering the following subjects: awareness of risks, peer pressure, abstinence, condoms, drugs, tolerance and support of people with AIDS.

· 3 skill questions on confidence to refuse sex, refuse sex without a condom, and condom use.

· 3 statements of behavioural intent.

Process evaluation

By carrying out a process evaluation study, the education system will be able to:

· Determine which programme components are most successful

· Assess the acceptability of the programme to teachers and incorporate their suggestions where appropriate

· Determine the level of difficulty of the materials and revise accordingly

· Assess the receptivity of students, peer leaders (if used), parents and administrators to the programme

· Determine the appropriateness of the teaching methods.

To measure whether the programme is effective in meeting its objectives, evaluators have to gather the opinion of teachers, parents, peer leaders (focus groups), students and school administrators, in the areas where the programme was conducted. Perceptions of the programme should be used to revise, modify and update the curriculum.

The following instruments are included in the package, that may be useful in developing your own instruments:

Teacher feedback form Programme evaluation instrument 3

· To have teachers’ opinions on the student activities and corresponding teacher guide they have been using: this is an extremely important tool in the revision of the materials.

Teacher interview Programme evaluation instrument 4

· For an in-depth evaluation of the experience of teaching the HIV/AIDS/STD programme; it should be administered by trained interviewers as soon as possible after the completion of the programme.

Checklist for student focus group Programme evaluation instrument 5

· About ten students from each grade level are invited for a discussion and taped (if possible) as a group. The facilitator should not be one of their teachers; students should be allowed a great deal of freedom to explore a number of topics.

Parent interview (if parent materials were used)
Programme evaluation instrument 6

· A random sample of approximately 25-30 parents per school are interviewed; make sure to get a representative sample of parents. The continuation or revision of a parent programme is dependent on the results of this evaluation.

Peer leader form and checklist for focus group (if used)
Programme evaluation instrument 7

· Three or four peer leaders at each grade level are interviewed as a group to determine the effects of the peer leader programme.

School director’s interview
Programme evaluation instrument 8

· Often, the success or failure of a new curriculum can be influenced by the perceptions and support (or lack of support) of the school administrator.

· The director usually has perceptions about the total effect of the programme and, because of his/her experience, can often make excellent suggestions for revisions.