|School Health Education to Prevent AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) : Handbook for Curriculum Planners (UNESCO - WHO, 1994, 88 p.)|
|B. Sample materials for introducing the curriculum and for teacher training|
A focus group is a group discussion that gathers together people from similar backgrounds and experiences to discuss a specific topic. The participants are guided by a moderator (or facilitator) who introduces the topics in the checklist and helps the group to participate in a lively and natural discussion amongst themselves. The discussion will allow the researcher to obtain a range of understandings, views, opinions and attitudes from the group. A focus group is not an interview where participants provide individual answers. Focus groups should be conducted by facilitators trained in this method of ethnographic research. The proceedings will be tape recorded (the preferred option), or detailed notes will be taken as the discussion progresses.
Topics for discussion with students:
· Age, sex, ethnic/language group
· With whom do they live (e.g. with family, in boarding school)?
· Do they earn any money and, if so, how?
Lifestyle and social networks
· With whom do they spend time?
· What are their leisure time activities?
· What is a typical week in their life? Is it typical of their age in their community? If not, how does it vary?
· What do they enjoy doing the most and the least?
· Do they drink? If so, how much, and in what situations?
Sexual norms and dominant values
· At what age do boys and girls start to go out together? What does it mean to have a boy/girl-friend? Her/his average age?
· What do they do when they go out with a boy/girl-friend? How may this change over time? What does being friends vs. being ones boy/girl-friend mean?
· At what stage in the relationship does the issue of having sexual relations arise?
· Why do young people have sex?
· Do young people get sexual experience in ways other than having a boy/girl-friend? If so, how and with whom?
· Are relationships between adolescents and older men (sugar daddies)/women common?
· What are the scenarios/situations that may lead to having sex?
· What do young people mean by having sex (intercourse, petting, kissing)?
· What do young people do to avoid early pregnancy (for example, anal sex)?
· Do young people experience any forms of pressure to have sex? If so, from whom? Are girls forced to have sex? Do they know of cases of physical violence?
· Is having sex rewarded by gifts by the partner?
· What do people (young and older) think about having sex before marriage? What do young people think of their peers who do not have sexual relations before marriage?
· How do young people learn about sex? What advice do they receive, and from whom?
· When a girl gets pregnant, what is the reaction of young people and other members of the community towards the girl and the boy? To whom can the girl turn for support?
· How is someone with many boy/girl-friends considered (as successful, as a model)?
· How are sexual relations among the same sex considered?
· Common beliefs about STD
· Is HIV/AIDS discussed among young people? What do people say - how are people with HIV/AIDS considered?
· Common beliefs about condoms, contraceptives - are they easy to get?
· Are young people using drugs; injecting drugs?