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close this bookSchool Health Education to Prevent AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) : Handbook for Curriculum Planners (UNESCO - WHO, 1994, 88 p.)
close this folderB. Sample materials for introducing the curriculum and for teacher training
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. Checklist for focus group with students (situation assessment)
View the document2. Sample agenda for parent meeting
View the document3. Sample letter to parents
View the document4. Sample introduction to parent activities
View the document5. Sample instructions to parents
View the document6. Sample questions - student to parent
View the document7. Peer leader training guide
View the document8. Test items for student evaluation (with correct answers)
View the document9. Needs analysis for the teacher training programme
View the document10. Three-day teacher training agenda
View the document11. Teacher satisfaction with training workshop

8. Test items for student evaluation (with correct answers)

True-False questions

Please note that those marked with (*) are particularly recommended for inclusion in short tests.

Unit 1

T = True
F = False

1. A person can “pass” an HIV test, that is, be negative, but still be infected with HIV.

T

2. Men may pass HIV on to others through their semen.

T

3. You may get HIV by sitting on a toilet seat that a person with AIDS has used.

F

4. You may get HIV from drinking from the same glass or water fountain that a person with AIDS drank from.

F

5. HIV is found in semen, vaginal fluids, and blood.

T

6. A person may get HIV by sharing drug needles.

T

7. People infected with HIV are usually very thin and sickly.

F*

8. Once you are infected with HIV, you are infected for life.

T*

9. Some people have been infected with HIV by swimming in the same water as someone with AIDS.

F

10. You may get HIV from a mosquito bite.

F*

11. Someone with AIDS can spread HIV by coughing and spitting.

F

12. There is no way to kill HIV on a drug needle.

F

13. Women may pass HIV on to others through their vaginal fluids.

T

14. There is no way you can find out if you are infected with HIV.

F

15. You may get infected with HIV by having sex with someone who shares drug needles.

T

16. It is not dangerous to hug a person with AIDS.

T*

17. People infected with HIV do not necessarily look sick.

T

18. You can be cured of AIDS if you are careful to take medicine the doctor gives you.

F

19. You can’t get HIV from sharing needles for tattoos or ear/nose piercing.

F

20. People with AIDS die from serious diseases.

T

21. It is difficult for women to get HIV/AIDS.

F

22. HIV may be passed from a mother to her unborn or newborn baby.

T*

23. HIV may be spread by wearing clothes from a person with AIDS.

F*

24. A person may get HIV by donating blood.

F*

25. Having sex during the menstrual cycle increases the risk of getting HIV.

T

26. You may get HIV by cutting the skin with a knife or razor blade used by someone with HIV.

T

27. The time from getting HIV until a person becomes sick with AIDS can be as short as 6 months to as long as 10 years or more.

T *

28. A person who has AIDS usually will die in 6 months to 2 years.

T *

29. A person is infectious (able to pass HIV on to others) only when she/he has AIDS.

F

30. The reason that you see so few teenagers with AIDS is that it takes years for AIDS to develop after a person has been infected.

T

31. The test for HIV (ELISA test) is looking for the HIV virus.

F

32. A vaccine is available to protect people from HIV infection.

F*

33. If a person has an STD, his or her chances of being infected with HIV are increased.

T

34. AIDS is caused by HIV.

T

35. There have been reported cases in which HIV was spread by kissing.

F

36. A person who has tested positive for HIV is said to have AIDS.

F*

37. HIV is not spread from one person to another through daily activities.

T

38. There is evidence that some insects can actually spread AIDS.

F

39. Teenagers infected with HIV when they are 14 may not show any AIDS symptoms until they are in their middle twenties.

T

40. HIV can be spread by contact such as hugging, kissing or holding hands.

F

41. A person may pass on HIV even though he/she has no signs or symptoms of AIDS.

T

42. The more partners a person has, the greater the chances of being infected with HIV.

T

43. Everyone infected with HIV, whether they have symptoms of AIDS or not, can spread HIV to others.

T

44. A person can have HIV for years without getting AIDS.

T

45. You can tell if a person has HIV by how they look.

F*

46. A negative HIV test means there are no antibodies to HIV in the blood.

T

47. You may get HIV from toilet seats.

F

48. Married people don’t become infected with HIV.

F*

49. If you only have sex with people who look healthy, you won’t become infected by HIV.

F*

Unit 2

T = True
F = False

1. Delaying sex and not using injecting drugs are very good ways for teenagers to avoid getting HIV.

T*

2. One way to avoid getting HIV is by not having sex.

T

3. There is no way to protect yourself from HIV/AIDS.

F*

4. Not having sexual intercourse is the most effective way to avoid being infected with HIV.

T*

5. An example of showing affection without sex is cuddling and caressing.

T

6. Assertive people get their way by overpowering others.

F

7. Aggressive people get what they want without any thought about the feelings of the other person.

T

8. A passive person often gives in to what others want.

T

9. If a person tries to get you to do something you don’t want to do, you should refuse, or bargain safer alternatives, or delay the decision.

T

10. If you stick to one partner you won’t become infected with HIV.

F*

Unit 3


1. You can’t get HIV if you only have sex once or twice without a condom.

F*

2. Condoms offer complete protection against HIV.

F

3. Vaseline is a very good lubricant to use with a condom.

F

4. Condoms used correctly and every time one has sexual intercourse, protect from HIV and STD and prevent pregnancy.

T*

5. Lubricated condoms break more often than those that are not lubricated.

F

6. If a condom slips off in the female vagina she will become sick.

F

7. A condom can be safely reused.

F*

8. It is important to keep condoms in a warm, moist place.

F

Unit 4


1. You can get HIV by eating food prepared by an HIV-infected person.

F*

2. A person with AIDS who has sweating, vomiting and diarrhoea needs extra fluids.

T*

3. People with AIDS should stay in hospitals all the time, not at home.

F*

4. People who arc ill with AIDS should be encouraged to do what they can for themselves.

T

5. There have been no cases of HIV from living with a person who has HIV or AIDS.

T

6. A person with HIV who is not allowed to attend school is an example of discrimination.

T*

Short answer questions

Acceptable answers are in italics

Unit 1

1. Name three body fluids that are known to spread the AIDS virus, HIV.

- Male semen; vaginal secretions; blood

2. Name two ways in which blood-to-blood transmission of the AIDS virus, HIV, can occur.

- Sharing injection needles and syringes; sharing other instruments - knives, razor blades, tattooing and ear-piercing instruments and possibly tooth brushes; blood transfusions

3. What are three ways HIV is spread?

- Sexual intercourse; sharing injection needles and syringes and other cutting instruments (e.g. knives); mother to baby; blood transfusion

4. Give two reasons why AIDS is so serious.

- No cure for AIDS
- Causes death
- Discrimination and intolerance
- No vaccine to prevent HIV
- Happens to young people

5. List five ways by which HIV is not spread.

- Insects, hugging or touching, towels, spitting, coughing, sneezing; kissing; sharing a bus, house, room; animals; wearing old clothes; cigarettes; swimming pools (hot tubs); telephones; shaking hands; food, dishes; toilet seats; giving blood; water fountains

6. List four ways that you can protect yourself from HIV and other infections.

- Not have sexual intercourse
- Delay sex
- Use a condom properly
- Do not use dirty injection needles or syringes
- Get injections only at hospitals or health centres
- Have only one sexual partner who is not infected with HIV/STD and has no other sexual partners

7. Describe what happens from the time a person is infected with HIV to the time he/she dies from AIDS.

- Infected with HIV; 2 to 12 weeks: antibodies develop; about 6 months to 10 years or more: symptoms start to appear, AIDS; about 6 months to 2 years or more: death

8. What is meant by the “window period?” Why is this period so important?

- “Window period” is the period of time from when a person is infected until antibodies (germ fighters) develop in the blood. This is usually 2 to 12 weeks. It is important because if one is tested during this period, the test will be negative since the test looks for antibodies against HIV, which have not formed yet. However, the person can infect others.

9. How do people look and feel from the time they are infected with HIV to the time they die from AIDS?

- The person may look healthy and feel fine for a long time after she/he gets infected

- Then, she/he starts having swollen glands, fever, night sweats, fatigue, cough

- Then serious diseases may occur - T.B., cancer, lung disease, brain illnesses, fungal infections. These result, eventually, in death.

10. Give three reasons why a person might want to get tested.

- Not to infect others
- To get treatment which may help to prevent opportunistic infections such as pneumonia
- Not to pass HIV on to her baby
- Not to give infected blood
- To tell her/his sexual partners

11. What two pieces of advice could you give to a person who injects drugs?

- Never share needles or syringes with anyone else
- Clean used needles with bleach (1 part bleach to 10 parts water)
- Stop using injecting drugs
- Turn used needles in for clean ones
- Seek help from professionals

12. List three sources of help that a person could use if they were worried about HIV/AIDS.

- Parents; doctor; teachers; counsellor; social worker; STD clinic; nurse; religious leaders; health centre; AIDS hotline

Unit 2

13. Give four reasons for saying “no” to sex or for delaying sex.

- Pregnancy
- Risk of STD or AIDS
- Parents don’t want you to have sex
- Not with the right person
- Fear of violence
- You have drunk too much
- Your religion says “no “
- You’ re not ready
- Want to wait until marriage
- Time for friendship to develop

14. List three things that could help a person to delay sex.

- Go out with a group of friends
- Decide early how far you want to go
- Decide on your alcohol/drug limits
- Don’t fall for romantic words and arguments
- Be very clear about your limits
- When feeling uncomfortable - leave
- Get involved in activities (sports, clubs)
- Don’t go around with people who pressure you to have sex
- Be honest from the beginning about your sexual limits
- Don’t go out with people you cannot trust
- Avoid lonely spots where you couldn’t get help
- Don’t accept rides from those you can’t trust
- Don’t accept money and presents from people you don’t know very well
- Avoid going to someone’s room when there is no one else at home
- Express affection without having sexual intercourse

15. Give three ways a person could be affectionate to a partner without having sexual intercourse.

- Hold hands
- Kiss
- Hug
- Touch
- Massage
- Say “I like (love) you”
- Masturbate
- Write a letter
- Body rub

16. How does “the mountain climbing” idea help you to make decisions about your sexual limits?

- The farther you go the more difficult it is to stop.

- It is difficult to go back to a safer point.

- Decisions about sexual limits should be made at a point where you know it will not lead to sexual intercourse.

17. Describe the characteristics of passive, assertive and aggressive persons.

Passive persons

- Do not stand up for their own rights
- Put others first at their own expense
- Give in to others
- Always apologize
- Remain silent when something bothers them

Assertive persons

- Respect self and other people
- Listen and talk
- Express positive and negative feelings
- Are confident but not “pushy”
- Stand up for own rights without putting others down
- Use “I feel” statements

Aggressive persons

- Have no thought for other people
- Put self first at expense of others
- Overpower others
- Argue
- Get what they want at the expense of others

18. What are the advantages of being assertive?

- Can say “no “ without feeling guilty
- Ask for help when needed
- Avoid arguing
- Have better relationships
- Others will respect you
- Disagree without becoming angry
- Feel better about yourself
- Have more friends
- Have respect for yourself

19. List three things a person could do to prevent sexual threats and violence.

- Be assertive
- Avoid secluded (lonely) spots
- Do not go to person’s room if no one else is at home
- Set sexual limits early
- Do not accept money or presents
- Do not take rides with strangers

Unit 3

20. Give three reasons why a sexually active person would not use a condom to protect against HIV and/or pregnancy.

- no money or no place to get them
- use of alcohol or drugs - unable to make wise decisions
- didn’t have one at the time
- “nothing can happen to me“ - takes risks
- embarrassed to buy or use condoms

21. What three things would you look for in a good condom?

- lubricated
- tip to catch semen
- package easy to open
- diagrams on how to use a condom
- no light goes through package
- expiry date or date of manufacture
- made of latex
- instructions with package
- spermicide added

22. What is the most important step in using a condom to prevent it from being left in the female vagina?

- hold rim of condom when withdrawing the penis from the vagina
- remove penis from vagina before erection is lost

23. Name two things that could be done to reduce the chance of a condom breaking.

- use water-based lubricant
- pinch air from tip of condom
- never reuse a condom
- put condom on properly
- be careful in taking condom off
- don’t use past expiry date
- smooth condom out after it is on
- be careful when opening the package
- store condoms in cool, dark spot

24. What could a person do if a condom did break?

- withdraw penis immediately
- the woman should not douche - she should wash and urinate as soon as possible
- have another condom available
- use spermicide if possible

Unit 4

25. Give an example of discrimination

- a person is not given a job because she/he comes from another religion or culture
- women aren’t paid as much as men even when they do the same job
- a person with HIV is not allowed to swim with others

26. Give two reasons why it is important to be compassionate to a person with HIV or AIDS.

- they are often young
- they are no threat
- they suffer more if isolated
- it is important to think of someone other than yourself
- they will likely die
- it is a painful, long-term disease
- they are often abandoned by family and friends

27. What are four ways to be compassionate to a person with HIV or AIDS?

- Write a letter (note)
- Share a meal
- Clean the house
- Give them a hug
- Just listen
- Make a “fun” present
- Help other family members
- Find others to give support
- Celebrate special days
- Get medicines
- Share emotions - laugh, cry
- Do not let them blame themselves
- Be friendly
- Play games
- Hold their hand
- Talk about the future

28. What could a person do to give support to a person who has AIDS and:

a) has loss of appetite?

- Ask what they would like to eat, when and how much
- Eat with the person when possible

b) is vomiting?

- Prepare small meals with little fat
- Encourage them to drink liquids
- Advise them to avoid food when feeling nauseated

c) has body sores from being in bed?

- Change sleeping position often
- Encourage short walks and sitting in chair
- Wash sores

29. Give three ways you can protect yourself if you are looking after a person with AIDS.

- Use bleach and soap and use gloves to clean soiled clothes or bedding
- Wash hands with warm, soapy water after contact with infected person
- Put used needles and syringes in hard plastic or metal box
- Wash thermometers with soap and water
- Keep cuts, sores or rashes covered at all times
- Clean bathroom with bleach
- Clean dishes with hot, soapy water

NOTE: You should wear a mask if you are ill so as not to infect the person with AIDS.

30. Provide three ways that you can give emotional support to people with AIDS.

- Find out about their needs and what they can do for themselves each day
- Share feelings - be honest and open
- Encourage them to do as much as possible for themselves
- Give support and praise when deserved
- Ask them how they want things done - wash, food, cleaning
- Encourage anger and crying
- Look after yourself - take breaks, ask for help

Skill questions

The steps on the left side of the box are already filled in; the right side of the box is left blank. There are example statements in italics, but answers will vary from student to student.

1. For the situation described, write an assertive script in the empty part of the “Script box”.

Situation: Your boyfriend/girlfriend becomes jealous when you are with other friends, including those of the other sex, and wants you to spend less time with them. You do not want to lose your friends and decide to tell your boyfriend/girlfriend how you feel and that you are not ready to give up your friends.

Script box:

1. Explain your feelings and the problem.

I feel upset when I’m pressured not to see my friends.

2. Make a request.

My friends are important to me and I’d like it better if you would make them your friends too.

3. Ask how the other person feels about your request.

Do you think you could do that for me?

Response: I guess I’m a little jealous, so I’ll try to make them my friends too.

4. Accept with thanks.

Thanks for understanding. Let’s go for a walk.

2. For the situation described, write an assertive refuse, delay and bargain message in the empty part of the “Script box”.

Situation: You are at a party with friends. They are drinking beer and offer you one. You really don’t want the beer and tell them so. They continue to pressure you to drink and finally you respond with a refusal, bargain and delay response.

Script box:

1. Explain your feelings and the problem.

I feel angry when I say I don’t want a beer and I’m still pressured to have one.

They make a distracting statement: You really get red when you’re angry.

2. You get back on topic

Please let me finish what I was saying.

3. Make a request.

Could you please just accept that I don’t want a beer tonight?

4. Ask how the other person feels about your request.

Is that OK with you?

They make a persuasive statement: Well, what are you here for if you don’t want to drink?

5. You refuse

Look, I’m not going to drink and I am having a good time.

6. Delay

Look, I’ll think about it, we’ll see later.

7. Bargain

Look, let’s have a dance instead of arguing about the beer.

3. For the situation described, write an assertive refuse, delay and bargain message in the empty “Script Box” for a person who does not want to wear a condom.

Situation: You are going out with a person you really like. She/he wants to have sexual intercourse with you but does not want to use a condom. You will only have sex if a condom is used and you have a condom with you.

Script box:

1. Explain your feelings and the problem.

I feel upset when you say you don’t want to use a condom, especially when I have one with me.

He/she makes a distracting statement: Look, don’t try to tell me what to do.

2. You get back on topic

Please let me finish what I was saying.

3. Make a request.

I’m not trying to tell you what to do. I’m saying that I won’t have sex with you without using a condom.

4. Ask how the other person feels about your request.

Is that all right with you?

He/she makes a persuasive statement: They just don’t feel good and it would probably break anyway.

5. You refuse

No sex without a condom and I mean it.

6. Delay

Well, I guess we’ll have to talk about this more.

7. Bargain

What could we do that would make us both happy?

4. Arrange the following list of steps to use a condom in the correct order, by placing the number (1,2, 3, etc.) from the column “Condom steps” beside the number in the right-hand column “Correct order of steps.”

Condom steps

Correct order of steps

a) Squeeze air from tip

3 or 4

b) Unroll condom - slide it off

8

c) Open package

1

d) Roll condom on penis

5

e) Point condom the right way

2

f) Hold rim of condom and withdraw

7

g) Dispose of condom

9

h) Position the condom on the glans of the penis

3 or 4

i) Smooth out and add lubricant

6

Life situation questions

1. Dacobi and Kandu are close friends but live in different towns. They often visit each other and on one visit, Kandu asks Dacobi how AIDS is prevented. Dacobi has had a few classes about AIDS in school but can’t remember everything he was taught. However, he does tell Kandu what he knows about prevention. Some of what he says is not true. Mark an “F” for these statements. Mark “T” for those statements that are true.

a)

It is easy to tell who has HIV and who hasn’t, so you don’t need to worry about using a condom to avoid infection.

F

b)

HIV is only present in certain body fluids, mainly male semen, vaginal secretions and the blood. Therefore, don’t have sex without a condom and don’t use needles or other sharp instruments that might have someone else’s blood on them.

T

c)

Be careful of mosquitoes and other insects that bite as that is a way HIV is spread.

F

d)

The only really safe way to protect yourself is to delay sex until you are ready to take the responsibility of using a condom.

T

e)

A blood test for HIV is the only way to tell if you have been infected with HIV.

T

2. Aaren and Mayada have decided to have sexual intercourse. Both have had sexual intercourse before without using a condom but are confident that none of their previous partners had a disease. Mark “T” for any statements that are true/correct and “F” for any statements that are not true/false.

a)

If they have sex, it will be all right because HIV cannot be spread until a person has AIDS.

F

b)

If they have sex, Aaren should wear a condom every time they have sexual contact.

T

c)

They would know if their previous partners had HIV.

F

d)

They would be safe if they had oral or anal sex without a condom.

F

e)

They would be safer if they delayed sex until they were both properly tested.

T

3. You are talking with three of your same-sex friends about “lines” young people use to get “sex.” The group decides to try to come up with good responses to these “lines”. What would you say in response to the following lines:

Line:

Response:

“Everyone does it.”
“I’ll buy you something nice if you let me do it.”
“We don’t have to worry about AIDS, I haven’t got it.”
“This is the first time I’ve had sex. I can’t have a disease.”
“Either we do it, or we’re through.”

The teacher should use her/his judgement as to correct responses.
(see Unit 2/Student activity 3)

4. Ranjki is a person who will be going to your school next year and everyone knows that he has HIV. He is not sick now and he is really looking forward to entering his new school. List four things you could do to show compassion and support for Ranjki when he arrives at your school.

· Stay with him during breaks.
· Go to his place and welcome him to your school.
· Walk to school or from school with him.
· Ask him to sit near you.
· Be in the same group when possible.
· Get other students to help support Ranjki.

5. Your best friend has really negative feelings about condoms. Every time you talk about condoms, this person has something negative to say about them. You decide that you will make a positive comment about condoms for every negative one that is made. What do you reply to each of the following:

Negative comment:

Positive reply:

“Condoms cost too much.”
“It’s too hard to get condoms.”
“Condoms break. So why use them?”
“Condoms don’t feel good.”
“Condoms spoil the mood.”

The teacher should use her/his judgement as to correct responses.
(see Unit 3/Student activity 2 for positive condom comments)