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close this bookAPPEAL - Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE) - Volume 4: Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 95 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentChapter 1: Principles and Rationale
View the documentChapter 2: Programme Framework
View the documentChapter 3: Organization and Implementation
View the documentChapter 4: Materials and Resources
View the documentChapter 5: Training of Personnel for Quality of Life Improvement Programmes
View the documentChapter 6: Monitoring and Evaluation
View the documentChapter 7: Challenges and Issues
View the documentAnnex: List of Participants

Chapter 4: Materials and Resources

A. INTRODUCTION

Appropriate supportive material to facilitate learning in Quality of Life Programmes is very crucial. But what is especially important, is to determine the types, formats, and sources of materials to suit specific target groups. Other considerations would be evaluation of the effectiveness of the materials.

Generally materials should be able to promote learning in reading, writing, numeracy, and general mental skills. Especially in terms of developing learners mental skills in vocabulary building, general knowledge, critical reasoning and problem solving. These skills, however, need to be applied to the development process which is the focus of QLIPs.

The next question to ask is how do we go about developing, acquiring and adapting materials. We must always remember that production of materials involves money. Therefore it is important to ensure appropriateness of materials to meet the needs of specific learner groups.

B. TYPES OF MATERIALS

The most important element in designing learning materials is that they should be simple and clear with appropriate graphics such as charts and photographs to ensure that they are attractive and interesting.

Learning materials could be developed, reproduced, adapted or acquired from existing sources.

There are two types of materials needed for QLIPs namely:

a) General
b) Specific

‘General’ material is aimed at giving useful information on planning and management of QLIPs. They for planners, managers and participants of QLIPs to help in organizing QLIPs activities more effectively. On the other hand ‘Specific’ materials aim at certain target/learner groups with the specific purpose of facilitating understanding about their specific development project, for example, immunisation. The following table (table 4.1) lists the types of materials appropriate for a QLIPs project on immunisation and drug abuse.

Table 4.1: Types of Materials Appropriate for QLIPs (An Immunisation and Anti-Drug Project)

Types of Materials

For Whom

Contents and

Dissemination channels

1. General




General Information on development projects




Objective




To provide general information on planning and project implementation

- planners

- developers and participants of QLIPs

- How to analyze needs

- How to design a programme

- How to manage, etc.

- Action oriented workshop

2. Specific




Specific information intended to increase knowledge and change behaviour




- Immunization

Mothers with young children

- Importance of immunization

- How to go about it

- Through village Committee

- Health Centres

- Women's Organization

- Drug Abuse

Youth

- Danger of drugs addiction

- How to avoid

- Youth clubs, schools

C. FORMAT OF MATERIALS

There are various ways in which learning materials could be presented effectively. They could be in the form of print or audio-visual materials and they can lie categorized as follows (table 4.2).

Table 4.2: Possible Formats for QLIP Materials

Types of media/Instruction Materials for QLIPs

Format/Channels

a) Print

Pamphlets
Booklets
Magazines
Photonovellas
Comics
Textbooks
Fact sheets
Diaries

b) Visuals

Posters
Billboards
Banners
Buntings
Fliers
Wall newspapers

c) Audio

Cassettes
Radio

d) Audio-visuals

Video
Slide kits with audio tape
T.V.

e) Other media



- Folk Media

Jerry gun (sing song)
Bangsawan (Indian folk opera)
Chinese opera
Shadow/puppet play
Mela (Indian folk exhibition)


- Educational games/gimmicks

Snakes and ladders
"Plan-a-fam" (family planning)
Simulation activities


- Advertisements

Jingles
Songs
Advertisements in newspapers and magazines
Stickers


- Religious sermons

During religious gatherings

D. PRODUCTION

Decisions to produce materials need to be considered carefully because this involves cost. It is important to select the best possible medium within the limits of the budget. It is sometimes possible to find cheaper alternatives without too great a sacrifice to quality. For example a simple pamphlet would be cheaper to produce than video. In this case cost-effective material designs should be the basis or production.

The process that is involved in the actual production of materials could be complicated and tedious, if one is serious about doing it thoroughly. It follows certain logical steps. The following diagram illustrates the general steps to be followed in the production of materials for programmes such as QLIPs (Figure 4.1).


Figure 4.1: Steps in the production of learning materials for QLIPs

The first step to be considered is that. there should be clear cut programme objectives, for example: the objective could be «to promote contraceptives.»

The next step to consider is who is the target group. In the example of contraception it would be women. And within the ‘women’s group» it could be further qualified as eligible women who are within the age group of 15 to 49. The next consideration is what do they need to know, what are their media habits, what appeals to them, what are their aspirations and so on. This kind of information can be obtained from general observation and interview. Interviews may be conducted by questioning the direct target group as well as the service providers or field workers, where a balanced picture of the situation could be obtained. Some of the general questions that could be asked are given in the following list.

a) General characteristics of the audience.

- Age
- Sex
- Marital status
- Family background

b) Media habits

- Whether they listen to radio or watch television and how frequently.
- Which medium do they prefer

c) Whether they read newspapers and magazines

- What newspapers and magazines do they read and in what language
- Frequency of reading
- Preference

d) What kind of media formats appeal to them most

- booklet
- video
- posters
- brochures
- comic strips

e) What colour attracts them most

f) Illustration preference

- pictures
- sketches
- graphics
- charts
- cartoon

g) Their aspirations

The findings would be used to determine the kind of materials to be produced in terms of objectives, contents and format.

Once the above has been decided, the development of prototype materials should follow. These prototype materials would then be pretested with a selected group. The pretesting is carried out in order to find possible gaps in the presentation of material either in terms of general understanding (the language, messages) or in terms of illustrations pictures, graphics and colour appeal.

The findings from this pre-testing would then be applied to make necessary changes for the final production of the materials. The final product then would be disseminated direct to the target group or other intermediate channels such as through the organizations, schools, village committees and association. In the case of QLIPs the main local agency would be the Village Committee.

The final step that should or could be taken is the evaluation of the effectiveness of the materials. Questions such as usefulness and whether the intended messages have been understood should be asked. This kind of feedback is necessary in refining materials and in formulating future policy for material production.

E. ADAPTATION OF LEARNING MATERIALS

There are many materials relevant to QLIPs which have been produced by national as well as international agencies. International Agencies such as UNESCO, ESCAP, ILO, UNICEF and institution like the John Hopkins University have produced such materials or act as clearing houses or resource centres on Quality of Life related activities and programmes. For example UNESCO has produced a manual on Family Life Education. The John Hopkins University has produced various packets on population and communication. These materials are of good quality and could be easily adopted or adapted for local use.

In adapting these materials, the organizers of QLIPs should be able to provide some guidelines for the learners and give specific examples of local situations, in order to ensure that the materials are used in the right context. All materials should be action oriented and developmental in focus.

F. SOURCES OF MATERIALS

There are various sources of materials suitable for QLIPs. Here are some suggestions:

a) Official documents;

b) Materials produced by government and para-governmental agencies, private organizations and NGOs;

c) Self-generated materials.

There is a variety of official documents giving specific information about a particular country. For an example in Malaysia, the Yearbook, Economic Index, the Government Development Plans Book, Population Statistics and other socio-economic related documents are readily available.

There are undoubtedly large amounts of documentation being produced by agencies in private and non-governmental sectors. International agencies such as WHO, UNFPA, UNICEF, UNESCO, ILO produce a lot of materials which focus on specific quality of life issues and those are readily available in most countries. There are also local non-governmental agencies, which produce such materials.

The private sector such as private companies, book publishers and manufacturers of other educational products also produces educational materials of relevance to QLIPs.

The last category is self-generated materials produced for specific groups. There materials could either be developed by institutions or individuals and are tailor made for specific use.

G. MOBILIZATION OF RESOURCES

Since most Quality of Life Programmes are supported by development agencies the business of production of materials should be coordinated. This is to ensure maximum benefits, reduced cost, and avoidance of duplication and waste. Co-ordination could be achieved perhaps by setting up a joint-committee on material production with specific tasks delegated to each agency. For example the Malaysia National Population and Family Development Board has produced materials on family planning. These materials are disseminated to other agencies with parallel programmes. There are many instances where requests are made for reprinting or reproduction of the materials. Likewise, if the Ministry of Health produces materials on breast feeding, immunisation and other health related matters, these materials are also shared among the agencies.

In this changing society, the demand for information and knowledge is increasingly important. Most people do not mind spending money on books and materials. In this respect, in order to meet the costs of material production a nominal fee could be charged. The National Population and Family Development Board of Malaysia has produced a parenting magazine and various booklets on family communication, and family life where a nominal sum is charged. The demand for the booklets is quite encouraging and they have had to be reprinted.

The other aspect that could be considered in the mobilisation of resources in the production of materials is to solicit involvement of the private sector and NGO’s. Private sector support, could be sought in sponsoring certain activities and programmes in relation to QLIPs especially through media campaigns. For example the telephone company could be asked to sponsor TV advertisement appealing for children to maintain contacts with their parents. Relevant private sector companies could sponsor items that promote respect for the elderly, AIDS education, drug abuse, healthy lifestyle, environmental issues and so on.

In Malaysia, private sector involvement has been very encouraging in supporting government programmes to promote happy family life, through bill boards, banners, posters and by sponsoring specific media activities.

H. CASE STUDY - KOREA RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR WOMEN’S LIFE (KRIWL)

a) The KRIWL Programme

The Korea Research Institute for Women’s Life, Seoul, Republic of Korea, provides an interesting programme, focusing on the needs of illiterate women. It provides a comprehensive integrated programme taking illiterates through to quite advanced levels of education.

The Institute provides a basic literacy programme in two levels, each level extending over three months. After completion of the basic literacy programme, neo-literates may then proceed to continuing education programmes offered by the Institute. These are of three types.

The first type is a post-literacy programme in four levels (levels III to VI) which consolidates literacy skills and prepares learners for future study. Each of the levels is of three months duration.

After completing post-literacy Level VI graduates then have a choice. They may enter an equivalency programme which enables them to reach Middle or even High School standards. Alternatively they may proceed to general educational programmes which focus on improving quality of life.

b) Types of Materials

Materials for the various aspects of this fully integrated system have characteristics appropriate for their level and purpose. The types of materials are as follows:

BASIC LITERACY

Basic Literacy
(Levels I and II)

:

Mainly simple activity-based workbooks with teacher's guides developed by KRIWL, supported by flash cards and other resources. A literacy course for the aged however does not utilize structured resources. This is because most of the participants have a very low levels of literacy.

CONTINUING EDUCATION

Post-Literacy
(Levels III to VI)

:

Textbooks, calendars, housekeeping guides, newspapers, periodicals, audio and video cassettes.


Equivalency Courses

:

The textbooks of the Middle School and High School.


General Education stressing Quality of Life Improvement

:

Activity oriented manuals produced by KRIWL, 35 mm slide sets, selected school textbooks.

c) Source of the Materials

Some of the materials are developed by KRIWL (manuals and slides). Middle school textbooks are purchased by participants. Slides are bought by KRIWL from the Catholic Church Education Centre. Video tapes are borrowed from residential colleges run by the church.

d) Criteria for Choosing Materials

Besides the materials generated by the KRIWL, the other types of materials such as slides, videos and textbooks are chosen because they are found to be suitable in terms (i) content, and (ii) presentation that meet the Institutes needs. They must fit the objective of the programme and be suitable for use by adult women.

The main criteria for the choice of materials are as follows:

Textbook

- simple
contents comprehensive and systematic
activity based (exercises)
easily available
low cost

Video and Slides

- informative
spiritual values
documentary
documentary drama

e) Development of KRIWL Materials

A group of experts on education are invited to develop the manuals. The experts suggest topics, duration, content and format of each manual to be produced. Six manuals have been produced on literacy and post-literacy. The manuals have also been revised several times on the basis of feedback obtained from the learners and the teachers.

f) Details of the Programme

The structure of the overall programme and its activities are summarized in the table which follows (table 4.3).

Table 4.3: KOREA RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR WOMEN’S LIFE (KRIWL)

A. PROFILE

OBJECTIVES OF KRIWL

1. To provide a necessary education and information for promoting women’s standing in our developing society.
2. To serve the community by developing qualified women for the work force.
3. To analyze and develop general cultural programmes for women.

PROFILE OF KRIWL

The following activities have been developed since 1978.

29 August 1978

- Research Institute founded

5 March 1979

- Continuing Education Centre for Women established


- A course of study equivalent to evening Middle and High Schools programmes for employed women(working)


- A course of study equivalent to Middle School for housewives


- Programme for the Aged


- Programmes for brides-to-be


- Mothers’ programmes for housewives


- Literacy and Basic Education Programmes for illiterates

10 May 1981

- Free Beauty Service (Grooming) offered to the poor and aged women once a month


- Sunday Literacy and Middle School classes established for young working women

1 December 1989

- Centre for the Aged established

27 August 1991

- Community Library established

Table 4.3 (Continued): B. BASIC LITERACY AND CONTINUING EDUCATION LEVELS I TO VI


BASIC LITERACY

CONTINUING EDUCATION POST LITERACY PROGRAMMES

Level

Level I

Level II

Special Class

Level III

Level IV

Level V

Level VI

Duration

3 months

3 months

15 days x 2 hours

3 months

3 months

3 months

3 months

Day

Mon. Wed. Fri.

Tue. Thu. Sat.

Every day

Mon. Wed. Fri.

Tue. Thu. Sat.

Mon. Wed. Fri.

Tue. Thu. Sat.

Time

72 hours

72 hours

30 hours

72 hours

72 hours

72 hours

72 hours

Ages of Participants

Women 15 years and above

Women 60 years and above

Women 15 years and above

Purpose

Reading

Writing (1)

Reading Writing

Writing (2)

Composition (1)

Composition (2)

Grammar

Curriculum

ALPHABET (Korean)
· Essential ®
· Words for Reading


®
(Ibid) for Writing

ALPHABET (Korean)
Name
Address
Tel. No.
Family
Signboard

Elementary Level
Grade 3
Korean language
Selective titles
Social Studies
Science
Mural Education
Music
Korean History

Elementary Level
Grade 4
Korean language
Selective titles
Social Studies
Science
Moral Education
Music
Korean History

Elementary Level
Grade 5
Korean language
Selective titles
Social Studies
Science
Moral Education
Music
Korean History

Elementary Level
Grade 6
Korean language
Selective titles
Social Studies
Science
Moral Education
Music
Korean History



· Nation's Name
· City's Name
· Wall Poster
· Signboard
· Destination of bus subway and train


Practice filling
up several kinds of application forms (Bank, Hospital post office)


Bus number of destination

Foods
Watch (time)
Simple arithmetic


Mathematics
(Grade 1)
(+ -)
Calendar

Dairy Practice to Write about housekeeping


Mathematics
(Grade 2)
(x ÷)
Korean language
Short Essay

Writing letters
Proverbs(1)
Complex Sentences

Simple Chinese characters
Mathematics
(Grade 3)

Weights and measures
Writing letters

Korean language and Grammar
Mathematics
(Grade 6)
Chinese characters
English alphabet

Attainment

Reading short stories

Can write simple words

Can fill in all application forms

Can Read and write

Beginning to write their Dairy and housekeeping notes memos, etc.

Can write a composition
Can write letters

Can write newspapers,
Can understand news, story
Can write essay

Autonomous learning

Ibid

Material

KRIWL textbook I
Others

KRIWL textbook II
Writing Forms

KRIWL textbook I
Tutoring

KRIWL textbook II and newspapers

KRIWL textbook newspapers

KRIWL textbook V newspapers and others

KRIWL textbook VI
newspapers and others

Note:

1.

All textbooks developed by KRIWL


2.

Content of level III-VI include



(35% of elementary level's textbook (selected topics



(30% from newspaper, Radio, TV and Periodicals



(35% other books)

Table 4.3 (Continued): C. CONTINUING EDUCATION BEYOND LEVEL VI

EQUIVALENCY COURSES

COURSES WITH AN EMPHASIS ON QUALITY OF LIFE IMPROVEMENT

Course

Middle School

High School

Sunday class

Aged

Brides to be

Mothers




Literacy

Middle School




Tune

08:00 p.m.

09:40 a.m.







10:00 p.m.

11:30 a.m.

08:00-10:30 p.m.

09:30 - 16:30

02:00-04:00 p.m.

Evening

Day Time

Duration

One year

One year

One year

Two months

Two months

Two months

Frequency

Monday - Saturday

Monday - Saturday

Sunday

Once per week

Twice per week

Twice per week

Participants

Young Ladies

Housewives

Employed Women

Employed Women

Women 60 years and above

Ladies to be married

Housewives

Subjects

Korea National Language
Mathematics
History
Sociology
Biology
Physical Science
Music
Physical Education
Moral Education/general

English

Korean Language
Mathematics
Korean History/
Social Studies
World History
Chemistry
Biology
Physics
Music
Fine Arts
Physical Education
Moral Education
English
Commerce

Korean Language

Reading & Writing Class

Korean Language

English

Science

Sociology

Health

Recreation

General-knowledge
Human Development
Lecture
(Several Topics)
Mathematics
Healthy family


Psychology
Science

Etiquette

Family-relation
Adolescent Psychology

Korea Traditional Culture

Guidance for children
Role of family


Married life

Role of parent

Psychology of parenting

Nutrition

Sociology

Home economic


Educational

Material

Middle School
Text Books

High School
Text Books

KRIWL
Manual

Middle School
Text Books

Without Text Books

KRIWL Manual

KRIWL Manual

Note:

1. General Counseling

:

Family relationships


2. Beauty Services

:

Once a month (2nd week)




Services will he provided for poor people


3. Optional Courses (hobby and culture) Photography, flower arrangement, choir, reading club, calligraphy and other activities related to daily life.